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- The Effect of Quality and Color Visual Aids on Immediate Recall, Attitude Toward Speaker, and Attitude Toward Speech
- Thirty years of empirical research on visual aids have produced inconsistent results--perhaps because the quality and color of those visuals were inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to determine what effects quality and color of instructional transparencies used in an informative speech have on listener recall and attitudes toward speaker and speech. A total of 709 community college and university students in 36 intact classes were randomly assigned to one of four visual treatment groups (poor-quality black/white, high-quality black/white, poor-quality color, or high-quality color) or one of two control groups (no-speech or no-visuals). A videotaped speech was projected onto a large screen at the right of the room; visual aids (each shown for approximately 30 seconds) were projected onto another screen set immediately to the left. Recall was measured by a 10-item multiple choice test; attitude toward speech and speaker were each measured by six seven-item semantic differential scales. Analysis of variance indicated that the type of transparencies used in an informative speech have a definite effect on immediate recall and attitude toward the speech, but no effect on attitude toward speaker. All four treatment groups scored significantly higher on recall than the no-speech and no-visual control groups. Log percent of change showed poor color to produce the lowest scores (still 13% better than control) and quality color to produce the highest scores (19.5'% better). Analysis found listeners to have a more positive attitude toward the speech when quality color, quality black/white, or poor black/white visuals were used. It appears that any visual (even a poor quality one) produces better recall than no visuals. Speakers with the time to produce quality visuals should add color; speakers who pay little attention to quality would be advised to use black/white visuals. Implications for future research are suggested.
- Participation in Student Financial Aid Programs during the Freshman Year and Persistence in a Private University
- The study determined the overall persistence rate of first-time full-time entrants into a mid-sized private university during the fall semesters 1989 to 1991 to the 2nd year (1990 to 1992). The study compared the retention rate of recipients and nonrecipients of a variety of financial aid programs. Included is a comparison of groups receiving various types of financial assistance and whether or not there are differences between the groups with respect to types of assistance, gender, ethnicity (African American, Hispanic, Anglo), high school grade point average, and national test scores (SAT, ACT). The types of assistance studied were categorized by academic scholarships, university-operated student employment, need-based grants, activity awards, entitlements, and loans. The question of whether renewal, elimination, or reduction in assistance relates to retention was also studied.
- Culture and Anxiety: a Cross-Cultural Study
- By measuring interactions among and between anxiety and the independent variables of country of origin, gender, level of education, and age, this study attempted to gain insight into how students from different countries experience anxiety on a U.S. college campus. Results of the Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and the univariate test(ANOVA) indicated that the gender and level of education of the subjects made no significant difference. However, when it came to country of origin, there were significant differences between two of the cultural groups and respective anxiety level. Findings also support a positive correlation between age and anxiety levels, with the youngest participants having the lowest anxiety levels.
- A Criterion-Referenced Analysis of Form F of the Standardized Bible Content Tests of the American Association of Bible Colleges
- The purposes of this study were to: (a) analyze subjects' responses from Form F of the Standardized Bible Content Tests of the American Association of Bible Colleges by factor analysis and the Rasch measurement model and (b) determine dimensionality of Form F, determine the correlation to the Literal, Anti-literal, Mythological Scales, and determine the best criterion-referenced test design of Form F using Rasch measurement procedures. Volunteers from a purposefully selected sample of nine colleges from the American Association of Bible Colleges participated in the study. One research instrument with five demographic questions, the Standardized Bible Content Test Form F, and the Literal, Anti-literal, and Mythological Scales was administered to 179 volunteer graduating seniors. Frequencies and percentages of responses were computed for the demographic questions. Mean scores on the Literal, Anti-literal, and Mythological Scales were computed for gender and religious affiliation. Principal components analysis of Form F with varimax rotation and list-wise deletion of missing data was used to assess the dimensionality of Form F. Correlations between scores on the Literal, Anti-literal and Mythological Scales and scores from the principal components analysis of Form F were computed. Dunn's multiple comparison procedures were used to test for statistical significance. Rasch-Model measurement analysis of the scales extracted by principal components analysis was accomplished to obtain suggested target description, test design, variable definition, and item calibration.
- The Condition of the Southern Baptist Professoriate : A Comparison with the Carnegie Foundations 1989 National Survey of Faculty
- Southern Baptist-Related college faculty attitudes and opinions on areas of higher education most important to the professoriate as identified by the Carnegie Foundation in its 1989 National Survey of Faculty are described in this study and compared with the data from the survey reported by the Carnegie Foundation in The Condition of the Professoriate: Attitudes and Trends, 1989 and Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate. The data were compared in the eight areas: goals of collegiate education, academic standards, attitudes about student life, teaching, research, and service, status of the profession, views of the institution, participation in decision-making, and general observations of higher education.
- The Role of Contract Training by Academic Institutions in Corporate Education and Training Programs
- This study explored the role of contract training provided by North Texas higher education institutions in the education and training programs administered by area businesses employing more than 100 people. A survey instrument was mailed to corporate trainers that were members of the Dallas Chapter of the American Society of Training and Development in businesses employing more than 100 people. A total list of 292 trainers generated 71 usable responses. The purposes of this study were to: (a) determine the extent to which corporations use academic institutions for contract training, (b) determine the academic institutions in North Texas that training managers in the Dallas area believe are suitable contract training partners, (c) identify what subject areas are perceived as top educational priorities by training managers and are perceived to be suitable for contract training by academic institutions, (d) determine educational and training subjects for which corporations would be willing or prefer to utilize contract training by academic institutions, and (e) identify the subjects in which corporations currently use contract training by academic institutions.
- The Development of a Model for a Provincial Science Museum in Thailand to Provide Education in Science and Technology
- This study was designed to develop a provincial science museum model for expanding science museums to the provinces in Thailand.
- Faculty Attitudes toward Intercollegiate Athletics at Colleges and Universities Belonging to Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics
- The purpose of this study was to compare the attitudes of faculty at: (1) Division I NCAA and NAIA institutions, (2) Division I and II NAIA institutions on selected issues related to intercollegiate athletics, and (3) Division I NCAA and NAIA institutions toward selected issues related to intercollegiate athletics when demographics variables are considered. The problem was to determine if there were significant differences between the attitudes of the faculties.
- Identifying Perceived Indicators of Institutional Quality in Bible Colleges Accredited by the Accrediting Association of Bible Colleges
- The purpose of this study was to identify a selected set of perceived indicators of institutional quality for Bible colleges accredited by the Accrediting Association of Bible Colleges (AABC). From the literature, 67 indicators of institutional quality in higher education and Bible colleges were identified and collected in a questionnaire, the Inventory of Determinants of Quality for Bible Colleges (IDQBC). The IDQBC was mailed to Bible college presidents, faculty members, alumni, and alumnae representing all 73 Bible colleges in the United States accredited by the AABC. Of the 448 surveys mailed, 309 were returned for a response rate of 69%. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure was executed for each of the 67 IDQBC indicators to determine if the group means of the four study groups were significantly different. Of the 67 indicators evaluated, 12 were found to have significant differences among the study groups at the .01 level. Therefore, the study groups were in agreement as to the relative weight they assigned to 55 of the 67 indicators. Of these 55 indicators, 46 were rated as important or very important when considering the quality of a Bible college, while 9 were rated as less important when considering the quality of a Bible college. The results of this study point to four conclusions regarding the study groups' assessment of quality in Bible colleges. First, there was a high degree of agreement reported as to the importance of indicators of institutional quality in Bible colleges. Second, student outcomes were reported to be the most important indicators of institutional quality in Bible colleges, especially outcomes related to Biblical values and ideals. Third, indicators related to the teaching mission of Bible colleges were reported to be the next most important determinants of institutional quality. Fourth, indicators related to institutional demographics, resources, and student services were reported to be among the less important indicators of institutional quality.
- Quality Indicators for Private Liberal Arts Colleges and Universities
- The purpose of this study was to identify indicators of quality for liberal arts colleges and universities as defined by internal and external constituents, and to compare the results of this study with those of two-year public institutions. The internal constituents included college and university presidents and faculty, and the external constituents consisted of officers of Chambers of Commerce and the Kiwanis International, representing business and industry. A survey instrument of 70 items was sent to the constituents of 148 institutions accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. A total of 592 surveys were sent with an average response rate of 56.93%. The study was limited to Baccalaureate (Liberal Arts) Colleges I and Baccalaureate (Liberal Arts) Colleges II according to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. There were 57 survey items identified as indicators of quality by agreement of all respondent group means. The highest ranked indicator of quality was faculty commitment to teaching. The Analysis of Variance revealed close agreement by constituents on 17 of the quality indicators. There was close agreement also that three of the survey items were not indicators of quality. Fisher's Multiple Comparison test revealed that various constituents rated some survey items significantly higher than all other groups. The items that presidents, faculty representatives, and Chamber of Commerce officers each rated significantly high indicated the unique perspective of each constituent group. The Kiwanis officers responded similarly to the Chamber officers but did not rate any survey items significantly higher than other groups. Internal constituents rated seven items significantly higher than external constituents. These items centered mainly on faculty characteristics. External constituents rated three items higher than internal constituents. These survey items focused mainly on curriculum issues that related to the community and real-world problems. Seventeen conclusions were drawn from the study and implications for practice were formulated in areas such as faculty teaching, student interaction, learning outcomes, institutional effectiveness, external constituents, goal setting, advertising, and recruiting.
- Moral Judgment Development in Higher Education Administration
- Patterns of moral judgment exhibited by institutional candidates and fellows in the American Council on Education Fellows Program in Leadership for Higher Education 1988/1989 and 1989/1990 were explored in this study. The fellowship program selection process produced a group of institutional candidates with the high level of moral judgment development necessary for successful leadership in higher education administration. The goals of the program may be best served by minor improvements which will enhance a sound process. The results indicate that moral judgment development was not a significant factor in the selection of fellows. Salary and years of administrative experience, however, were related to selection. Candidates with higher salaries were more likely to be selected as fellows and tended to have lower levels of moral judgment development. The study revealed that there are variables affecting the selection and further investigation is necessary to determine which variables affect the selection and if they contribute to the goals of the fellowship program. Participation in the fellowship program did not significantly affect the fellows' level of moral judgment development as a group. The fellowship program did, however, have a positive impact on the upper third subgroup of fellows and a negative impact on the lower third subgroup. The performance of the upper third indicated that they have the potential to make a significant contribution to higher education administration. The middle third subgroup's performance indicated it is in a position to benefit significantly from program adjustments which enhance the fellows' awareness and broaden their perspective of the social milieu, within which higher education functions. Performance of the lower third indicated that the fellowship program might be adapted to meet the needs of this subgroup. Further study of other variables separating these three subgroups is needed. A longitudinal study could be completed to determine if candidates in the three subgroups went on to make the contributions in higher education administration this study implied they were equipped to make.
- Learning Resource Center Characteristics of the 25 Most Profitable U.S. Industrial Corporations: Implications for Business and Higher Education
- This study is a descriptive analysis of corporate learning resource centers. The study was designed to incorporate historical background and current status, organization and personnel, types and amount of alternate delivery instruction, and selected cost considerations in the establishment and maintenance of a learning resource center. A functional definition was furnished, with a deliberative attempt to encompass related synonyms. Discussion included training types or instructional delivery medium distinctions. A contribution of this study was the development, field testing, and enhancement of a survey instrument, which reflects the steps to be followed by those planning implementation of any learning resource center. Findings of this study indicated that learning resource centers were young and transitioning to increased on-line individualized and self-paced learning. Training and learning will become much less interdependent. Training types will increasingly become nontraditional and technology driven. Courseware will be received and managed remotely. Partnerships and cooperative efforts are mandates for business and higher education. Learner mobility will become normative, not the exception. Internet training will rapidly increase, most quickly among small business. Learning resource centers will continue to become more cost effective. This study proposed the redefinition of both learner and educator roles within a changing learning resource center environment. It was suggested that the learner role must become more active and that the corporate educator role, as a result of technology, will increase in passivity, tending toward that of facilitation. Implications and recommendations were specifically noted for both business and higher education. Specified nomenclature of "learner centers" or clearly "learner centered" has been advocated, reflecting the continuing evolution of the learning resource center. Technology, instructional media, mobility, availability and sharing of resources, less formalization, life-long learning, fiscal issues, Internet access, information and knowledge explosion, and downsizing, all combine to provide the view and demarcation of the new "learner centers."
- Factors Influencing Freshmen Students' College Choice at the University of North Texas: a Focus Group Study
- This study focused on factors that may influence freshmen students when choosing their colleges, specifically those who attend metropolitan universities such as the University of North Texas. In addition to identifying major characteristics of the institution that attract students, it also explored the sources of information that students considered important when making their choice about where to attend college. The primary instrument for gathering the data was focus groups. These informal, small groups provided a format for in-depth discussion and probing questioning about the needs, wants and influential factors driving freshmen college choice. Ten focus groups were held with between six and ten students in a specially designed room on the campus of the University of North Texas. A professional moderator was employed and sessions were observed via a two-way mirror and tape recorded for later transcription. The major questions addressed in the focus groups included: What factors influenced students the most to attend the University of North Texas? What did they consider the level of friendliness on campus? And how did the marketing materials that the university distributed impact their decision to attend? The study found that the factors that most influenced freshmen to attend the University of North Texas were low cost, convenient location and the good academic reputation of their field of study. Students believed North Texas to have a very friendly campus and were pleased with the overall academic environment. They were not, however, impressed or greatly influenced by the marketing materials currently being used by the University and suggested ways to improve the design and distribution of these materials to make them more effective. Additional observations were made concerning these and related questions. A partial transcription of the focus group sessions is included.
- The History, Modern Development, and Future of the Lutheran Theological Seminary (Hong Kong)
- This study is an historical and institutional analysis of The Lutheran Theological Seminary (LTS) in Hong Kong. The study first traces the seminary's theological and missiological roots and its history from 1913 to 1948, from its founding in Hubei Province, China to its move to Hong Kong because of civil war. Next, it describes major events of the early years in Hong Kong and the factors which contributed to an institutional crisis in the late 1960's. The study then analyzes the modern development of the institution, specifically the years 1971 to 1993. During this period several regional church groups joined together to create a collaborative educational effort through LTS, the school gained regional accreditation, expanded the ranks of its Chinese faculty, developed Asian financial support, and constructed a new campus. The modern development of the institution cannot be understood apart from a comprehension of the twenty-two year administration of Andrew Hsiao, the first Chinese president of the school. A chapter is therefore included on Andrew Hsiao's personal and academic background, the distinctives of his administration, and the strengths and weaknesses of his presidency. A current profile of the school is provided including its purposes, theology, organizational structure, faculty, student body, programs, and facilities. Finally, the future of the school is discussed in light of the reversion of Hong Kong to the sovereignty of China in July 1997. This portion of the study contains an analysis of CCP religious policy, the structures which enforce religious policy in China, the current relationship between the China Christian Council and LTS, and the seminary's plans after the reversion of Hong Kong to China.
- The Historical Development of the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science 1987-1992
- This study is a historical analysis of the significant events that led to the creation and evolution of the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science (TAMS), from 1987 through 1992, and a description of the key individuals contributing to the development of the program. Included is a historical review of early college entrance and acceleration practices in the American educational system. In addition, the development of residential programs for mathematically and scientifically precocious high school-aged youths is offered. On June 23, 1987, the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science was established by the 70th Texas Legislature. Though fourth in a line of special programs created for mathematically and scientifically able high school-aged youths, the TAMS model significantly deviated from its predecessors. Only the accelerative TAMS model would offer a college curriculum taught by college faculty and the opportunity to concurrently complete the last two years of high school and the first two years of college. From the inception of the program in 1987 through 1992, changes would occur. From 1987 through the summer of 1988, the development of the curriculum, student life program, and admissions process took place. From 1988 through 1989 the inaugural class was introduced to the program, and legislative funding was approved in the 71st Texas Legislative Session. From 1989 through 1992, the program further expanded to an enrollment of 335 students who were assisted by more than thirty full and part-time staff members. The academic, admissions, and student life components further evolved to better identify, recruit, and nurture the intellectual and emotional development of these gifted adolescents. In 1992 the TAMS program was selected for the "Texas Excellence in Higher Education Award," for outstanding contributions to higher education within the state of Texas. In addition, one nationally acclaimed authority on programs for gifted youth, Julian Stanley, hailed the TAMS model superior in approach to all other similar existing schools. From 1987 through 1992, the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science metamorphisized to become an award winning, nationally acclaimed accelerative model for mathematically and scientifically gifted high school-aged youth.
- A Model Curriculum for the Graduate Preparation of Collegiate Basketball Coaches
- The purposes of the study were (a) to examine selected areas of knowledge perceived by collegiate basketball coaches as essential for inclusion within a masters degree curriculum for collegiate basketball coaches, then (b) based upon these findings, to construct a model curriculum for the masters degree preparation of collegiate basketball coaches. A survey instrument, Questionnaire on the Areas of Knowledge Essential to Collegiate Basketball Coaches, was constructed and mailed for the purpose of collecting data from NCAA coaches. There were 252 instruments returned (58%). The coaches were asked to respond to topics which they perceived to belong within a graduate curriculum for intercollegiate coaches. The areas of knowledge were extrapolated from the 1995 National Association for Sport and Physical Education National Standards for Athletic Coaches. Chi-square goodness-of-fit tests and paired t-tests were performed on the data. Major findings of the study led to the conclusion that the areas of knowledge (a) training, conditioning, and nutrition; (b) skills, tactics, and strategies; and (c) teaching and administration mean rankings were not significantly different from one another but were significantly different from mean rankings from all other areas of knowledge. The areas of knowledge (d) social/psychological aspects of coaching; and (e) professional preparation and development mean rankings were not significantly different from one another but were significantly different from mean rankings of the other areas of knowledge. The areas of knowledge (f) injuries: prevention, care, and management; and (g) growth, development, and learning mean rankings were significantly different from all other areas of knowledge mean rankings. Additional conclusions were that perceptions of collegiate coaches concerning the seven areas of knowledge were independent of coaching experience, division of NCAA affiliation, academic degree, gender, or the gender of the team they coach. A model curriculum was proposed for the masters degree preparation of collegiate basketball coaches. This curriculum, if implemented, could provide students with the academic preparation needed for a successful career in collegiate basketball coaching.
- Faculty Preparation in American Higher Education: Academic Lineage as a Predictor of Career Success
- The purposes of this research were to determine (1) the extent to which faculty are employed by the types of institutions from which they earned their doctorates in the United States, (2) the extent to which faculty have higher professional rank at employing institutions tat are the same type of institutions as those from which they earned their doctorates, (3) the extent to which female faculty are employed by the types of institutions from which they earned their doctorates, (4) the extent to which female faculty have higher professional rank at employing institutions that are the same type of institutions as those from which they received their doctorates, and (5) the extent of variability across academic disciplines in which faculty are employed by types of institutions from which they earned their doctorates. An exhaustive review of the literature on academic lineage was used to develop this research. All stratified random sample of 260 institutions from 2,873 colleges and universities was selected by Carnegie Foundation classification categories. Institutions were selected at random until the number of faculty members in each category corresponded to the estimated national distribution of faculty across Carnegie classification categories (n=3,940). The analyses revealed that the majority of faculty (74%) employed at all types of higher education institutions obtained their doctoral degrees fromresearch I institutions. Professional academic rank is an interaction between doctoral-granting institution and employing institution combined with gender. Male faculty are following the traditional "trickle down" theory of academic lineage while women faculty appear to be charting a different career path. Another unique finding was that there was not significant variability in the findings across academic disciplines. Academic success is a complex phenomenon that is not singularly explainable by academic lineage. As more women are entering into the academic ranks of higher education, changes in academic lineage are beginning to appear. The inflexibility and segmentation discussed in previous research is undergoing subtle but statistically noticeable modifications.
- The Association between Sense of Humor, Coping Ability and Burnout among Nursing Education Faculty
- A nonexperimental descriptive study was conducted to determine the interrelatedness among coping strategies, humor and burnout among nursing education faculty. The conceptual framework of this study was based on the constructs of coping strategies and humor which were conceptualized as having a direct relationship to burnout. Areview of the literature concerning coping, humor and burnout supported this proposition and emphasized the need for empirical testing. Coping Humor Scale. Wavs of Coping Questionnaire and Maslach Burnout Inventory were the instruments used to measure the constructs. Academic history and demographic data sheets were also used. Hie instruments were mailed to 285 nursing faculty teaching in programs of nursing in the Dallas /Fort Worth, Texas area. The return rate for the mailing was 70.07%. Burnout among nursing education faculty showed a low degree of emotional exhaustion (54.8%), a low degree of depersonalization (84.7% and a low degree of personal accomplishment (60.7%). The findings did not reveal a high or low degree of burnout but rather a pattern of burnout suggestive of a different stage. Humor as a coping mechanism during stressful events was not frequently used. The highest proportion of nursing education faculty used distancing (46.53%) as a coping strategy. The second strategy used was planful problem solving (11.3%) with escape-avoidance used the least (3.34%). Multiple regression was used to test the research questions related to the predictor variables of coping, academic history and demographic data as they relate to each criterion variable of burnout. The use coping strategies (including humor) to predict various stages of burnout revealed only weak variable predictors. Academic history and demographic were also weak predictors for burnout.
- Theological Distance Learning through Trinity College and Theological Seminary: Programs, Problems, Perceptions, and Prospects
- An international survey was conducted to assess theological higher education via distance learning as perceived by graduates of Trinity College and Theological Seminary's (Trinity) doctoral programs. The purpose of the study was to determine student-perceived strengths and weaknesses of Trinity's doctoral-level distance education theology programs. Also, the future of distance-learning mediated programs of theological higher education was speculated. A random sample of 400 doctoral recipients was selected from the population of 802 doctoral recipients who graduated from Trinity between the years of 1969 and March 1998. A mailed questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 203 (50.0%) were returned. Frequency counts, percentage distributions, and chi-square tests of goodness-of-fit were employed to analyze the data. A profile of the modal type of student who would participate in theological distance education at the doctoral level was developed from the demographic variables queried. Responses to questions regarding respondents' educational experiences and coursework were solicited as well. Respondents identified five primary strengths of Trinity's distance education doctoral programs as: the convenience of the program; the immediate application of course content to personal and professional endeavors; the quality of education provided; the Biblical groundedness of the curricula, the materials, and the faculty; and the required reading and research. The three predominant weaknesses of Trinity's distance education doctoral programs as identified by program graduates include: the lack of interaction between students and faculty; the lack of regional accreditation; and course repetitiveness meaning that some courses offered repeated content from prior studies at a lower educational level. It was concluded that the future of theological higher education via distance learning is promising. Trinity has emerged as a dominant distance learning institution as a result of its continued exploration and advancements. However, Trinity and other similar distance education institutions must continually and consistently evaluate their programs and their students' expectations in an effort to transition theological distance education into the 21 st century.
- Service-learning in 4-year Public Colleges and Universities : Programs, Profiles, Problems, and Prospects
- This study investigated the levels of involvement in service-learning programs and activities in 4-year public colleges and university that held membership in the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS).
- Mandatory Continuing Education in Nursing: a Texas Perspective
- This study investigated Texas nurses' attitudes toward mandatory continuing education, and their perceptions of skill improvement, knowledge enrichment and improvement of health care to the public as a result of participation in twenty contact hours of continuing education programs as required by the Board of Nurse Examiners for the State of Texas. This sample of Texas nurses felt that the goals set forth by the Board of Nurse Examiners for the State of Texas had been met by participation in mandatory continuing education. However, given the small return rate, the attitudes of these nurses may not represent the attitudes of the majority of Texas nurses.
- Pedagogical and Andragogical Principles of John Wesley's Anthology
- This study is a historical and philosophical analysis of significant educational concepts John Wesley espoused during his lifetime from 1703-1791. Specifically this document examines Wesley's use of pedagogical and andragogical principles through the educational undertakings of the early Methodist movement.
- Nonverbal Immediacy as a Predictor of Student Retention Rates Among Full-time/part-time Community College Faculty
- The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between nonverbal immediacy of community college teachers, both full-time and part-time, and their within-semester student retention rates.
- Drug Usage Among Community College Students: Their Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices
- The problem of this study concerned illicit psychoactive drug use among community college students. A non-experimental design methodology, a survey, was used in this study. The population consisted of 149 students at 14 randomly selected public community college institutions throughout the United States. Three waves of mailings took place to increase response rate. Community college students appear to be knowledgeable regarding the deleterious physical and mental impact upon those who use drugs. Community college students appear to have a negative attitude toward drug use and toward those who use them. Community college students have an aversion to actual drug use. The illicit psychoactive drug of choice among community college students is marijuana.
- The Interrelationships of Leisure Satisfaction, Job Satisfaction, and Life Satisfaction among Selected Therapeutic Recreation Faculty in Higher Education Institutions
- The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of leisure satisfaction, job satisfaction, and life satisfaction among selected faculty in higher education institutions whose specialty teaching subject area was therapeutic recreation. This study also investigated the relationship of specific demographic variables to leisure satisfaction, job satisfaction, and life satisfaction. The variables included age, gender, education, income level, health, tenure, marital status, type of institution where employed, and participation in therapeutic recreation organizations. The population for this study consisted of 162 faculty whose specialty teaching subject area was therapeutic recreation. Subjects were selected from colleges and universities of the United States listed in the curriculum catalog published by the Recreation and Park Association, Society of Park and Recreation Education for the year 1993-1994.
- Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse : Characteristics of the Mother-child Relationship
- This qualitative study examined the characteristics of the mother-child relationship of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse at the time of the abuse. The study consisted of data from the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD), the Family of Origin Scale (FOS), and a set of structured interview questions designed by the researcher. Autonomy/intimacy concepts from the FOS examined constructs of clarity of expression, responsibility, respect, openness, acceptance of loss and separation, expression of a wide range of feelings, conflict resolution, mood and tone, and empathy.
- The Influence of an Interdisciplinary Course on Critical Thinking Skills
- The effect of an interdisciplinary algebra/science course on students' critical thinking skills was examined. A traditional college algebra course was used as a comparison group. The students in the sample enrolled in college algebra and then half were randomly placed into the interdisciplinary course. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest comparison group design was used. The Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal was used to measure the students' critical thinking skills. This instrument consists of an overall critical thinking score as well as five subscores in the areas of Inference, Recognition of Assumptions, Deduction, Interpretation and Evaluation of Arguments. It was found that the students in the interdisciplinary course made greater gains in the overall critical thinking score as well as in four of the five subscores. However, the differences in the gains made in the two courses were not statistically significant. Disregarding course, other factors that were found to be closely related to critical thinking were Composite ACT, grade received in the course, Math ACT and grade point average. It was also found that students whose majors were in the Schools of Arts and Letters or Science and Technology scored higher on critical thinking than students whose majors were in the Schools of Business or Education. Factors found to have no relationship to critical thinking were ethnicity, gender and classification.
- Marital and Social Changes in the Lives of Women who Complete the Ph.D. Degree at Midlife
- The percentage of women who receive doctorates has increased by over 300 percent during the past three decades. The consequences of pursuing the Ph.D. degree have always been far reaching and profound, serving as an impetus and springboard for the reconfiguration of one's beliefs, values, and professional life. The purposes of this national study were to ascertain and describe marital and social changes that occurred in the lives of women who were awarded the Ph.D. degree at midlife. A questionnaire was distributed to a sample of three-hundred women who hold the Ph.D. degree and were employed in institutions of higher education in the United States. The study sought to identify the effects of the Ph.D. experience upon the marital relationships, friendships, and social activities of women who completed the degree between the ages of thirty-five and forty-five. Demographic data were collected which were related to their marital status before, during, and after the Ph.D. experience. Both closed and open-ended questions were posed which solicited information pertaining to their post Ph.D. experience. This research reports both quantitative and qualitative findings. The majority of women who complete the Ph.D. experience at midlife undergo and initiate changes in their lives which impact their relationships and activities. Many of these changes are the result of employment which follows the award rather than the degree itself. While some women experience negative effects in some areas of their lives, overall, the findings of this study suggest that changes are perceived positively by the majority of women who receive the Ph.D. at midlife.
- Filial Therapy with Incarcerated Mothers
- This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of filial therapy with incarcerated mothers as a method of increasing empathic behaviors with their children, increasing attitudes of acceptance toward their children, and reducing stress related to parenting. Filial therapy, a method of training parents to respond and interact therapeutically with their children, focuses on enhancing the parent-child relationship. The sample population of 22 volunteer subjects was drawn from a pool of incarcerated mothers in the Denton County Jail who had children between three and ten years of age. The experimental group parents, consisting of 12 incarcerated mothers, received 2-hour filial therapy training sessions biweekly for five weeks and participated in biweekly 30-minute play sessions with one of their children. The control group parents, consisting of 10 incarcerated mothers, received no treatment during the five weeks. The three written self-report instruments completed for pretesting and posttesting purposes by both groups were The Porter Parental Acceptance Scale, The Parenting Stress Index, and The Filial Problem Checklist. The parents were also videotaped in play sessions with their child before and after training as a means of measuring change in empathic behavior. Analysis of Covariance revealed that incarcerated mothers in the experimental group had significant change in 9 of 13 hypotheses, including (a) a significant increase in their level of empathic interactions with their children, (b) a significant increase in their attitude of acceptance toward their children, and (c) a significant reduction in the number of reported problems with their children's behavior. This study supports filial therapy as an effective intervention for enhancing the parent-child relationship with incarcerated mothers and their children. Utilizing instruction and practical application of positive therapeutic methods, filial therapy training empowers parents by increasing their parenting knowledge and skills, and indirectly empowers children who experience the parent-child relationship with an increase in unconditional acceptance and positive regard.
- Implementation Characteristics of Effective Continuous Quality Improvement Training as Perceived by Selected Individuals at Two- and Four-Year Colleges in the United States
- Within the last decade, continuous quality improvement (CQI) has been embraced by higher education management. An important component of the quality philosophy is to institute training for everyone: faculty, administrators, staff and students—in order to achieve a cultural transformation. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the implementation characteristics of CQI training programs and to determine whether or not and to what degree relationships exist between these characteristics and training program effectiveness, as perceived by selected individuals at two- and four-year colleges in the United States. A survey instrument was designed to elicit the perceptions of both the chief administrators and those quality professionals who are charged with the training process as they relate to specific implementation characteristics such as training content needed to convey the appropriate philosophy, program implementation processes, and the perceived effectiveness of the respondents' quality training program. A 21-item questionnaire was used to gather the data from a sample of 524 individuals at two- and four-year colleges in the United States. The dependent variables in the study related to items addressing program effectiveness based on four types of program evaluation, and the independent variables related to specific implementation characteristics. Spearman correlation matrices were executed to test the relationships between and among implementation characteristics and between the four levels of evaluation. Multiple regression analyses were computed to determine which and to what extent implementation characteristics accounted for variation in each of the four measures of effectiveness. Analyses revealed that using a variety of philosophies, tools and content segments, providing training in quality awareness, team leadership, management and leadership, and assessment, using internal trainers, and the extent of staff and faculty support accounted for the largest proportions of variance. The statistical results for the two hypotheses which were derived from the research questions were also reported.
- Student Legal Issues Confronting Metropolitan Institutions of Higher Education
- This study examined perceptions of student legal issues confronting metropolitan institutions of higher education. The data for the study were collected using a modified version of Bishop's (1993) legal survey. The sample for the study consisted of 44 chief student affairs officers and 44 chief legal affairs officers employed with the 44 institutions affiliated with the Coalition of Urban and Metropolitan Universities. Frequency counts and percentage distributions were employed to analyze the data. Chief student affairs officers and chief legal affairs officers have very different perception as to the most likely student legal issues to be litigated in the next ten years. Chief student affairs officers found few student legal issues highly likely to be litigated in the next 10 years. Affirmative action, sex/age discrimination, fraternities and sororities, and disabled students were the only student legal issues at least 20 percent of chief student affairs officers believed to be highly likely of litigation in the next ten years. Chief legal affairs officers believed many student legal issues would be litigated in the next 10 years. At least 20 percent of the chief legal affairs officers believed admission criteria, affirmative action, reverse discrimination, sex/age discrimination, athletic tort liability, Title IX, defaulting student loans, defamation, negligence, academic dismissals, academic dishonesty, cyberspace issues, and disabled students to be highly likely of litigation in the next ten years. Chief student affairs officers and chief legal affairs officers prepare very similarly for future student legal issues they may confront in the future. There is a large amount of crossover between professional conferences of chief student affairs officers and chief legal affairs officers. Student affairs and legal affairs officers will attend professional conferences of both groups in order to stay abreast of student legal issues. It appears chief student affairs officers are not prepared to confront many of the student legal issues highly likely to be litigated in the next ten years.
- The Beginnings of Pedophilia: Lifestyles of Juvenile Perpetrators
- This study utilized a qualitative/phenomenological research methodology to study the development of child molestation. Five volunteer male juvenile perpetrators of child molestation and their consenting family members participated in three one-on-one in-depth interviews. The juveniles were referred by juvenile justice departments in Texas. The investigation was pursued along three paths: (1) what factors in the perpetrators' life experiences may have influenced the formation of molesting thought and behavior patterns? (2) how did the perpetrators construe social relationships? (3) in developing sexual preference, what process did the perpetrators utilize to achieve the degree of sexual arousal needed to motivate the act of molestation? During analysis, 16 categories and 9 subcategories were developed from the data; these were evaluated in order to address the lines of inquiry listed above. Factors contributing toward deviancy were identified: these included general environmental factors and relationship issues with both parents and peers. The data also elucidated the perpetrators' characteristic ways of viewing themselves and other people, as well as the strategies that they relied upon to cope with their lives. These same strategies were subsequently used in their molesting. The results revealed that the answers to the investigational questions posed above were synthesized by the individual across the lifespan, with origins in childhood when the concepts of self, others, social convention and interpersonal relationships were forming. It is likely that the typical interest in sexual expression that occurs at the onset of puberty was a catalyst that facilitated molesting behavior. The lack of ability to interact successfully with age mates appeared to influence the perpetrators' selection of children as targets. Recommendations were presented for consideration by the mental health and criminal justice communities based on the findings. Also, preventative measures for the public sector were offered.
- The Effects of Brief Exposure to Non Traditional Media Messages on Female Body Image
- Body image may be defined as the perception or attitude one has regarding the appearance of his or her body. Body image concerns are not only central to the diagnostic criteria of eating disorders, but also create distress for nonclinical populations. Females (n = 167) from three universities participated in a study by completing the Eating Disorder Inventory - 2 (Garner, 1991) and the Figure Rating Scale (Stunkard, Sorenson, & Schulsinger, 1983); watching a video; and then completing the instruments again. Subjects in the treatment group (n = 89) viewed a video designed to increase awareness of unrealistic body sizes and shapes seen in the media (Kilbourne, 1995). Subjects in the comparison group (n = 77) viewed a video unrelated to female body image.
- Effects of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback-assisted Stress Management Training on Pregnant Women and Fetal Heart Rate Measures.
- This study examined effectiveness of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback-assisted stress management training in reducing anxiety and stress in pregnant women and the effect of maternal stress management skills practice on fetal heart rate measures in real time. Participants were seven working pregnant women who volunteered in response to recruitment announcements and invitations from cooperating midwives. Reported state and trait anxiety and pregnancy specific stress were measured during five 45- to 50-minute training sessions. Training included bibliotherapy, instruction in the use of emotion-focused stress management techniques, and HRV biofeedback. Subjects used portable biofeedback units for home practice and were encouraged to practice the skills for 20 minutes a day and for short periods of time during stressful life events. At the end of training, fetal heart rate was monitored and concurrent maternal HRV measures were recorded. Repeated measures ANOVA and paired samples t-test analysis of study data revealed no statistically significant reductions in state or trait anxiety measures or in pregnancy specific stress measures. Partial eta squared (n²) and Cohen's d calculations found small to medium effect sizes on the various test scales. Friedman's analysis of variance of biofeedback measures showed a statistically significant decrease in low HRV coherence scores (X2 = 10.53, p = .03) and medium HRV coherence scores (X2 = 11.58, p = .02) and a statistically significant increase in high HRV coherence scores (X2 = 18.16, p = .001). This change is an indication of improved autonomic function. Results of concurrent maternal and fetal HRV recordings were generally inconclusive. A qualitative discussion of individual subject results is included. During follow-up interviews five subjects reported that they felt they were better able to cope with stress at the end of the study than at the beginning, that they used the stress management skills during labor, and that they continue to practice the skills in their daily lives.
- An Investigation into the Effects of Long-term Staff Development on Teacher Perceptions and Reading Achievement on Young Children
- The effectiveness of long-term staff development (Reading Academy Project-RAP) on students' reading scores on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) test was examined to determine if teachers transferred newly learned teaching strategies into practice and changed their beliefs about reading instruction. In a four-year cohort longitudinal study in an East Texas rural community, the effects of long-term staff development on third grade students' TAAS test reading scores, teacher practices, and teacher beliefs were explored. Populations included a teacher group (N = 17), an experimental (N = 419), and a control (N = 419) group of students. Children's groups were matched pairs based on five demographic characteristics and membership or non-membership in one or more of six categories. An application survey and four end-of-the-year surveys provided teacher data regarding classroom practices. One interview question provided information about teacher beliefs. Results indicate students who had a RAP teacher for at least one year scored significantly higher on the TAAS reading test in the third grade than those without a RAP teacher. Examination of students having more than one year with an academy teacher failed to produce statistically significant differences in TAAS test reading scores; however, an upward trend was noted. Statistically significant differences were found in 6 of the 20 items on the survey investigating classroom practices. All teachers reported the RAP affected them positively, and 82% confirmed that changes took place in their classroom practices, student behaviors, and teacher responsibilities. Validation of or strengthening existing beliefs accounted for 76% of the teacher responses. Recommendations include adding a population of kindergarten through third graders and following them through high school to determine ultimate reading success, continue surveying teachers to see if effective strategies persist, add a parental involvement component, and replicate this investigation in suburban and metropolitan areas.
- A Comparison of the Leadership Styles Of Occupational Therapy Education Program Directors and Clinic Administrators
- Are there differences in leadership styles among occupational therapy clinic administrators and program directors in professional and technical education programs? This study investigated transformational and transactional leadership behaviors and effectiveness as measured by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5x-Short behaviors and demographic characteristics of leaders and their organizations using a questionnaire designed by the researcher. MLQ Leader Forms were received from 50 clinic administrators randomly selected from the membership list of the Administration and Management Special Interest Section (AMSIS) of the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA), 56 professional program directors, and 41 technical program directors from accredited occupational therapy education programs in the United States, for a total of 147 leader respondents. Rater forms were received from 2 to 5 occupational therapy staff or faculty per leader and average scores calculated. More than 86% of leader respondents were female and white. Major findings indicate that administrative positions indifferent institutional contexts relate to leadership behaviors and effectiveness. Technical education program directors and clinic administrators scored higher on transformational behaviors and effectiveness than professional education program directors. Consistent with other research on leadership, the self-ratings of leaders were higher than ratings of subordinates. The data indicated statistically significant positive correlations between transformational leadership behaviors and perceived effectiveness, a frequent finding in the literature. With the exception of Contingent Reward (CR), all transactional behaviors had a negative correlation with effectiveness. No significant relationships were found between transformational behaviors and leader’s gender or ethnicity, but males scored higher than females on the transactional behavior Management by Exception-Passive (MEP) and Laissez-Faire (LF). Some transformational behaviors were related to the leader’s age and years of experience in academia, but relationships were not linear. Highest level of education was related to leadership effectiveness. No significant relationships were found between leadership behaviors and demographic characteristics of the institution (e.g. size, public or private). Differences in leadership styles among the three groups of leaders may be attributed to differences in organizational culture and raises additional research questions on transformational leadership and measures of effectiveness in the university culture. The findings suggest the need for education and training in transformational leadership during this era of rapid change in occupational therapy practice and education.
- Comparison of 2-Year and 4-Year Telecommunications Technicians' Training Programs Against the Industry Standards
- The study focused on the academic programs offered for telecommunications technicians provided by 16 two-year and four-year higher education institutions and the ways in which the programs compared to the established telecommunications technicians' skill standards. Six specific research questions concerned the training programs for telecommunications technicians. The first verified the validity of the information in Peterson's 2000: 2 Year Colleges and Peterson's 2000: 4 Year Colleges identifying the institutions offering a communication equipment technology major. The second question focused on the institutions that included telecommunications as part of the curriculum. The third identified the importance of the skill standards to the 2-year and 4-year training programs, and the fourth identified the job functions that were included in or excluded from the training. The fifth question identified the job tasks that were included in or excluded from the training. The final question determined whether the 2-year or the 4-year telecommunications technicians' training program was more closely aligned with the skill standards. In order to accomplish the objectives of this research, a survey methodology was selected. The survey instrument was developed to compare the importance of the telecommunications technicians' skill standards to the 2-year and the 4-year training programs. The skill standards identified in the 1997 collaborative effort facilitated by the South King County Tech Prep Consortium (SKCTPC) was used as the basis for the survey instrument and reference tool. The reference tool provided additional information regarding SCANS skills and personal qualities that were identified in the skill standards for the telecommunications network technician. The survey included five job functions and 16 tasks. The evolution the telecommunications industry has created a demand for a highly skilled, flexible workforce. Higher education institutions have an opportunity to make a contribution to telecommunications industry by expanding existing training programs or initiating telecommunications technicians' training programs. The 4-year institutions should consider revising not only the curriculum but also their mission and goals. The 2-year institutions are closely aligned with the skill standards, and this is an opportunity for the 2-year institutions to update existing programs.
- The Leadership Path of R. Jan LeCroy
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Recent studies reveal that a considerable number of U.S. community college leaders will be retiring in the next several years. The concern is that with the large turnover, history, culture, and important lessons of leadership will be lost. The current research on the lives of presidents, their career paths, and experiences in community college leadership centers on approaches to the study of leadership at the macro level. Limited research exists in the published literature that reports and analyzes the development of individuals as community college leaders at the micro level. This results in a gap regarding understanding leadership development and strategies to prepare leaders. This study addresses this gap by providing a critical description of the leadership development of one individual who became a community college chancellor and who the literature on the community context indicates contributed to the local and national context for community colleges. Biography is gaining prominence as a legitimate and viable tool in the study of leadership. Few biographical studies currently exist which focus on leadership development in context at the micro level. This dissertation is a biographical, qualitative study of the leadership path and legacy of R. Jan LeCroy, a community college leader. The study combined two viable approaches to biographical inquiry: a scholarly chronicle and the realist approach. Data included the use of primary and secondary sources and included interviews, document analysis, and archival data such as newspaper articles, memos, and minutes of meetings. The data were analyzed and the findings discussed using the theoretical framework of Gronn's (1993) career model of leadership, Vaughan's (1986) study of the career paths of presidents, and Sullivan's (2001) study of four distinct generations of community college leaders. The leadership path of R. Jan LeCroy paralleled the four stages in Gronn's (1993) career model of leadership; he shared characteristics of the presidents surveyed in Vaughan's (1986) study; and he fit the profile of the second generation of community college leaders as described by Sullivan (2001).
- Instructional Effectiveness of an Integrated Holistic Teaching Method of German Language at the Community College Level
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The propose of this study was to determine the effectiveness and appropriateness of the integrated holistic method for teaching grammatical structure, cultural norms and behavior, writing and listening skills to beginning German language students. The study examined a sample of undergraduate students who were enrolled in the introductory college level German offered at the Collin County Community College, Spring Creek Campus in Plano, Texas. A total of 24 students participated in this study. This study utilized a pre- and posttest group to measure the instructional effectiveness of the integrated holistic teaching method. Structural grammar, cultural norms and behavior, writing, and listening skills were used as dependent variables. The holistic integrated teaching method were measured at the end of the course as independent variables. Individual pre- and posttests were used for each of the dependent variables. The higher posttest mean scores indicated significant improvement in student learning level in four major language skills such as structural grammar, cultural norms and behavior, writing, and listening through the holistic integrated teaching method.
- Meta-Parenting in Parents of Infants and Toddlers
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Meta-parenting, defined as parents thinking about their parenting, has been identified and is a new field of research. The purposes of this study were to add to the existing knowledge of meta-parenting and to compare the influences of gender, work status, and parenting experience on meta-parenting occurring in parents of infants and toddlers. Sixty parents participated either electronically or by completing a written survey and reported engaging from "sometimes" to "usually" in four domains of meta-parenting: anticipating, assessing, reflecting, and problem-solving. Gender, work status, and parenting experience did not significantly influence participants' meta-parenting scores. Parents were found to have a higher sense of satisfaction and overall sense of competence when they engaged in higher levels of meta-parenting.
- Gender differences in college choice, aspirations, and self-concept among community college students in science, mathematics, and engineering.
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Educational researchers, practitioners, and policy makers have long expressed their concern that gender disparity of academic performance and participation in science and mathematics education continues to increase with educational progress of students through the pipeline. Educational and occupational aspirations, high school experience, external support from family members and significant others appear to be influential factors that develop strong self-concept among female students who aspire to study science and mathematics. Using a national sample of aspirants in science, mathematics, and engineering majors in public community colleges, that participated in the 1996 Cooperative Institutional Research Program American Freshman Survey, this study investigated the influences of students' pre-college experiences on their college choice, aspirations, and self-concept by examining three theoretical structural models. In addition, gender differences were tested by using multiple group analysis. The findings from the multiple group analysis revealed that there was no statistically significant gender difference in predicting college choice, aspirations, and self-concept. The results from the descriptive analysis indicated that the female students were already underrepresented in science, mathematics, and engineering majors. Taken together, the findings challenge researchers, practitioners, and policy makers to examine why the persistent fall off, and how can community colleges support and retain these students who already enrolled. The results from the model fit analysis revealed that the encouragement from family and others played as a contributing factor in predicting students' college choice, aspirations, and self-concept. This study confirmed that the development of self-concept among community college students in science, mathematics, and engineering is complex and unique. Several recommendations that are pertaining to policy implications, improvement of practice, and future research to increase the representations of female students in science, mathematics, and engineering in the post-secondary education were developed from the findings of this study. The results of this study contribute to the research literature by providing new theoretical models and a comprehensive understanding of aspirants in science, mathematics, and engineering at community college as well as their surrounding environment.
- The Effect of Breastfeeding Education on Breastfeeding Initiation Rates Among Teenage Mothers
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a breastfeeding education program on breastfeeding initiation rates, breastfeeding knowledge, and attitude towards breastfeeding among teenage mothers at an urban school for pregnant and parenting teens. Breastfeeding initiation rose from 35.7% in the control group to 85.2% in the treatment group. The mean score on the Breastfeeding Knowledge Subscale was significantly higher for the treatment group but not the control group. There was not a significant increase in mean scores on the Breastfeeding Attitude Subscale. Participants who initiated breastfeeding scored also had a significant increase in scores from pretest to posttest on the Breastfeeding Knowledge Subscale, while participants who did not initiate breastfeeding did not.
- Quality improvement in physical therapy education: What contributes to high first-time pass rates on the National Physical Therapy Examination?
- The purposes for this study were: (a) to establish benchmark metrics for selected variables related to characteristics of physical therapy education programs; and (b) to determine how well a subset of the variables predicted group membership based on first-time pass rates (FTPRs) on the National Physical Therapy Examination (NPTE). The population was defined as all physical therapy programs in the United States and Puerto Rico accredited by the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education. Questionnaires soliciting data related to the variables were mailed to the entire population (N = 177). Fifty-eight (32.8%) of the programs returned the questionnaire, with 51 (29%) having provided enough information for inclusion in the study. Characteristics of the sample were compared to known population characteristics in order to determine the extent to which the sample represented the population. Pearson product-moment correlation resulted in a coefficient of .993, indicating that the two groups were similar. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Values for the variables were tabulated in various ways, based on the nature of sponsoring institution, regional location, degree offered, and grouping based on FTPRs, in order to facilitate comparisons. A single institution was selected and comparisons made to demonstrate the utilization of benchmark metrics. Chi-squared tests were conducted to study the relationship between curriculum model, degree offered, and grouping. The resulting values of c 2 indicated that these variables were independent of each other. Classification accuracy was determined through discriminant analysis. Results indicated 80% accuracy for this sample; however, the accuracy was only 47% on cross-validation. Structure coefficients were calculated to determine the relative contribution of each variable to the prediction. The findings demonstrate the usefulness of benchmark metrics for facilitating quality improvement in physical therapy education programs. There is, however, need for improvement in the process, and further research should be conducted to develop a realistic model for predicting group membership based on FTPRs.
- It's a Different World: Gender Variations in the Satisfaction of African American College Students
- The purpose of this research study was to explore gender variances in the satisfaction levels of African American students at UNT toward the goal of increasing the retention of these students. Variances in satisfaction levels were measured using information obtained from African American students that participated in the fall 2004 administration of the Noel Levitz Student Satisfaction Inventory (SSI). In addition, the UNT Customer Satisfaction Survey (UNT-CSS), which applies Hom's Basic Model of Customer Satisfaction, was used to further examine areas of interest identified by the Noel Levitz SSI. Analysis of the SSI data indicated that no statistical significance existed amongst any of the correlates of satisfaction as a function of gender. In fact, African American students appeared to have very similar ideas on what services were important to them and on how satisfied they were with the services provided to them by the university. African American males and females were most satisfied with Campus Support Services, Academic Advising/Counseling, and Instructional Effectiveness at UNT. The UNT-CSS further examined the above areas. African American males and females were measured against each other to discern if differences occur in how African American students process the customer service model as a function of gender. African American males demonstrated strong positive correlations between their expectation of customer service and their consequent evaluation of that service. African American females were more influenced by their perception of the service received.
- The Efficacy of Equine Assisted Group Counseling with At-Risk Children and Adolescents
- The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of equine assisted group counseling as compared to in-school curriculum group guidance/counseling. Research examined externalizing, internalizing, maladaptive, and adaptive behaviors of elementary and middle school students who were considered at-risk of academic or social failure. Two types of behavior instruments, the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC)-Self-Rating, Parent-Rating, and Teacher-Rating Scales; and the Animal Assisted Therapy-Psychosocial Session Form (AAT-PSF), were used in a pretest-posttest comparison group quasi experimental design. Results of the paired sample t-test analysis of the BASC Self-Report indicated that the equine assisted counseling group showed statistically significant improvement in five behavior areas, and the in-school curriculum group guidance/counseling group showed statistically significant improvement in four areas, with only one behavior area the same as the equine assisted counseling group. Results of the paired sample t-test analysis of the BASC Parent-Report indicated that the equine assisted counseling group showed statistically significant improvement in twelve behavior areas, whereas the in-school curriculum group guidance/counseling showed statistically significant improvement in only one behavior area. Results of the paired sample t-test analysis of the BASC Teacher-Report indicated that the equine assisted counseling group showed no statistically significant improvement; however the in-school curriculum group guidance/counseling group showed statistically significant improvement in one area. An ANCOVA comparison of equine assisted counseling group verses in-school curriculum guidance/counseling group using the BASC Self, Parent, and Teacher-Reports indicated that the equine assisted counseling group showed statistically significant improvement in seven behavior areas that the in-school curriculum guidance/counseling group did not. Results of the repeated measures ANOVA of the AAT-PSF (equine assisted counseling group only) showed statistically significant improvement in all 3-scale scores: 1) overall total behaviors; 2) increased positive behaviors; and 3) decreased negative behaviors.
- The Effect of Parental Divorce on Romantic Beliefs and Relationship Characteristics
- This study investigated a proposed model hypothesizing that parental divorce would directly effect romantic beliefs and attitudes, romantic attachment and relationship characteristics. A sample of 494 young adults between the ages of 18 and 35 indicated that parental divorce does have a negative impact on romantic beliefs, attitudes toward marriage and divorce, romantic attachments, and relationship characteristics when considered in the context of marriage. Those individuals whose parents divorced reported less positive attitudes toward marriage and more openness toward divorce. Those whose parents divorced reported less idealized romantic beliefs and less of a belief that love will find a way. Those who experienced parental divorce had a more fearful romantic attachment style and reported a lower chance of marriage to their current partner.
- Descriptive Analysis of the Association for the Study of Higher Education Dissertation of the Year Award Winning Dissertation and Recipients, 1979 - 2004
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This mixed-methodology study examined a set of award winning dissertations to determine what factors may have led to their receiving recognition by the Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE). The study addressed seven specific research questions which were answered via two different research designs: 1) a survey administered to the 27 recipients of the dissertation award, and 2) through the qualitative assessment of a sample of the winning dissertations. The quantitative survey was distributed to recipients of the Association for the Study of Higher Education Dissertation of the Year award from 1979 through 2004. The survey collected specific information on the personal attributes and characteristics of the award recipients, descriptive information about the award winning dissertations, information concerning the quality of the winner's doctoral experiences, the quality of their relationship with their dissertations advisors and the progression of their careers after winning the award. The qualitative assessment involved applying a set of evaluative questions provided by Gall, Gall and Borg to describe a sample of the award winning documents. The results indicated that recipients of the ASHE award were not representative of education doctoral students as indicated by 2004 data. The results of the study also indicated that, as a group, these dissertations winners were full-time doctoral students, likely recipients of some form of financial assistance (assistantship and fellowships) and were able to complete their dissertations and degrees in substantially less time than typical education doctoral students. The findings also suggest that Gall, Gall and Borg's procedure for evaluating educational research can be used to assess doctoral dissertations.
- How Classroom Cultural Influences Second Language Acquisition for Two Four-Year-Olds in a Preschool Program for Children with Disabilities
- As states begin to highlight the system supports used to include English language learners with disabilities in standards-based assessments and accountability programs, implementation of those supports will be closely examined by school districts. This case study investigates the classroom culture in an early childhood preschool program for four-year-old children with disabilities. Classroom observations were used to determine how two young children with disabilities were acquiring English as a second language. Specific focus was given to activities that allowed for second language acquisition, native language development, the attainment of developmental skills, and alternative communication skills such as sign language and a communication board. An investigation took place into current theories to create a knowledge base for understanding how young children acquire linguistic skills in English and how classroom culture was created.
- Effects of Heart-Rate Variability Biofeedback Training and Emotional Regulation on Music Performance Anxiety in University Students
- Student musicians were recruited to participate in an experimental repeated measures research design study to identify effects of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback training and emotional self-regulation techniques, as recommended by HeartMath® Institute, on music performance anxiety (MPA) and music performance. Fourteen students were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group following a 5 minute unaccompanied baseline performance. Treatment group participants received 4-5 HRV training sessions of 30-50 minutes each. Training included bibliotherapy, using the computerized Freeze-Framer® 2.0 interactive training software, instruction in the Freeze-Frame® and Quick Coherence® techniques of emotional regulation, and also use of an emWave® portable heart rate variability training device for home training. Measures included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Performance Anxiety Inventory (PAI), Flow State Scale (FSS), average heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Quade's rank transformed ANCOVA was used to evaluate treatment and no-treatment group comparisons. Combined MPA scores showed statistical significance at p=.05 level with large effect size of eta2=.320. Individual measurements of trait anxiety showed a small effect size of eta2=.001. State anxiety measurement showed statistical significance at the p=.10 level with a large effect size eta2=.291. FSS showed no statistical or effect size difference. PAI showed no statistical significance and a large effect size eta2=.149. HR showed no statistical significance and a large effect size eta2=.143. HRV showed statistical significance at p=.000 level and a large effect size eta2=.698. This study demonstrated practical/clinical significance of a relatively quick and inexpensive biofeedback training that had large effect at decreasing mental, emotional, and physiological symptoms of MPA for university students.
- Attachment Styles in a Sample from a Correctional Drug Treatment Facility
- Substance abuse and dependence causes many problems in our society. Attachment style may be useful in the etiology of this problem. Using archival data, this study hypothesizes men in a court-ordered facility will be more likely to have an insecure attachment style. The participants were 73 males ages 18-49. The Adult Attachment Scale (AAS) was used to measure adult romantic attachment style. Through cluster analysis and conversion of the subscales of the AAS, four attachment styles were measured. Men were more likely to have an insecure attachment style especially a Fearful style. The study concludes with limitations of the results and a discussion about possible interventions based on attachment style.