You limited your search to:

  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Degree Discipline: Computer Science and Engineering
 Degree Level: Doctoral
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Variability-aware low-power techniques for nanoscale mixed-signal circuits.

Variability-aware low-power techniques for nanoscale mixed-signal circuits.

Date: May 2009
Creator: Ghai, Dhruva V.
Description: New circuit design techniques that accommodate lower supply voltages necessary for portable systems need to be integrated into the semiconductor intellectual property (IP) core. Systems that once worked at 3.3 V or 2.5 V now need to work at 1.8 V or lower, without causing any performance degradation. Also, the fluctuation of device characteristics caused by process variation in nanometer technologies is seen as design yield loss. The numerous parasitic effects induced by layouts, especially for high-performance and high-speed circuits, pose a problem for IC design. Lack of exact layout information during circuit sizing leads to long design iterations involving time-consuming runs of complex tools. There is a strong need for low-power, high-performance, parasitic-aware and process-variation-tolerant circuit design. This dissertation proposes methodologies and techniques to achieve variability, power, performance, and parasitic-aware circuit designs. Three approaches are proposed: the single iteration automatic approach, the hybrid Monte Carlo and design of experiments (DOE) approach, and the corner-based approach. Widely used mixed-signal circuits such as analog-to-digital converter (ADC), voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), voltage level converter and active pixel sensor (APS) have been designed at nanoscale complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and subjected to the proposed methodologies. The effectiveness of the proposed methodologies has ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Social Network Simulation and Mining Social Media to Advance Epidemiology

Social Network Simulation and Mining Social Media to Advance Epidemiology

Date: August 2009
Creator: Corley, Courtney David
Description: Traditional Public Health decision-support can benefit from the Web and social media revolution. This dissertation presents approaches to mining social media benefiting public health epidemiology. Through discovery and analysis of trends in Influenza related blogs, a correlation to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) influenza-like-illness patient reporting at sentinel health-care providers is verified. A second approach considers personal beliefs of vaccination in social media. A vaccine for human papillomavirus (HPV) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in May 2006. The virus is present in nearly all cervical cancers and implicated in many throat and oral cancers. Results from automatic sentiment classification of HPV vaccination beliefs are presented which will enable more accurate prediction of the vaccine's population-level impact. Two epidemic models are introduced that embody the intimate social networks related to HPV transmission. Ultimately, aggregating these methodologies with epidemic and social network modeling facilitate effective development of strategies for targeted interventions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
The Value of Everything: Ranking and Association with Encyclopedic Knowledge

The Value of Everything: Ranking and Association with Encyclopedic Knowledge

Date: December 2009
Creator: Coursey, Kino High
Description: This dissertation describes WikiRank, an unsupervised method of assigning relative values to elements of a broad coverage encyclopedic information source in order to identify those entries that may be relevant to a given piece of text. The valuation given to an entry is based not on textual similarity but instead on the links that associate entries, and an estimation of the expected frequency of visitation that would be given to each entry based on those associations in context. This estimation of relative frequency of visitation is embodied in modifications to the random walk interpretation of the PageRank algorithm. WikiRank is an effective algorithm to support natural language processing applications. It is shown to exceed the performance of previous machine learning algorithms for the task of automatic topic identification, providing results comparable to that of human annotators. Second, WikiRank is found useful for the task of recognizing text-based paraphrases on a semantic level, by comparing the distribution of attention generated by two pieces of text using the encyclopedic resource as a common reference. Finally, WikiRank is shown to have the ability to use its base of encyclopedic knowledge to recognize terms from different ontologies as describing the same thing, and thus ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Inferring Social and Internal Context Using a Mobile Phone

Inferring Social and Internal Context Using a Mobile Phone

Date: December 2009
Creator: Phithakkitnukoon, Santi
Description: This dissertation is composed of research studies that contribute to three research areas including social context-aware computing, internal context-aware computing, and human behavioral data mining. In social context-aware computing, four studies are conducted. First, mobile phone user calling behavioral patterns are characterized in forms of randomness level where relationships among them are then identified. Next, a study is conducted to investigate the relationship between the calling behavior and organizational groups. Third, a method is presented to quantitatively define mobile social closeness and social groups, which are then used to identify social group sizes and scaling ratio. Last, based on the mobile social grouping framework, the significant role of social ties in communication patterns is revealed. In internal context-aware computing, two studies are conducted where the notions of internal context are intention and situation. For intentional context, the goal is to sense the intention of the user in placing calls. A model is thus presented for predicting future calls envisaged as a call predicted list (CPL), which makes use of call history to build a probabilistic model of calling behavior. As an incoming call predictor, CPL is a list of numbers/contacts that are the most likely to be the callers within ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
The Influence of Social Network Graph Structure on Disease Dynamics in a Simulated Environment

The Influence of Social Network Graph Structure on Disease Dynamics in a Simulated Environment

Date: December 2010
Creator: Johnson, Tina V.
Description: The fight against epidemics/pandemics is one of man versus nature. Technological advances have not only improved existing methods for monitoring and controlling disease outbreaks, but have also provided new means for investigation, such as through modeling and simulation. This dissertation explores the relationship between social structure and disease dynamics. Social structures are modeled as graphs, and outbreaks are simulated based on a well-recognized standard, the susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) paradigm. Two independent, but related, studies are presented. The first involves measuring the severity of outbreaks as social network parameters are altered. The second study investigates the efficacy of various vaccination policies based on social structure. Three disease-related centrality measures are introduced, contact, transmission, and spread centrality, which are related to previously established centrality measures degree, betweenness, and closeness, respectively. The results of experiments presented in this dissertation indicate that reducing the neighborhood size along with outside-of-neighborhood contacts diminishes the severity of disease outbreaks. Vaccination strategies can effectively reduce these parameters. Additionally, vaccination policies that target individuals with high centrality are generally shown to be slightly more effective than a random vaccination policy. These results combined with past and future studies will assist public health officials in their effort to minimize the effects ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Process-Voltage-Temperature Aware Nanoscale Circuit Optimization

Process-Voltage-Temperature Aware Nanoscale Circuit Optimization

Date: December 2010
Creator: Thakral, Garima
Description: Embedded systems which are targeted towards portable applications are required to have low power consumption because such portable devices are typically powered by batteries. During the memory accesses of such battery operated portable systems, including laptops, cell phones and other devices, a significant amount of power or energy is consumed which significantly affects the battery life. Therefore, efficient and leakage power saving cache designs are needed for longer operation of battery powered applications. Design engineers have limited control over many design parameters of the circuit and hence face many chal-lenges due to inherent process technology variations, particularly on static random access memory (SRAM) circuit design. As CMOS process technologies scale down deeper into the nanometer regime, the push for high performance and reliable systems becomes even more challenging. As a result, developing low-power designs while maintaining better performance of the circuit becomes a very difficult task. Furthermore, a major need for accurate analysis and optimization of various forms of total power dissipation and performance in nanoscale CMOS technologies, particularly in SRAMs, is another critical issue to be considered. This dissertation proposes power-leakage and static noise margin (SNM) analysis and methodologies to achieve optimized static random access memories (SRAMs). Alternate topologies ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Exploring Privacy in Location-based Services Using Cryptographic Protocols

Exploring Privacy in Location-based Services Using Cryptographic Protocols

Date: May 2011
Creator: Vishwanathan, Roopa
Description: Location-based services (LBS) are available on a variety of mobile platforms like cell phones, PDA's, etc. and an increasing number of users subscribe to and use these services. Two of the popular models of information flow in LBS are the client-server model and the peer-to-peer model, in both of which, existing approaches do not always provide privacy for all parties concerned. In this work, I study the feasibility of applying cryptographic protocols to design privacy-preserving solutions for LBS from an experimental and theoretical standpoint. In the client-server model, I construct a two-phase framework for processing nearest neighbor queries using combinations of cryptographic protocols such as oblivious transfer and private information retrieval. In the peer-to-peer model, I present privacy preserving solutions for processing group nearest neighbor queries in the semi-honest and dishonest adversarial models. I apply concepts from secure multi-party computation to realize our constructions and also leverage the capabilities of trusted computing technology, specifically TPM chips. My solution for the dishonest adversarial model is also of independent cryptographic interest. I prove my constructions secure under standard cryptographic assumptions and design experiments for testing the feasibility or practicability of our constructions and benchmark key operations. My experiments show that the proposed ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Physical-Layer Network Coding for MIMO Systems

Physical-Layer Network Coding for MIMO Systems

Date: May 2011
Creator: Xu, Ning
Description: The future wireless communication systems are required to meet the growing demands of reliability, bandwidth capacity, and mobility. However, as corruptions such as fading effects, thermal noise, are present in the channel, the occurrence of errors is unavoidable. Motivated by this, the work in this dissertation attempts to improve the system performance by way of exploiting schemes which statistically reduce the error rate, and in turn boost the system throughput. The network can be studied using a simplified model, the two-way relay channel, where two parties exchange messages via the assistance of a relay in between. In such scenarios, this dissertation performs theoretical analysis of the system, and derives closed-form and upper bound expressions of the error probability. These theoretical measurements are potentially helpful references for the practical system design. Additionally, several novel transmission methods including block relaying, permutation modulations for the physical-layer network coding, are proposed and discussed. Numerical simulation results are presented to support the validity of the conclusions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Scene Analysis Using Scale Invariant Feature Extraction and Probabilistic Modeling

Scene Analysis Using Scale Invariant Feature Extraction and Probabilistic Modeling

Access: Use of this item is restricted to the UNT Community.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Shen, Yao
Description: Conventional pattern recognition systems have two components: feature analysis and pattern classification. For any object in an image, features could be considered as the major characteristic of the object either for object recognition or object tracking purpose. Features extracted from a training image, can be used to identify the object when attempting to locate the object in a test image containing many other objects. To perform reliable scene analysis, it is important that the features extracted from the training image are detectable even under changes in image scale, noise and illumination. Scale invariant feature has wide applications such as image classification, object recognition and object tracking in the image processing area. In this thesis, color feature and SIFT (scale invariant feature transform) are considered to be scale invariant feature. The classification, recognition and tracking result were evaluated with novel evaluation criterion and compared with some existing methods. I also studied different types of scale invariant feature for the purpose of solving scene analysis problems. I propose probabilistic models as the foundation of analysis scene scenario of images. In order to differential the content of image, I develop novel algorithms for the adaptive combination for multiple features extracted from images. I ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Joint Schemes for Physical Layer Security and Error Correction

Joint Schemes for Physical Layer Security and Error Correction

Date: August 2011
Creator: Adamo, Oluwayomi Bamidele
Description: The major challenges facing resource constraint wireless devices are error resilience, security and speed. Three joint schemes are presented in this research which could be broadly divided into error correction based and cipher based. The error correction based ciphers take advantage of the properties of LDPC codes and Nordstrom Robinson code. A cipher-based cryptosystem is also presented in this research. The complexity of this scheme is reduced compared to conventional schemes. The securities of the ciphers are analyzed against known-plaintext and chosen-plaintext attacks and are found to be secure. Randomization test was also conducted on these schemes and the results are presented. For the proof of concept, the schemes were implemented in software and hardware and these shows a reduction in hardware usage compared to conventional schemes. As a result, joint schemes for error correction and security provide security to the physical layer of wireless communication systems, a layer in the protocol stack where currently little or no security is implemented. In this physical layer security approach, the properties of powerful error correcting codes are exploited to deliver reliability to the intended parties, high security against eavesdroppers and efficiency in communication system. The notion of a highly secure and reliable ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
FIRST PREV 1 2 3 NEXT LAST