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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2001
 Collection: Environmental Policy Collection
Air Quality Forecasting: A Review of Federal Programs and Research Needs
This report provides a brief overview of the state of science of air quality forecasting. The report was composed to guide future federal research in air quality forecasting. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc25969/
The American Way to the Kyoto Protocol: an Economic Analysis to Reduce Carbon Pollution. A Study for World Wildlife Fund
This report presents a study of policies and measures that could dramatically reduce US greenhouse gas emissions over the next two decades. It examines a broad set of national policies to increase energy efficiency, accelerate the adoption of renewable energy technologies, and shift energy use to less carbon-intensive fuels. The policies address major areas of energy use in residential and commercial buildings, industrial facilities, transportation, and power generation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc226572/
Arctic Flora and Fauna: Status and Conservation
What is the overall state of the Arctic environment? The aim of this report is to answer the many aspects of this seemingly straightforward question. Although several national and international efforts have looked at parts of the Arctic, this is the first attempt to assess the state of Arctic flora and fauna as a whole. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11844/
California Legislature, 2001-2002 Session, Senate Bill No. 527
Bill introduced by the California Senate to revise the functions and duties of the California Climate Action Registry and requires the Registry, in coordination with CEC to adopt third-party verification metrics, developing GHG emissions protocols and qualifying third-party organizations to provide technical assistance and certification of emissions baselines and inventories. SB 527 amended SB 1771 to emphasize third-party verification. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc226659/
Clean Energy: Jobs for America’s Future
This study analyzes the employment, macroeconomic, energy and environmental impacts of implementing the Climate Protection Scenario. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc226676/
Clouds in the Balance
This feature article provides a summary of study about the role of clouds in the balance. Until recently, scientists were uncertain whether clouds had an overall net cooling or heating effect on the Earth's climate. But recent studies show that, in the tropics, a "near cancellation" between shortwave cooling and longwave warming exists, which indicates that the amount of incoming radiant energy is roughly equal to the amount of outgoing radiation. However, small changes in tropical cloudiness can disrupt this precarious balance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11860/
Coral Bleaching and Marine Protected Areas
The report convenes a small working group of influential participants with significant experience in relevant coral reef research, monitoring, and marine protected area (MPA) management. Collectively, they embody comprehensive, direct knowledge of all major reef areas worldwide. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc226684/
Dust from Africa Leads to Large Toxic Algae Blooms in Gulf of Mexico, Study Finds. [Press release].
This press release summarizes the findings of a new study. Saharan dust clouds travel thousands of miles and fertilize the water off the West Florida coast with iron, which kicks off blooms of toxic algae. The research was partially funded by a NASA grant as part of ECOHAB: Florida (Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms), a multi-disciplinary research project designed to study harmful algae. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11828/
Environmental Variability and Climate Change
The PAGES research community works toward improving our understanding of the Earth's changing environment. By placing current and future global changes in a long term perspective, they can be assessed relative to natural variability. Since the industrial revolution, the Earth System has become increasingly affected by human activities. Natural and human processes are woven into a complex tapestry of forcings, responses, feedbacks and consequences. Deciphering this complexity is essential as we plan for the future. Paleoenvironmental research is the only way to investigate Earth System processes that operate on timescales longer than the period of instrumental records. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12040/
Global Change and Mountain Regions: The Mountain Research Initiative
The strong altitudinal gradients in mountain regions provide unique and sometimes the best opportunities to detect and analyse global change processes and phenomena. Meteorological, hydrological, cryospheric and ecological conditions change strongly over relatively short distances; thus biodiversity tends to be high, and characteristic sequences of ecosystems and cryospheric systems are found along mountain slopes. The boundaries between these systems experience shifts due to environmental change and thus may be used as indicators of such changes. The higher parts of many mountain ranges are not affected by direct human activities. These areas include many national parks and other protected environments. They may serve as locations where the environmental impacts of climate change alone, including changes in atmospheric chemistry, can be studied directly. Mountain regions are distributed all over the globe, from the Equator almost to the poles and from oceanic to highly continental climates. This global distribution allows us to perform comparative regional studies and to analyse the regional differentiation of environmental change processes as characterised above. Therefore, within the IGBP an Initiative for Collaborative Research on Global Change and Mountain Regions was developed, which strives to achieve an integrated approach for observing, modelling and investigating global change phenomena and processes in mountain regions, including their impacts on ecosystems and socio-economic systems. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12006/
Global Change and the Earth System: A planet under pressure
The PAGES research community works toward improving our understanding of the Earth's changing environment. By placing current and future global changes in a long term perspective, they can be assessed relative to natural variability. Since the industrial revolution, the Earth System has become increasingly affected by human activities. Natural and human processes are woven into a complex tapestry of forcings, responses, feedbacks and consequences. Deciphering this complexity is essential as we plan for the future. Paleoenvironmental research is the only way to investigate Earth System processes that operate on timescales longer than the period of instrumental records. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12041/
How Will Climate Change Affect the Mid-Atlantic Region?
Average temperature has risen 1 degree F over the last century in the Mid-Atlantic Region as well as across the globe. Climate science is developing rapidly and many studies project additional warming. Although the future is uncertain and difficult to predict, our best science suggests the following changes are likely. The Mid-Atlantic Region will be somewhat warmer and perhaps wetter, resulting in a wide range of impacts on plants, wildlife, and humans. Human activities that release heat-trapping gases into the atmosphere will continue to accelerate the observed warming trend. Climate change will compound existing stresses from population density and development. The region's overall economy is quite resilient, but impacts will be more severe for some economic activities and localities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11826/
IHDP Global Carbon Cycle Research: International Carbon Research Framework
The degree to which carbon flows balance each other - human activities leading to carbon emissions into the atmosphere, vegetation and oceans soaking it up - is the subject of vigorous debate. It is not yet possible to define quantitatively the global effects of human activities such as forestry and agriculture, and may never be so. However, studies to determine these effects have emerged as critical for understanding how the earth's climate will evolve in the future. Global concern about the potential implications of the behaviour of the carbon cycle under anthropogenic stress includes concepts of system instability and large scale change. To contribute to understanding this behaviour, and our potential responses to it, requires a thorough investigation of both biophysical and social systems. Until recently, most scientific assessments of such risks focused on the anatomy of conceivable environmental changes themselves, devoting little attention to either the human driving forces or the ecosystems and societies that might be endangered by the changes. Recently, however, questions about the linkage and interaction of social, ecological, and biogeochemical systems are emerging as a central focus of policy-driven assessments of global environmental risks. The approach used here is to accept humans as an integral part of the carbon cycle, not as an agent perturbing an otherwise natural system - indeed, this approach assumes there is no independence of the different components of the carbon cycle. The human dimensions research community sees this critical and necessary re-conceptualisation as the foundation of a new approach to studying the interaction between human and environmental systems. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11886/
Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution: Relationship to North American Air Quality. A Review of Federal Resarch and Future Needs
This government report describes pollutants which are carried between continents by air currents. The report also addresses current and future research to better understand how these pollutants are transported. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc25968/
Law of the People's Republic of China on Desert Prevention and Transformation
This Law was formulated in order to prevent desertification, to improve and reclaim desertified land, to protect the environment, and to promote a sustainable economy and society. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11922/
Lessons from PPP2000: Living with Earth's Extremes-Report from the PPP2000 Working Group to the Office of Science and Technology Policy Subcommittee on Natural Disaster Reduction
This book is a series of reports summarizing discussions and recommendations from a series of forums about strategies to deal with natural disaster. The focus is on changing human behavior and development in order to coexist with natural phenomena rather than trying to control natural phenomena. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc25976/
More El Niños May Mean More Rainfall Extremes
Researchers at NASA and the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), studying changes in tropical precipitation patterns, have noted a higher frequency of El Niños and La Niñas over the last 21 years. In addition, when either of those events occur, the world can expect more months with unusually high or low precipitation with droughts more common than floods over land areas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11987/
National Plant Genome Initiative
This report is an update on progress of federal plant genome research. The focus in this report is on plants that are economically important to agribusiness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc25981/
The National Tenth Five-Year Plan for Environmental Protection(Abstract)
The State Council approved the National Tenth Five-Year Plan for Environmental Protection on 26 December 2001, requesting that loca1 governments and the various departments strengthen environmental protection in close relation with the economic restructuring; raise funds for environmental protection through multiple channels in connection with the expansion of domestic demand, and establish the mechanism of environmental protection with the government playing the dominant role with market promotion and public participation. The State Council emphasizes that local governments should undertake the major responsibilities of environmental protection. The governments at various levels should integrate the tasks of the Plan into the target responsibility system for provincial governors, mayors, and county heads. Periodic examination should be carried out on the targets of total pollutant discharge control and environmental quality. The implementation of the Plan should be inspected and reported on every year. The State Council requests that the relevant departments should provide guidance and support in implementing the Plan according to their respective responsibilities. The State Environmental Protection Administration should conduct coordinated supervision, management, and inspection of the implementation of the Plan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11939/
New England Governors/Eastern Canadian Premiers Climate Change Action Plan 2001
Recognizing the need for the region to provide leadership on the critical issue of climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers established the regional climate change program in 2000. While the northeast represents a significant economic region with greenhouse gas emissions roughly equivalent to those of Spain, climate change is an international issue for which our states and provinces are only a relatively small part of the problem. However, through their leadership the Governors and Premiers have established our region as an internationally-recognized part of the solution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc226597/
New Source of Natural Fertilizer Discovered in Oceans
New findings suggest that the deep ocean is teeming with organisms that produce essential natural fertilizers. A National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded research team led by Jonathan Zehr, a marine scientist at the University of California, Santa Cruz, has discovered a previously unknown type of photosynthetic bacteria that fixes nitrogen, converting nitrogen from the atmosphere into a form other organisms can use. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11994/
NOAA Makes New Tree Ring Data Available
New data from tree rings from 500 sites around the world are now available from NOAA. These data are important because they provide climate scientists and resource managers with records of past climatic variability extending back thousands of years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12016/
NOAA Sets the El Niño Prediction Straight
El Niño is an abnormal warming of the ocean temperatures across the eastern tropical Pacific that affects weather around the globe. El Niño episodes usually occur approximately every four-five years. NOAA researchers and scientists are presently monitoring the formation of a possible weak El Niño and predict that the United States could experience very weak-to-marginal impacts late winter to early spring 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12015/
NOAA Updates What Defines Normal Temperature
Normal temperatures and precipitation levels for your area may have changed as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Climatic Data Center recently released new 'normal' data for about 8,000 weather stations. The data defines the normal temperature at locations across the United States, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and U.S. Pacific Islands. These data are used as a benchmark for weather forecasters to calculate day-to-day temperature and rainfall departures from typical levels and are also used by business, government and industry for planning, design and operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11976/
Our Changing Planet: The FY 2002 U.S. Global Change Research Program
This document, which is produced annually, describes the activities and plans of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which was established in 1989 and authorized by Congress in the Global Change Research Act of 1990. Strong bipartisan support for this inter-agency program has resulted in more than a decade's worth of scientific accomplishment. "Because there is considerable uncertainty in current understanding of how the climate system varies naturally and reacts to emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols, current estimates of the magnitude of future warming should be regarded as tentative and subject to future adjustments (either upward or downward). Reducing the wide range of uncertainty inherent in current model predictions of global climate change will require major advances in understanding and modeling of both (1) the factors that determine atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and (2) the so-called 'feedbacks' that determine the sensitivity of the climate system to a prescribed increase in greenhouse gases. There is also a pressing need for a global system designed for monitoring climate. Climate projections will always be far from perfect. Confidence limits and probabilistic information, with their basis, should always be considered as an integral part of the information that climate scientists provide to policy- and decision-makers. Without them, the IPCC SPM [Summary for Policymakers] could give the impression that the science of global warming is 'settled,' even though many uncertainties still remain. The emission scenarios used by the IPCC provide a good example. Human dimensions will almost certainly alter emissions over the next century. Because we cannot predict either the course of human populations, technology, or societal transitions with any clarity, the actual greenhouse gas emissions could either be greater or less than the IPCC scenarios. Without an understanding of the sources and degree of uncertainty, decision makers could fail to define the best ways to deal with the serious issue of global warming. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11929/
Plausible Biological Cause For Major Climate Events
Scientific news article about Snowball Earth eras. These are times when ice periodically covered the globe, and the era called the Cambrian Explosion, which produced the first fossils of almost all major categories of animals living today. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11831/
.Poverty and The Drylands
This paper takes as its initial premise the assumption that there are important and significant populations in the world's drylands who, given the right conditions and incentives, can achieve good livelihoods, accumulate assets to reduce vulnerability and escape from poverty. However, to make a convincing case it is necessary to challenge current wisdom on the distribution and condition of drylands populations, and build more realistic scenarios that decision makers can take seriously. This is a major task, and this paper will only set the challenge and introduce some of the new evidence that is required. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc226686/
Powering America Myths vs. Facts in the US Energy and Global Warming Debates
Powering America Myths vs. Facts in the US Energy and Global Warming Debates A Study for: World Wildlife Fund Tellus Institute Boston, . environmental regulations, and indefinitely postpone our obligation to protect the global climate – no matter the long-term impacts and costs. President. global warming later on. Indeed, had such demand-side efforts been underway sooner our current predicaments could have been avoided or lessened. Globally.. Today, the United States produces less than 12 percent of global oil supplies. Even with strenuous efforts by the Bush Administration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc226618/
Protocol amending 1949 Convention of Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission : message from the President of the United States transmitting protocol to amend the 1949 Convention on the Establishment of an Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, done at Guayaquil, June 11, 1999, and signed by the United States, subject to ratification, in Guayaquil, Ecuador, on the same date
This treaty allows organizations that are not governments of states to join the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Convention, and be subject to its conservation and management protocols. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31103/
Report of the Eighteenth Session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Different speakers addressed the Panel. Among other issues, the Eighteenth Session of the IPCC decided that its work must continue to maintain its high scientific and technical standards, independence, transparency and geographic balance, to ensure a balanced reporting of viewpoints and to be policy relevant but not policy prescriptive or policy driven. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11904/
Report of the Seventeenth Session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Different speakers addressed the Panel, and some highlighted the importance of sound data for monitoring and predicting the climate system and noted with concern the decline in observational networks. Others emphasized the value of the scientific information provided by the IPCC for the Convention process and highlighted the need to integrate scientific assessments in sustainable development consideration and to communicate with a wider audience. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11903/
Service Contract : EC - DG Environment − CNRS-IEPE: Options for the Operationalisation of the Kyoto Mechanisms - Economic Analysis based on Partial Equilibrium Models
This report presents two series of studies performed before COP-6 and COP-6bis, in order to provide DG Environment with economic analysis of the issues at stake in international climate negotiations. These analysis used the background information provided by the large scale world energy partial equilibrium model POLES. They were also based on an extensive use of the Marginal Abatement Cost Curves produced by the POLES model through the ASPEN-sd software, specifically designed to produce assessment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29353/
Spying Global Warming in the Desert? [News release].
This brief news article provides preliminary evidence that global warming may have sped up the pace at which grasslands are being overtaken by mesquite, creosote and other shrubs at desert sites around the world. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11829/
UNEP 2000 Annual Report
The UNEP annual report provides an overview of UNEP's activities for the year of 2000. The report also reflects on the possible challenges that the new millennium "the Environment Millennium" may bring. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc25987/
Vision 2050: An Integrated National Transportation System
This document calls for major improvements to the United States transportation infrastructure. The vision includes improvements in energy independence, environmental compatibility, safety, cost, and performance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc25998/
Who Needs what to Implement the Kyoto Protocol?: An Assessment of Capacity Building Needs in 33 Developing Countries
For African countries, it is imperative to increase capacity for implementing both the Climate Convention and the Kyoto Protocol, in view of the continent’s vulnerability to the adverse impacts of climate change, including the threat to food security and sustainable development. The country surveys, which are framed around the list of perceived capacity building needs annexed to Decision 10/CP.5, provided insight into the capacity building needs of the project-countries. Hence, the aspects examined during the assessment exercise reflect some of the concerns of African countries; and the stakeholders’ responses can be taken as indications of the capacity building needs of the African countries assessed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc226740/