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- Academic Dishonesty: Attitudes and Behaviors of Fundamentalist Christian College Students
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This study was designed to examine: (1) the extent to which cheating occurs in fundamentalist Christian colleges; (2) the attitudes of fundamentalist Christian college students toward cheating; (3) attitudes of fundamentalist Christian college students toward cheating among their peers; (4) the kinds of cheating practices of fundamentalist Christian college students; (5) the degree to which students engage in neutralizing behavior to justify cheating; (6) differences in cheating behaviors according to gender; (7) differences in cheating behaviors according to ethnicity; and (8) differences in cheating behaviors according to the length of duration of Christian commitment. Based upon the responses of 337 students attending 3 different Christian colleges, it was concluded that: (1) most Christian fundamentalist students do not engage in cheating; (2) respondents believe that each of 17 self-reported cheating behaviors are serious forms of cheating; (3) respondents are unlikely to report cheating among peers; (4) plagiarism is the most common cheating behavior; (5) most respondents justify cheating on the basis of the workload at school and the pressure to obtain good grades; (6) there are no differences in cheating behavior according to gender; (7) there are differences in cheating behavior according to groups; and (8) most respondents do not cheat regardless of the self-reported duration of Christian commitment.
- Academic Lineage and Student Performance in Medical School
- This research investigated the association between academic lineage and student performance in medical school. The purposes of the study were to: (1) determine whether the Carnegie classifications of medical school applicants' institutions of origin are associated with academic performance in medical school; (2) consider the relationship between the admission selectivity of the schools of origin and the academic performance of medical school students; (3) compare the performance of medical students from institutions under public governing control with students from privately controlled institutions; and (4) establish a model by which the relative academic strengths of applicants from a variety of undergraduate institutions can be understood more clearly based on the previous performance of medical students from schools with similar institutional characteristics. A review of the literature on medical school admissions was completed and used to develop this research. Medical students from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas who enrolled between the years 1990 and 1994 and graduated or were dismissed between the years 1994 and 1998 were selected as the sample for the study (n=933). The undergraduate institution of origin for each student was coded based on its Carnegie classification, admissions selectivity group, and whether its governing control was public or private. Because the sample was not randomly selected and the data likely would not meet the assumptions of equal means and variance with the population, nonparametric analyses of variance and multiple comparison tests were completed to compare the groups of the independent variables over each dependent variable. The analyses revealed that for the sample of medical students selected for this study there was an association between academic lineage and student performance in medical school. Differences were found among Carnegie classifications on the dependent variables of cumulative medical school grade point average, class rank, failure rate, and score on Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensure Examination. Further, it was found that admission selectivity was also associated with student performance in medical school for each dependent variable except failure rate. Finally, the study results indicated no association between public or private governing control and student performance in medical school.
- Adapting Filial Therapy for Families who have a Child with a Life-Threatening Illness
- Utilizing a collective case study design, I examined and described the filial therapy (FT) process and adaptations discovered to be necessary and unnecessary in working with families who have a child with a life-threatening illness in the hospital setting. Data from a total of 7 parents was utilized, including those who terminated early, in order to gain a greater understanding of adapting FT for families who have a child with a life-threatening illness and their participation patterns. The parents attended 10 one- to two-hour FT sessions. The data was analyzed to examine for themes, patterns and relationships intrinsically with each case participant, as well as across cases. Analysis indicated that parents with a child with a life-threatening illness had great difficulty committing to attend FT; and a high rate of attrition occurred for those who did commit. A theme regarding flexibility was found to be of eminent importance in a variety of manifestations including therapeutic methods, session format, location and time of sessions, and intense vs traditional FT. Therapeutic adaptations in flexibility found to be important including openness to cathartic and personal parenting sessions, tolerance of forgetfulness, and lowering typical therapeutic concerns of dependency in the relationship. An inability for parents in this situation to benefit from intense FT methods was also noted. Changes noted in the child of focus included increased confidence, increased cooperation in the medical setting, increased communication with the parent and with medical staff regarding medical issues, and increased communication with the parent regarding personal feelings and issues. Changes noted in the parents included increased confidence in parenting skills, increased awareness of the child's perceptions of the environment, increased tolerance in allowing the child to struggle in and out of the medical setting, with both emotional and physical pain in order to gain coping skills, increased ability to allow the child to empower self, and increased abilities in limit setting.
- Adult Client Outcomes: Differences Between Counselors with Education in Child Centered Play Therapy Versus Counselors Without Education in Child-Centered Play Therapy
- Child-centered play therapists are taught unique relationship building approaches and therapeutic methods to utilize when working with children. The purpose of this study was to determine if adult clients counseled by child-centered play therapists would demonstrate greater positive therapeutic outcomes than adult clients who were counseled by non-educated child-centered play therapists. This study also attempted to determine if the play therapists' clients would show greater, significant improvement in any particular areas of client distress (i.e., depression/anxiety, relationship issues), more so than the clients of the non-play therapists. Archival data from an assessment, The Adult Self-Report Inventory (ASR), was gathered to measure reported pre and post-test client symptomology. This study utilized a 2X2 repeated measure ANOVA design to analyze the impact of counselors who were educated in child-centered play therapy who saw adult clients, versus their non-play therapy counterparts who saw adult clients. Before treatment pre-test and after treatment post-test administration was collected for use in the analysis. The population consisted of 60 adult clients seeking counseling services at a major university in the southwest. All clients were seen by Master's practicum students for ten sessions. The clients were divided into two groups - 30 were seen by play therapists, 30 were seen by non-play therapists. Five scales on the ASR were measured using a 2x2 split-plot design and Eta squared. There were three independent variables: group, measurement occasion, and the interaction between group and measurement. The results of this study did not reveal any statistical significance. However, clinical significance was demonstrated as the play therapists' clients did report greater reductions in symptomology on all five scales, some more than others.
- Alcohol and other drugs: Attitudes and use among graduate/professional students at a health science center.
- Alcohol and other drug use continue to be a major issue on college and university campuses. Few studies have examined alcohol and other drug related issues for a graduate or professional student population. This study examines attitudes, incidents, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use among students enrolled at an academic heath science center. This study incorporated a descriptive research design and utilized the CORE Alcohol and Drug Survey for the collection of data. The data were then analyzed using descriptive statistics and represented in tables as frequencies and percentages. The survey was mailed to all students enrolled in didactic course work at the University of North Texas Health Science Center (UNTHSC) during the fall 2001 semester. This included master's students in physician assistant studies, master's and doctoral students in the biomedical sciences, master's and doctoral students in public health, as well as first and second year medical students. Of the 565 students enrolled in didactic course work, 321 responded to the survey for a return rate of 56.8 %. Statistically significant findings are reported for students at UNTHSC in relation to perceptions of use, actual use, reasons for use, and consequences for use. Similar findings are shown relative to age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, and academic program. Additionally, the UNTHSC students reported statistically significant lower levels of alcohol and drug use, as well as consequences of use than the students represented in the CORE Institutes 2000 national data set. This study identifies the need to investigate alcohol and drug related attitudes, behaviors, and consequences among students studying for professions in health related fields. However, the findings are only relevant to UNTHSC and cannot be generalized to any other population. The study provides personnel at UNTHSC a guide for the development of prevention and intervention programs.
- An Analysis of EC-4 Pre-Service Teacher Perceptions of Knowledge and Use of Classroom Discipline Techniques
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The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of pre-service Texas Wesleyan University teachers' knowledge and use of classroom discipline techniques. The study was conducted to obtain data utilized for the evaluation of the research questions. A non-experimental, mixed research design using survey methodology was used. Part one of the Allen Classroom and Discipline Management Instrument (ACDMI) consisted of demographic information: current position, ethnicity, level of education, gender, age, teaching certification obtained, teaching certification anticipated to be obtained, type of teacher certification training, and number of clock hours received in discipline management. The demographic information was used as independent variables for comparing responses to survey items. Part two contained discipline management techniques from Skinner, Canter, Dreikurs, Gathercoal, Glasser, Faye and Funk, Curwin and Mendler, and Berne and Harris. These techniques were used to determine mean differences with the independent variables. Finally, part three was the qualitative section which consisted of four questions requesting information about helpful discipline techniques. The sample population consisted of 150 pre-service teachers from a small liberal arts university in Texas. Findings from the study indicated that EC-4 pre-service teachers' predicted use of discipline management techniques were the ones in which they were most knowledgeable. Furthermore, EC-4 pre-service teachers reported to be most knowledgeable of the following discipline management techniques: "Student Input in Developing Classroom Rules," "Social Reinforcement and Praise," and "Direct Teach and Model Appropriate Behavior." In addition, certified EC-4 pre-service teachers had more knowledge of classroom discipline techniques than non-certified EC-4 pre-service teachers. The qualitative analysis revealed a consensus among all EC-4 pre-service teachers with regard to their training in discipline management. All EC-4 pre-service teachers indicated that their overall training was inadequate in the area of classroom discipline management and that more was needed.
- An Analysis of On-Campus Housing at Public Rural Community Colleges in the United States
- This study has two purposes. First is to dispel myths that there are no residence halls at community colleges. Second is to discuss the ways in which these residence halls are administered, the amenities offered to students, the benefits of residence halls, and their future in community colleges. The study is based upon the Katsinas, Lacey and Hardy 2004 classifications and divides community colleges into 7 categories: Urban multi campus, Urban single campus, Suburban multi campus, Suburban single campus, and Rural small, medium and large. Included in the study are tables of data received from an original survey sent to 232 community college CEOs who reported to the US Department of Education that they had residence halls at their campus. The results indicate that a significant number of community colleges with residence halls exist, particularly at rural community colleges, that they bring significant financial gain to the colleges, and they append numerous benefits to students and to student life at these colleges. Residence halls are housed in divisions of student services and directed by experienced student affairs professionals. The study concludes with recommendations for policy as well as practice, the most important of which calls for more accurate data collection regarding on-campus residence housing by the US Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics.
- An analysis of the effects of high school student concurrent enrollment at Collin County Community College District.
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As efforts to provide seamless transitions from high school to college grow, so do the numbers of high school students who concurrently enroll in college courses across the country. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various aspects of the concurrent enrollment program at Collin County Community College District in Texas. Six research questions were designed to address student success and continuing enrollment patterns after high school graduation, as well as evaluate differences in the various models of dual credit classes offered by the college. Literature related to concurrent enrollment and dual credit programs, senior year of high school, and part-time faculty effectiveness was reviewed. Student issues addressed include: grade performance of concurrent enrollment students compared to the general college population; the percentage of concurrent enrollment students who continue at the college after high school graduation; and a comparison of continuing concurrent enrollment students with a matched sample (based on high school class rank), on the student success factors of fall-to-spring retention rates, fall-to-fall retention rates, grade point averages, and completion rates. Findings were generally positive related to the impact of concurrent enrollment on students and their subsequent success at the college. Various models of offering concurrent enrollment courses were also evaluated as measured by student performance in subsequent courses. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences based on the location at which the courses were taught (high school, college campus, or a college center); differences based on the mix of students in the class (all from one high school; all high school representing several schools; or a mix of high school and college students); and differences based on the employment status of the instructor (full-time college instructor; part-time college instructor; or high school teacher). Differences were examined for the entire sample, and for the academic disciplines of economics, English, and government.
- Analysis of the Impact of CACREP Accreditation of Counselor Education Programs on Student Knowledge Outcomes
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The principal investigator (PI) for this study analyzed mean scores on the National Counselor Examination (NCE) of students from CACREP accredited and non- CACREP accredited programs. Data was provided by the National Board of Certified Counselors, Inc., for a total of ten examination administrations across six years. The fourteen variables examined in the study consisted of the eight common-core knowledge domains identified in CACREP standards, the five counselor work behavior areas identified by NBCC via periodic job analysis of counseling practice, and one overall or total score on the NCE. NCE mean scores of students from CACREP accredited programs were higher than NCE mean scores of students from non-CACREP accredited programs on all variables across all ten NCE administrations. Data seem to indicate that students from CACREP accredited programs perform significantly better on the NCE than students from non-CACREP accredited programs, in all fourteen variables. Sample size was large, totaling 9707, so the PI calculated effect sizes using Cohen's d for each variable to aid interpretation of statistical significance. Five variables had large effect sizes of .70 or higher. The higher effect size statistics were associated with the counselor work behavior areas, with the highest effect size (.85) associated with the overall, or total, score on the NCE. Statistically significant results in the counselor work behavior areas, in the presence of large effect size statistics, may represent reasonably good support for CACREP accredited programs' superiority in developing overall counselor clinical skills and knowledge beyond simply content knowledge. Additionally, the large effect size of the Total Score variable might be interpreted to indicate that student knowledge gained from CACREP accredited programs is superior to student knowledge gained from non-CACREP accredited programs.
- Analyzing the financial condition of higher education institutions using financial ratio analysis.
- The problem concerned the financial indicators used to evaluate the financial condition of the six sister higher education institutions under the authority of the Board of Regents of Oklahoma Colleges. The purposes were to determine the financial ratios that best indicate financial condition; to calculate those financial ratios for the six designated Oklahoma higher education institutions; and to evaluate and compare the financial condition of the six institutions. This study attempted to further the use of financial ratio analysis as an objective addition to subjective studies that examine an institution's definition of its mission, objectives, and goals and its own assessment of the degree to which its resources allow it to attain those goals. The data were obtained from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System; the financial reports were audited by independent certified public accountants and presented to the Board of Regents of Oklahoma Colleges; and John Minter Associates, Inc., provided the national norms. The set of financial ratios identified provides a means to study a single higher education institution through trend analysis and in comparison to national norms. It also works well with a sample of homogeneous institutions with interinstitutional comparison. The techniques are intended to provide a general profile of an institutions financial health. Cause-and-effect ratio analysis has been proposed as another technique to aid administrators in determining changes in their financial statements and what may have caused them. The study identified a set of financial ratios that summarize the financial condition of a higher education institution. The ratios helped to analyze the financial solvency and viability of the six Oklahoma higher education institutions and focused on the ability of the institutions to meet current and future financial requirements. The importance of financial statement analysis should not be underestimated. The understandable format of financial ratios allows virtually any stakeholder to acquire a basic comprehension of the most critical financial policies of institutions and their financial condition.
- Assessing the Adlerian Personality Priorities: A Formal Instrument for Therapeutic Practice
- The purpose of this study was to develop an effective formal instrument to assess the Adlerian personality priorities. The development of the Allen Assessment for Adlerian Personality Priorities, AAAPP, seeks to provide a strong comparability to assessing the Adlerian construct of personality priorities as the counselor interview. One hundred and seven participants were given the 1st administration of the AAAPP, Social Interest Scale and a demographic survey. Sixty-four participants completed a 2nd administration of the AAAPP two weeks later. Twenty participants experienced a counseling interview following the 2nd administration. The methods used to evaluate the validity and effectiveness of the AAAPP included: face validity, predictive validity, construct validity, test-retest reliability, multiple regression, Guttman split-half reliability and the Spearman Brown reliability.
- The Assessment of Cognitive Development and Writing Aptitude Within Learning Communities
- Learning communities have emerged as an efficient and effective paradigm for improving undergraduate education, especially for entering freshmen. The academy has become increasingly interested in learning outcomes and student retention, especially as they are related to the assessment of various approaches to educating the whole student. Learning community pedagogy has developed through rigorous research. However, little is known about the impact of this pedagogy upon college students' cognitive development and writing aptitude. Cognitive development theory has been most significantly influenced by the work of William G. Perry, Jr. Though no theory exists which would address the stages of writing development in university students, many composition theorists suggest a correlation between cognitive development and writing aptitude. This study measured cognitive development and writing aptitude in learning community students and non-learning community students, matching them for SAT scores, high school grade point averages, gender, and ethnicity. The research questions of interest were: 1) How does participation in a learning community affect students' cognitive development; and 2) How does participation in a learning community affect students' writing aptitude? The participants were pre- and post-assessed for cognitive development, using the Measure of Intellectual Development (MID). Additionally, participants were preand post-assessed for writing aptitude, using a diagnostic essay and exit exam. Results of this study indicate no statistically significant differences in cognitive development and writing aptitude for learning community students and non-learning community students as measured by the Measure of Intellectual Development (MID) and the diagnostic essay and exit exam. These findings may have been influenced by the small sample size. It is suggested that this research be replicated, ensuring a larger sample size, to determine the efficacy of this pedagogy on these variable sets.
- An Assessment of the Effectiveness of the CHAMPS/Life Skills Program at the University of North Texas: A Pilot Study
- This study seeks to determine the effectiveness of the Challenging Athletes Minds for Personal Success (CHAMPS)/Life Skills program at the University of North Texas, as perceived by the student athletes who participate or participated in this program. The study attempts to measure the extent to which the student athletes feel that the program had value; if they received helpful information to support them through their college career to career transition; if the student athletes felt that the program provided them with skills to encourage better self-esteem; and if they believed that the CHAMPS/Life Skills program provided them with leadership and character education. The study, conducted in the Fall of 2003, had 163 respondents. An instrument was developed to determine student athletes' perceptions of the effectiveness of the CHAMPS/Life Skills program at UNT. The instrument consisted of 30 questions using a Likert-type scale. A Mann-Whitney U, a non-parametric t-Test, was utilized to analyze the data. This type of t-Test was used because it is specifically designed to compare the means of the same variable with two different groups and account for non-homogeneous groups. The lack of homogeneity was very likely influenced by the unequal group sizes. Generally, all aspects of the CHAMPS/Life Skills program at UNT were found to be positive by each subgroup. Student athletes found value in the CHAMPS/Life Skills program at UNT. In three of the four components studied, males had a statistically stronger feeling than females. Minority status had no statistically significant impact on the results in any of the four components studied. For the variable measuring the number of years in the program, a significant difference existed in three of the four components studied. The study shows that if a student athlete was involved in the program for more than two years, the CHAMPS/Life Skills program at UNT was more valuable for them than those enrolled for a shorter period of time.
- An Assessment of the Parent Orientation Program at the University of North Texas
- Although most institutions offer a parent program option to the orientation program, there has been little formalized research into the quality, planning or programming of parent orientation. There has been very little research into the impact parent orientation has on parents and whether or not they feel that such programs have met their needs, particularly by gender, minority status, educational background, or by geographic distance from the institution. This study seeks to determine the effectiveness of the parent orientation program at the University of North Texas to the parents who participate in this program. The study attempts to measure whether parents feel that they have adequate information about the institution to adequately support their student through the college transition; if parents feel welcomed by the UNT campus community; and if they feel that they have developed resources and institutional contacts that may be useful in the future in assisting their child to have a successful college experience at UNT. The study, conducted in the summer of 2002, had 736 respondents. An instrument developed to determine parent's perceptions of the effectiveness of the parent orientation program consisted of 31 questions using a Likert scale. A t-Test was utilized to analyze the data because it is designed to compare the means of the same variable with two different groups. Generally, all aspects of the parent orientation program were found to be positive by each subgroup. Parents found value in the orientation program and how it prepared them to support their new college student. In all four components studied, women had a stronger feeling than the males. Minority status had no significant impact on the outcomes of orientation according to the participants. Educational background proved not to be a significant factor. Distance parents lived from UNT revealed significant difference in three of the four categories. The farther a parent resides from UNT, the more valuable the orientation experience was for them.
- An Assessment of the Use of Student Price Response Models to Predict Changes in Undergraduate Enrollment at a Metropolitan University
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Most colleges and universities invest substantial resources in an effort to strategically plan for a sound financial base. The revenue for the financial base is dependent on student enrollment that must be effectively managed. Increases in the price of tuition and fees can lead to decreased enrollment and negatively impact the revenue of an institution. The increases can also impact the enrollment of certain student populations such as minority students and high school graduates enrolling in college for the first time. Many studies have analyzed the price elasticity and student price response models that have been developed over time by reviewing historical price increases and enrollment across institutions. Few studies have used the models to predict changes in the enrollment of students for one college or university after the increases in the cost of attendance are imposed on students. This study sought to analyze the effectiveness of the most commonly reviewed student price response and price elasticity models in predicting changes in undergraduate enrollment at one metropolitan academic university. The three models introduced by Leslie and Brinkman, St. John and Heller were used to analyze the tuition and fee increases and to identify the likely percentage of increase or decrease in student enrollment at the University of North Texas for the fall 2004 semester. The study predicted the change in undergraduate enrollment among Caucasian, Hispanic, African American and Asian student populations. The price elasticity among full-time students, part-time students, undergraduate transfer students and new from high school students entering the University of North Texas were also analyzed in the research study. The results of the study found the student price response developed by Heller accurately predicted decreases in enrollment among first-time undergraduate students, continuing undergraduate students and undergraduate Caucasian students. The model introduced by Heller accurately predicted increases in enrollment among first-time Asian undergraduate students, first-time African American undergraduate students, continuing Asian undergraduate students and continuing African American undergraduate students. The study found an inelastic demand to price elasticity among full-time and part-time students and undergraduate transfer students. New from high school students were found to have an elastic demand to price elasticity.
- Attachment Styles in a Sample from a Correctional Drug Treatment Facility
- Substance abuse and dependence causes many problems in our society. Attachment style may be useful in the etiology of this problem. Using archival data, this study hypothesizes men in a court-ordered facility will be more likely to have an insecure attachment style. The participants were 73 males ages 18-49. The Adult Attachment Scale (AAS) was used to measure adult romantic attachment style. Through cluster analysis and conversion of the subscales of the AAS, four attachment styles were measured. Men were more likely to have an insecure attachment style especially a Fearful style. The study concludes with limitations of the results and a discussion about possible interventions based on attachment style.
- Attitudes of American School Counselor Association Members toward Utilizing Paraprofessionals in School Counseling
- The principal investigator (PI) for this study surveyed 207 American School Counselor Association (ASCA) members on their attitudes toward utilizing trained counseling paraprofessionals in school counseling. The PI also examined the relationship between participants attitudes and their subjective reports of the counselor-student ratios in their schools, the amount of work time they spent providing direct counseling services to students, and the extent to which their districts experienced a school counselor shortage. The participants mean reported counselor-student ratio (1:464.63) significantly exceeded ASCA recommendations of 1:250. Elementary counselors reported the highest counselor-student ratios while high school counselors reported the lowest. Furthermore the PI found a significant linear trend for counselor-student ratios to decrease as school level increased. The participants reported mean percentage of time involved in direct counseling services (61.48%) fell significantly below the ASCA recommended 70%. Elementary counselors reported the highest amount of time involved in direct counseling services while high school counselors reported the lowest. The PI also found a significant linear trend for percentages of time involved in direct services to decrease as school level increased. Over one-fourth of the participants indicated school counselor shortages existed in their districts. A majority of participants supported utilizing counseling paraprofessionals in their schools. The PI found a significant negative correlation between support for counseling paraprofessionals and percentage of time involved in direct services. Participants reporting the lowest percentage of time providing direct services to students thus expressed the strongest endorsement for utilizing counseling paraprofessionals. Participants most strongly endorsed assigning clerical duties to counseling paraprofessionals. They likewise endorsed assigning some indirect helping duties to counseling paraprofessionals. However, participants strongly opposed assigning direct counseling duties to counseling paraprofessionals. Based on the results of the study the PI developed recommendations for school counselors, school administrators, state education agencies, and institutions of higher learning regarding the training, education, and job duties of counseling paraprofessionals.
- Benchmarks in American Higher Education: Selected Approaches for Distance Education Copyright and Intellectual Property Policies
- An evaluation of American higher education distance education programs was conducted to explore how they approach intellectual property, copyright and information sharing/antitrust policy concerns for Internet-based programs. An evaluation of the current status of distance education and Internet-based training in higher education was conducted through a pilot study that included a random sample of 223 accredited institutions. Seventy-seven institutions responded to a survey, of which there were 14 Research I&II, 17 Doctorate I&II, and 46 Master's I&II institutions included in this study. A review of institutional policy approaches for these 77 institutions was conducted via Internet Web site and bulletin review. A multiple-case study was also conducted which included 10 of the top 30 accredited distance education institutions in America. Policy approaches were examined for all institutions and differences were discussed for public and private institutions as well as the following Carnegie Class institutions- Research I&II, Doctorate I&II and Master's I&II. Ten percent of all institutions that responded to the pilot study developed a written policy addressing antitrust/information-sharing concerns. Additionally, the data indicated that 22% of institutions in these Carnegie Class ranges published copyright and intellectual property policy on their institutions' Internet Web site. Ninety percent of the institutions in the case study advised of central control for the distance education program, as well as central control for copyright and intellectual property policy.
- Career Paths of Female Chief Academic Officers in the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities
- This study examined the career paths of women administrators serving as chief academic officers in Christian colleges and universities which belong to the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities (CCCU). The CCCU is a professional association of evangelical Christian institutions dedicated to integrating faith and learning. The exploration included each administrator's demographic information; her early, adolescent, college, and graduate school experiences; early vocational experiences; the effect of marriage and motherhood on her career; critical factors she identified as important in achieving her current position; and the importance of spiritual convictions or Christian faith in career decision making. Sixteen of the eighteen identified women holding the rank of chief academic officer agreed to participate in the study. The typical woman administrator was 50, married, and the mother of one or more children. She most likely had received her education in the humanities, with the terminal degree of choice being a Ph.D. She had served at her current institution for more than five years, but in her current administrative position for less than five. As an adolescent she excelled in the humanities, less so in math and science, and was involved in many extracurricular activities, including music endeavors, leadership, and her local church. She had received the most encouragement from her mother, although both parents expected her to do her best in school. For post secondary education, she had benefited from a mentor, had excelled easily, and had taken no time off between her bachelor's and master's degrees or between her master's or doctoral degrees. Although she had aspired to teach and received most of her early vocational experience in the professoriate, she had not aspired to be an administrator. As an adult, she had married in her 20's and had children before the age of 30. She had an unusually supportive spouse and believed her marriage to be a key factor in her career success. Her family and professional roles were potentially conflicted and required her to "juggle" her responsibilities. She believed the influence of her mentors, faith influences, and chairing an academic department were critical experiences that had led to her position in administration. Regarding her spiritual convictions and disciplines, she adamantly believed both affect her daily work and personal life. CCCU women administrators are deeply committed to their Christian higher education callings, highly educated, persistent, spiritually minded, and devoted to their families.
- Changes in Social Distance Among American Undergraduate Students Participating in a Study Abroad Program in China
- As the world becomes increasingly interdependent, mutual understanding becomes increasingly important. Therefore, it is essential that people strive for reductions in social distance on an international level. Study abroad is one of the ways to approach internationalization and promote understanding among different peoples and cultures. Prior research has been done on the degrees of social distance between people from different cultures; however, little research has been done regarding changes that cultural immersion produces among those who reside in different cultures. Studies about study abroad programs have focused on cultural sensitivity and adaptability, yet few have combined the study abroad experience with the perceptions of self and other cultural groups. This study presents a framework for understanding people through intercultural activities. It studied social distance and attitude changes brought about in social distance as an artifact of cultural immersion. The study took place both in China and in the United States. It focused on the social distance among American undergraduate students who participated in a China Study Abroad program sponsored by the University of North Texas. The study measured before and after social distance of a group of American students who studied abroad in China. The study abroad program itself was the intervention and lasted for three weeks. A mixed methods research design was used in the study. Social distance data were collected before and after students studied abroad in China. Both inferential statistics and descriptive statistics were used. Qualitative data were also collected and analyzed in the study. Most of the sample population were close to the Chinese people to begin with. Some participants positively changed their social distance and attitudes towards the Chinese people after the study abroad program, even though the changes were not statistically significant. This study merits replication among randomly selected samples. Study abroad programs should be promoted and supported. More research needs to be done that explores the quality of cultural immersion study abroad programs. Studies also need to be done to examine attitude changes among peoples in host countries.
- The Characteristics of Play Therapy Sessions with Children: A Preliminary Investigation
- This research study investigated various characteristics of children in play therapy and their play behaviors during sessions. Specifically, this research investigated how gender, age, ethnicity, household and presenting problem of children impacted the play therapy process. Thirty-two cases of children who received ten or more sessions of play therapy at the Child and Family Resource Clinic, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas between the years of 1998-2002 and met specified criteria were coded and entered into a computer spreadsheet for analysis. The background information provided by the parent/guardian of each child was analyzed using various measures of central tendency to summarize and describe the data sets. The session summary data completed by play therapists at the CFRC was examined using analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of variance. Analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of variance revealed statistical significance between the following variables: a) males and use of dolls (.01), animals (.007) and weapons (.014), and males and expression of happy (.048), confident (.042) curious (.007) and flat (.029) during play therapy sessions; b) young children and use of vehicles (.050) during play therapy sessions; c) Caucasian children and expression of happy (.011), and confident (.008) during play therapy sessions; d) children residing in single parent households and use of hammer (.049) and puppets (.048) during play therapy sessions; and e) a variety of presenting problems and toy use/play behavior, feelings expressed and themes played out during play therapy sessions. Frequency of toy use and emotional expression were also investigated as well as session peaks of toy use, emotions expressed and themes. Analysis revealed that the toys used most often during play therapy sessions included the following categories: sandbox, easel/paints, dolls, weapons, crafts and money. Feelings expressed most often in play therapy sessions included excited, pleased, focused, interested, proud, curious, frustrated and confident. Analysis also indicated a positive shift in the overall dynamics of play therapy sessions, as reported by play therapists, during sessions 9-13.
- Characteristics of play therapy students in training.
- This study examined if there were characteristic differences between play therapy students and non-play therapy students in training. Specifically, this study was designed to explore what, if any, characteristic differences between play therapy students and non-play therapy students in training exist in the following two areas: (a) personality variables, as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R) and (b) attitude toward children, and measured by the Barnett's Liking of Children Scale (BLOCS). Additionally, this study examined whether certain personality traits and the general attitude toward children for the play therapy student group correlated with the play therapy students' effectiveness ratings assigned to them by their play therapy supervisors. This study found statistically significant differences at the .05 alpha level between the play therapy (N=105) and non-play therapy students (N=79) in training in both the Extraversion personality trait on the NEO PI-R assessment and attitude toward children on the BLOCS. Non-play therapy students were in the High range for Extraversion, whereas play therapy students in training were in the Average range. According to this finding, play therapy students are less extraverted than non-play therapy students. Specifically, a statistically significant difference occurred on the Gregariousness scale of the Extraversion domain between the play therapy and non-play therapy group. Additionally, the play therapy student group scored a statistically significant higher mean total score on the BLOCS, indicating that play therapy students have a more favorable attitude toward children as compared to non-play therapy students in training. No other statistically significant results were indicated on the other personality scales of the NEO PI-R between the play therapy and non-play therapy students in training group. Statistical significance was found on the BLOCS total mean scores between play therapy students rated as "Highly Effective" and play therapy students rated as "Effective" by their play therapy supervisors. This result indicated that play therapists rated as highly effective had an overall more favorable attitude toward children then students rated as effective. Interestingly, the Conscientiousness personality domain was approaching statistical significance for the play therapists rated highly effective as compared to the play therapists that were rated effective. Furthermore, the results of this study quantitatively supported the personal characteristic qualities of play therapists as discussed by Axline (1969) and Landreth (2002).
- Chief student affairs officers in 4-year public institutions of higher education: An exploratory investigation into their conflict management styles and praxis
- This study investigated the conflict management styles of chief student affairs officers in 4-year public institutions of higher education in the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. The data for the study were collected using Hall's Conflict Management Survey. The sample for the study consisted of 25 chief student affairs officers. The purpose of the study was to identify the conflict management style preferences of chief student affairs officers. The other variables studied to ascertain if they had an impact on the style preferences were age, gender, number of years of experience as a chief student affairs officer, ethnicity, and the size (enrollment) of their employing institution. The study found statistically significant associations (p<.05) between ethnicity and conflict management style, specifically the synergistic and win-lose styles, and between the synergistic style and age. The association between ethnicity and conflict management style could be attributed to the fact that the Caucasian group of chief student affairs officers comprised 66.7 % of the synergistic styles and 100 % of the win-lose styles. The association between the synergistic style and age could be due to the fact that the majority of the chief student affairs officers had a synergistic style, and of that group, 66.7 % were in the 50-59 age range. No statistically significant associations were found for correlations between conflict management style and gender; conflict management styles and number of years of experience as a chief student affairs officer; or conflict management styles and size (enrollment) of their employing institutions. The lack of significance shows that there are no associations between the conflict management styles of chief student affairs officers stratified according to gender, number of years of experience, and size (enrollment) of their employing institutions.
- Child-Centered Group Play Therapy with Children Experiencing Adjustment Difficulties
- This research study investigated the effectiveness of child-centered group play therapy with children experiencing adjustment difficulties. Specifically, this study determined the effectiveness of child-centered group play therapy in: (a) improving self-concept, (b) reducing externalizing, internalizing, and overall behavior problems, (c) enhancing emotional and behavioral adjustment to the school environment, and (d) increasing self-control of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties. Also investigated were child-centered group play therapy effects on reducing parenting stress of the parents of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties. The experimental group consisted of 15 kindergarten children who received one 40-minute child-centered group play therapy session per week, for twelve weeks. Group facilitators were play therapists who were doctoral students at the University of North Texas. The control group consisted of the 14 kindergarten students that had been assigned to the control group in Baggerly's (1999) study. Before the group play therapy sessions began and after termination of the sessions: the researchers administered the Joseph Pre-School and Primary Self-Concept Screening Test; parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist-Parent Report, Self-Control Rating Scale, Filial Problem Checklist, and Parenting Stress Index; and teachers completed the Child Behavior Checklist-Teacher Report, Early Childhood Behavior Scale, and Self-Control Rating Scale. Although the general results of this study did not show statistically significant change due to child-centered group play therapy sessions, positive trends in the children's behavior, self-control, and self-concept were observed by the researcher, play therapists, and teachers. These trends and observations support the continued application of child-centered group play therapy with children experiencing adjustment difficulties. Several factors may have contributed to the lack of statistical significance demonstrated within this study. These factors include a) a small sample size; b) the sample was drawn from only one school; c) a minimum of interactions between therapists and teachers, and therapists and parents; d) two unforeseen and unfortunate events; and e) pre-existing strength and resilience of the children comprising the control group.
- Child-Centered Group Play Therapy with Children with Speech Difficulties
- The problem with which this investigation was concerned was that of determining the efficacy of child-centered group play therapy with pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children with speech difficulties as an intervention strategy for improving specific speech problems in the areas of articulation, receptive language, and expressive language. A second purpose was that of determining the efficacy of child-centered group play therapy in improving self-esteem, positive social interaction, and in decreasing anxiety and withdrawal behaviors among pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children with speech difficulties. The experimental group consisted of 11 children who received 25 group play therapy sessions one time a week in addition to their directive speech therapy sessions. The comparison group consisted of 10 children who received only their directive speech therapy sessions. The Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised, and the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals - 3 were used to measure receptive and expressive language skills. The Burks' Behavior Rating Scale was used to measure symptoms of anxiety, withdrawal, poor self-esteem, and poor social skills as observed by parents and teachers. Twelve hypotheses were tested using ANCOVA and Eta Squared. Child-centered group play therapy was shown to have a large practical significance in helping children improve their expressive language skills. Child-centered group play therapy was shown to have a medium practical significance in increasing children's receptive language skills. Small sample size may have contributed to the lack of statistical significance as calculated by the analysis of covariance. Child-centered group play therapy was shown to have a small yet positive impact upon children's articulation skills and anxiety. Although not significant at the .05 level, these results indicate a slightly larger increase in articulation skills and a slightly larger decrease in symptoms of anxiety among those children who received group play therapy as compared to those who did not. Child-centered group play therapy was shown to have a mixed effect upon children's self-esteem, withdrawal behaviors, and positive social interactions. This study supports the use of child-centered group play therapy as an effective intervention strategy for children with speech difficulties to improve expressive and receptive language skill development.
- Christian Higher Education at Dallas Theological Seminary: An Assessment of Doctor of Ministry Programs
- This study involved non-experimental research to identify alumni perceptions of the strengths and weaknesses of the Doctor of Ministry degree program at Dallas Theological Seminary. An international survey was conducted to collect data from 165 Doctor of Ministry degree holders from Dallas Theological Seminary; 131 usable questionnaires were returned. A response rate of 79.4 percent was achieved. The intent of the study was to ascertain (a) the extent to which D.Min. alumni perceive that the objectives and goals of Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary are being met, (b) alumni-perceived strengths of Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary, (c) alumni-perceived weaknesses of Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary, (d) compare the findings of this case study assessment with a 1987 national study of Doctor of Ministry programs, and (e) make recommendations for the improvement of D. Min programs at Dallas Theological Seminary. The pattern that emerged from the data indicates that the D.Min. alumni believe objectives and goals of the Doctor of Ministry program at Dallas Theological Seminary are being met. In the opinion of the alumni, Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary has its strengths. The overall opinion of the D.Min. faculty and curriculum are strong indicators of its strength. The D.Min. program has had a positive impact on the lives of its alumni and on their ministries. In the opinion of the alumni, Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary also has its weaknesses. A casual comparison of the findings of this case study assessment with a similar 1987 national study of Doctor of Ministry programs revealed more similarities than differences. The alumni provided a number of suggestions to be implemented into the Doctor of Ministry curriculum, structure, faculty, administration, overall image of the program, its purpose and objectives.
- Christian Liberal Arts Higher Education in Russia: A Case Study of the Russian-American Christian University
- This is a case study of the historical development of a private Christian faith-based school of higher education in post-Soviet Russia from its conception in 1990 until 2006. This bi-national school was founded as the Russian-American Christian University (RACU) in 1996. In 2003, RACU was accredited by the Russian Ministry of Education under the name Russko-Americansky Christiansky Institute. RACU offers two state-accredited undergraduate academic programs: 1) business and economics, and 2) social work. RACU also offers a major in English language and literature. The academic model of RACU was designed according to the traditional American Christian liberal arts model and adapted to Russian higher education system. The study documents the founding, vision, and growth of RACU. It provides insight into the academic, organizational, and campus life of RACU. The study led to the creation of an operational framework of the historical development of RACU. The study also provides recommendations for the development of new Christian liberal arts colleges and universities based on the experience and the underlying structure of RACU.
- Clinical and educational efficacy of a university-based biofeedback therapy clinic.
- This study is a qualitative analysis and a quantitative analysis of all peripheral biofeedback client data files of the University of North Texas Biofeedback Research and Training Laboratory since its establishment in 1991 and through the year of 2002. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical and educational efficacy of the BRTL. Clients' electromyography and temperature measures, self-report of homework relaxation exercises and progress, and the pre- and post-Stress Signal Checklist were reviewed and analyzed. In regard to clinical efficacy, results indicate statistically significant changes in both temperature training and muscle tension training as a whole group. When divided into subtypes based on the clients' primary presenting problem, findings indicate statistical significance in chronic pain, tension headache, and temporomandibular jaw pain on temperature training, and show statistical significance in chronic pain, tension headache, hypertension, migraine headache, stress, and temporomandibular jaw pain on muscle tension training. When analyzing the Stress Signal Checklist, only 25% of clients had complete information on both pre- and post-Stress Signal Checklist. For these 25%, 87.5% reported symptoms decreased. When reviewing the clients' self-reported progress in therapist's session notes, there is no procedure for computing a treatment success to failure ratio due to the inconsistency of therapists in recording clients' statements. This study also identifies three basic biofeedback learning curves that show how people learn self-regulation skills in biofeedback therapy: 1) steady state and trainable (low variability), 2) phasic state and trainable (high variability), and 3) phasic state and low trainable (high variability).
- Community college faculty knowledge of legal issues and students with disabilities: A case study.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent of Prince George's Community College faculty knowledge of the legal issues, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, The Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, and recent court decisions, related to the provision of classroom accommodations for students with disabilities at the postsecondary level. The focus of the study was to determine if a difference existed between the knowledge of full-time and part-time faculty. Part-time faculty comprise over 50 % of the instructional staffs at most community colleges and are considered an integral part of their institutions, yet they are offered little opportunity for professional development. The variables of gender, department affiliation, teaching at more than one institution, number of years of teaching experience, number of students taught with a disability, and number of individuals known with a disability also were reviewed. Data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to 158 faculty members at the college. Twenty-nine packets were returned as undeliverable. Of the 129 deliverable packets, 57 were returned for a response rate of 44.2%. Results from the analysis of data indicated that faculty have very limited knowledge of the legal issues concerning students with disabilities. Only 26.9% of respondents scored at an acceptable level of knowledge. Additional analysis suggested no relationship existed between faculty knowledge and gender, faculty status (full-time and part-time), department affiliation, teaching at more than one institution, number of years of teaching experience, or number of individuals known with a disability. A relationship was found at the p < .05 level of significant between faculty knowledge and number of students taught with a disability. Faculty who scored in the acceptable range had a mean score of 24 or more students taught with a disability. Faculty scoring in the unacceptable range had a mean score of 11 students taught with a disability.
- Comparison of 2-year and 4-year telecommunications technicians' training programs against the industry standards
- The study focused on the academic programs offered for telecommunications technicians provided by 16 two-year and four-year higher education institutions and the ways in which the programs compared to the established telecommunications technicians' skill standards. Six specific research questions concerned the training programs for telecommunications technicians. The first verified the validity of the information in Peterson's 2000: 2 Year Colleges and Peterson's 2000: 4 Year Colleges identifying the institutions offering a communication equipment technology major. The second question focused on the institutions that included telecommunications as part of the curriculum. The third identified the importance of the skill standards to the 2-year and 4-year training programs, and the fourth identified the job functions that were included in or excluded from the training. The fifth question identified the job tasks that were included in or excluded from the training. The final question determined whether the 2-year or the 4-year telecommunications technicians' training program was more closely aligned with the skill standards. In order to accomplish the objectives of this research, a survey methodology was selected. The survey instrument was developed to compare the importance of the telecommunications technicians' skill standards to the 2-year and the 4-year training programs. The skill standards identified in the 1997 collaborative effort facilitated by the South King County Tech Prep Consortium (SKCTPC) was used as the basis for the survey instrument and reference tool. The reference tool provided additional information regarding SCANS skills and personal qualities that were identified in the skill standards for the telecommunications network technician. The survey included five job functions and 16 tasks. The evolution the telecommunications industry has created a demand for a highly skilled, flexible workforce. Higher education institutions have an opportunity to make a contribution to telecommunications industry by expanding existing training programs or initiating telecommunications technicians' training programs. The 4-year institutions should consider revising not only the curriculum but also their mission and goals. The 2-year institutions are closely aligned with the skill standards, and this is an opportunity for the 2-year institutions to update existing programs.
- A comparison of individual supervision and triadic supervision.
- This study was designed to measure and compare individual supervision to triadic supervision in promoting counselor effectiveness and counselor development. During individual supervision, one counselor met with one supervisor for an hour. Two models of triadic supervision were created for this study: Split Focus and Single Focus. Triadic consists of two supervisees and one supervisor meeting for one hour. During the Split Focus, 30 minutes was allocated to each counselor for supervision. During the Single Focus, the whole hour was spent supervising only one of the counselors. The next week, the whole hour was spent supervising the other counselor. Three comparison groups were employed to determine the effectiveness of the three supervision models. An instrument was used to evaluate counselor effectiveness and another instrument was used to evaluate counselor development. 47 masters-level counseling students enrolled in practicum participated in this study. The practicum met for 16 weeks. Each counselor filled out a Supervisee Levels Questionnaire-Revised at the beginning (pre-test) and at the end (post-test) of the semester. This instrument determined the counselor's developmental growth. Each counselor submitted a tape of a counseling session at the beginning (pre-tape) and at the end (post-tape) of the semester. The tape was rated on-site by the doctoral supervisor utilizing the Counselor Rating Form-Short. An objective rater also rated the submitted tapes utilizing the same instrument. The instrument determines counselor effectiveness. At the end of the study, an Analysis of Covariance determined that the three supervision models did differ in developmental growth. The Split Focus grew significantly compared to Single Focus and compared to Individual supervision. However, the Single Focus grew significantly on the factor self and other awareness compared to Individual. In terms of effectiveness, an Analysis of Covariance determined that the three supervision models did not differ significantly.
- A comparison of moral reasoning and moral orientation of American and Turkish university students.
- This study compares American and Turkish male and female university students in terms of moral orientation (justice and care) and Kohlberg's stages of moral reasoning to examine the influence of culture and gender on moral development. A total of 324 undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 46 are administered the Defining Issues Test (DIT) and the Measure of Moral Orientation (MMO). Statistical analyses indicate Turkish participants reflect more postconventional reasoning, while American participants reflect more conventional reasoning, particularly Stage 4 reasoning. Analyses also reveal Turkish participants reflect significantly more care orientation and more justice orientation compared to American participants. These findings are discussed in terms of cultural and gender influences in moral decision-making.
- A Comparison of Skill Level of Parents Trained in the Landreth Filial Therapy Model and Graduate Students Trained in Play Therapy
- The purpose of this study was to determine if parents trained in the Landreth Filial Therapy Model could demonstrate child-centered play therapy skills as effectively as graduate play therapy students who completed an Introduction to Play Therapy course. The participants in both the parent group and the graduate student group were videotaped in play sessions with children pre- and post-training in order to measure change in adult empathic behavior as defined on the Measurement of Empathy in Adult-Child Interaction (MEACI). The specific skills measured in this study were (a) communicating acceptance to the child, (b) allowing the child to direct his or her own play during the play sessions, (c) demonstrating appropriate levels of involvement in the child's play, and (d) demonstrating empathic behavior toward the child. The Landreth Filial Therapy Model is a training system that utilizes both didactic and dynamic means to train parents and other paraprofessionals to be therapeutic agents of change with children. Parents are taught child-centered play therapy skills to use in weekly home play sessions with their children in order to strengthen the emotional bond between parent and child. The Introduction to Play Therapy course is a graduate-level counseling course at the University of North Texas taught by Dr. Garry Landreth. The course focuses on the philosophy, theory, and skills of child-centered play therapy. Students enrolled in this course typically plan to use play therapy in professional settings. The filial-trained parent group (n = 21) consisted of the experimental group of single parents from Bratton and Landreth's (1995) study, Filial Therapy with Single Parents, Effects of Parental Acceptance, Empathy and Stress. The parents met for weekly 2-hour filial therapy sessions over the course of 10 weeks and conducted six or seven 30-minute play sessions at home with their child-of-focus. The graduate student group (n = 13) was enrolled in Dr. Landreth's Introduction to Play Therapy course during fall 2000. The class met over a course of a 15-week semester for three hours per week. During the course of the semester, the students completed two play therapy sessions outside of class and two supervised play therapy sessions during class time. Analysis of covariance revealed that the play therapy-trained graduate students preformed at a statistically significant higher skill level than the filial-trained parents on Total Empathy scores and the Involvement subscale, but that there was no statistically significant difference between the groups' skill level on Communication of Acceptance to the child and Allowing the Child Self-Direction. Although the graduate students' mean post-training scores revealed a higher attainment of skill level, the parents made greater mean change of score on all measures except Involvement. The study supports the use of the Landreth Filial Therapy Model to train parents to use the child-centered play therapy skills, especially those of communicating acceptance and allowing self-direction.
- A Comparison of the Cognitive Style Similarity and Communication Style Adjustment Index Methods to Study Counseling Supervision Performance
- This study was designed to examine two questions. First, does increasing Myers-Briggs Type similarity correlate with improved performance by counselor supervisor/supervisee dyads? Second, is the Communication Style Adjustment Index superior to the cognitive style scale matching procedure as a method of quantifying MBTI similarity in dyads? Sixty-eight supervisor/supervisee dyads were recruited from University of North Texas Counselor Education Master's level practicum classes. Supervisee class rankings and supervisor performance ratings were correlated with the dyads' MBTI similarity as measured by the Communication Style Adjustment Index and the cognitive style matching procedure. While none of the hypotheses were supported it was noted that there was interaction approaching significance between dyadic similarity using the Communication Style Adjustment Index and supervisor performance ratings.
- A Comparison of the Leadership Styles Of Occupational Therapy Education Program Directors and Clinic Administrators
- Are there differences in leadership styles among occupational therapy clinic administrators and program directors in professional and technical education programs? This study investigated transformational and transactional leadership behaviors and effectiveness as measured by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5x-Short behaviors and demographic characteristics of leaders and their organizations using a questionnaire designed by the researcher. MLQ Leader Forms were received from 50 clinic administrators randomly selected from the membership list of the Administration and Management Special Interest Section (AMSIS) of the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA), 56 professional program directors, and 41 technical program directors from accredited occupational therapy education programs in the United States, for a total of 147 leader respondents. Rater forms were received from 2 to 5 occupational therapy staff or faculty per leader and average scores calculated. More than 86% of leader respondents were female and white. Major findings indicate that administrative positions indifferent institutional contexts relate to leadership behaviors and effectiveness. Technical education program directors and clinic administrators scored higher on transformational behaviors and effectiveness than professional education program directors. Consistent with other research on leadership, the self-ratings of leaders were higher than ratings of subordinates. The data indicated statistically significant positive correlations between transformational leadership behaviors and perceived effectiveness, a frequent finding in the literature. With the exception of Contingent Reward (CR), all transactional behaviors had a negative correlation with effectiveness. No significant relationships were found between transformational behaviors and leader’s gender or ethnicity, but males scored higher than females on the transactional behavior Management by Exception-Passive (MEP) and Laissez-Faire (LF). Some transformational behaviors were related to the leader’s age and years of experience in academia, but relationships were not linear. Highest level of education was related to leadership effectiveness. No significant relationships were found between leadership behaviors and demographic characteristics of the institution (e.g. size, public or private). Differences in leadership styles among the three groups of leaders may be attributed to differences in organizational culture and raises additional research questions on transformational leadership and measures of effectiveness in the university culture. The findings suggest the need for education and training in transformational leadership during this era of rapid change in occupational therapy practice and education.
- A Comparison Study of the Experiences of Educators and Non-Educators in Promoting Reading and Reading Related Skills of their Own Preschool Children
- The rationale for this study was to evaluate the home literacy environments of educators and non-educators to investigate whether educators provide "richer" home environments than non-educator mothers. This research explores the mothers' perceptions of their children, views of reading, methods of promoting a positive reading environment, dealing with personal demands and emotions, and their expectations related to promoting reading. The participants in the study are 2 elementary school teachers with preschool children and 2 non-educator mothers with preschool children. Results indicated that being an educator is not an isolated characteristic of providing a rich home environment. The educational attainment of the mother was discovered to have greater influence on home literacy environment than the mother's profession. Higher educated mothers provided richer home environments than their less educated counterparts.
- Contributions of W. A. Criswell to the establishment and development of The Criswell College.
- This study researched the role of W. A. Criswell as Chancellor of The Criswell College and his involvement in the areas of development, facilities acquisitions, personnel, and academics. This qualitative historical research was taken from Criswell's personal files from 1968 through 2001. W. A. Criswell gave written approval for this review and publication in November 2001. Included in Criswell's files were primary and secondary sources including copies of letters, board meeting minutes, personal notes, catalogs, newspaper articles, sermons, speeches, and other printed forms of communication. All documents pertaining to Criswell's involvement in these four categories were copied and the documents organized in chronological order, by the decade of the 1970s, the 1980s, and 1990s. Primary sources also included personal interviews and telephone interviews with eyewitnesses who were present at the events described, and board meeting minutes. Secondary sources included newspaper articles, magazine articles, national Christian magazines, and journals. Findings were summarized, evaluated and the following research questions answered (1) What was the purpose for establishing a Christian institution of higher education sponsored by First Baptist Church in Dallas, Texas? (2) What was the rationale for establishing a Christian institution of higher education in an area where a high density of Christian colleges already existed? (3) What was Chancellor Criswell's vision for a Christian institution of higher education in its infancy? (4) Do alumni survey results in 1999 reflect the vision Criswell had for The Criswell College? (5) How did Chancellor Criswell develop endowment for The Criswell College? (6) What involvement did Chancellor Criswell have in the acquisition of physical facilities for The Criswell College? (7) What influence did Chancellor Criswell have over the curriculum development process in the history of The Criswell College? (8) Were there changes in the gender and diversity make-up of student enrollment at The Criswell College during Criswell's tenure as chancellor? Conclusions were that Criswell significantly influenced the education of the next generation of Christian leaders.
- Coping Styles, Quality of Life, and Sexual Trauma in Women Veterans
- The purpose of the following study was to evaluate sexual trauma and the effects on women veteran's quality of life ratings and current and past coping strategies. Participants were screened for sexual trauma history and divided into five mutually exclusive categories: 1)childhood sexual trauma, 2)civilian adult sexual trauma, 3)military sexual trauma, 4)multiple sexual trauma, and 5)no sexual trauma. Results of the study were mixed, retaining some hypotheses and rejecting others. Results regarding differences in QOL for the sexual trauma groups were rejected, as none of the QOL analyses were significant. Issues of small effect size for the QOL measure and low power to detect differences are discussed as limitations in the current study. Several significant findings were detected in the coping analyses. As predicted, the no trauma group was found to use significantly more approach coping strategies than the sexual trauma group for the past problem. Additionally, the sexual trauma group used significantly more avoidant coping techniques for past problem than the no trauma group. No between group differences were detected for sexual trauma type, however, several significant differences emerged in the comparisons of the multiple sexual trauma and military sexual trauma group's past coping compared to the no sexual trauma group's coping strategies. For past coping, the no trauma group used more approach strategies than the military or multiple trauma group. Past and current significant CRI subscale differences were also detected. Results regarding the relationship between QOL and CRI were rejected, as the two scales were not found to correlate significantly. Trauma history and avoidant coping were also nonsignificant predictors for General Life Satisfaction on the QOL measure. Additional exploratory analyses are presented as well as implications for research, theory and clinical practice.
- The correlation between a general critical thinking skills test and a discipline specific critical thinking test for associate degree nursing students
- In 1997, NLNAC added critical thinking as a required outcome for accreditation of associate degree nursing (ADN) programs. Until recently general critical thinking tests were the only available standardized critical thinking assessment tools. The emphasis has shifted to discipline specific tools. This concurrent validity study explored the correlation between two critical thinking tests, a general skills test, the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) and a discipline specific test, the Arnett Critical Thinking Outcome Evaluation (CTOE). Both tests are based on the same definition of critical thinking. The CCTST, developed in 1990, covers discipline neutral content in multiple choice items. The CTOE, a free entry, written response test developed in 1998, assesses critical thinking in nursing situations using a partial credit model. A convenience sample of 434 sophomore ADN students from 9 programs in Texas completed the demographic survey and critical thinking tests in 1999. The sample was 87.9% female and 74.2% Caucasian, with a mean age of 31, mean GPA of 3.13, mean 3.7 years healthcare employment experience, mean CCTST score of 15.0023 and mean CTOE of 82.69. The sample also included 22.4% current LVNs, 15.7% with prior degrees and 53.5% in the first generation of their family to go to college. With Pearson correlation, three of four hypotheses concerning correlation between CCTST and CTOE scores were accepted, showing weak but significant correlation. GPA positively correlated but healthcare employment experience, first generation and minority status negatively correlated with CCTST scores. GPA correlated positively with CTOE scores. Stepwise multiple linear regression with CCTST scores retained GPA, healthcare employment experience, prior degree, and first generation in college status. The significant, positive correlation between CCTST and CTOE scores was weaker than expected. This may be due to the different formats of the tools, or a fundamental difference between a general critical thinking skills test and a discipline specific tool. Critical thinking is highly contextually sensitive and disciplines emphasize skills differently. Both tests may be useful in a critical thinking assessment program since they measure different aspects and contribute to a composite picture of critical thinking. Research should continue on discipline specific tools.
- Counseling Students' Technological Competence
- Technology has a profound influence on how business, education, entertainment, and interpersonal communications are conducted. Mental health professionals have been exploring how technology can support and enhance client care since the 1960s. In the last decade the influence of technology in the practice of counseling has increased dramatically. As the use of technology increased, so did the expectations for counselor preparation programs to include technology instruction. In 1999, the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) developed the Technical Competencies for Counselor Education Students: Recommended Guidelines for Program Development. This study examines the technological competence of counseling students at one southwestern university based on the ACES recommendations.
- Counselor Effectiveness and Correlations With Select Demographic Variables for Masters Level Counseling Students
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Counselor education programs are charged with the responsibility to train students to be effective counselors. Despite relative consistency in academic and clinical experiences, some students are less effective than others. It was the intent of this research to investigate possible relationships which may exist between students' background and experiences and their levels of demonstrated counselor effectiveness as measured by the Counselor Rating Form - Short Version (CRF-S) and the Supervisor Rated-Counselor Interaction Analysis (SR-CIA). It was hypothesized that counselor effectiveness would be negatively correlated with prior teaching experience and level of religious participation. Data was collected using a demographic survey from masters level counseling students participating in their practicum semester. Counseling tapes from each of the participants were collected towards the end of the semester. These tapes were then rated by doctoral students using the CRF-S and the SR-CIA. The total sample size was 28. Regression analysis was used to investigate the hypotheses. Three models were constructed. The dependent variables used were scores from the CRF-S, the SR-CIA and a third comprised of a normalized composite of CRF-S and SR-CIA termed COMPOSITE. Each model used, as the independent variables, years of teaching experience, and hours of religious participation. Results from regression analysis suggested that a negative correlation existed between counseling effectiveness and years of teaching experience and a positive correlation between counselor effectiveness and hours of religious participation. Statistically significant results were not achieved for any of the models tested. Further investigation was conducted using effect size analysis. Small to medium effect sizes were achieved, however, suggesting that the models were detecting a negative correlation between counselor effectiveness and years of teaching experience, and a positive correlation between hours of religious participation and counselor effectiveness.
- Cross-Cultural Adaptability of Texas Dental Hygienists and Dental Hygiene Students: A Preliminary Study
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This causal-comparative and correlational study examined cross-cultural adaptability of randomly selected licensed dental hygienists, 1995-2005 graduates, practicing in the state of Texas and first and second-year dental hygiene students attending 5 randomly selected accredited 2 and 4-year dental hygiene schools in the state of Texas. A sample of 289 individuals: 194 enrolled students and 95 licensed dental hygienists, alumni of the 5 schools, completed the 50-item Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory (CCAI ®) and a brief demographic survey. The purpose of this study was to determine if statistically significant differences existed among and between licensed dental hygienists and first and second-year dental hygiene students in the state of Texas on a cross-cultural adaptability measure. The study also examined relationships among and between cross-cultural adaptability scores, as measured by the CCAI, and several independent variables. The data were analyzed by using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS 12). Eight hypotheses related to group differences and relationships among and between groups and variables were tested. The groups were compared on total CCAI scores using a t-test, and on subscale CCAI scores simultaneously using a descriptive discriminant analysis (DDA). A 3X2 MANOVA was used to compare all groups simultaneously on subscale CCAI scores. The sample was also analyzed for statistically significant differences among 3 levels of ethnicity and total CCAI scores using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Lastly, various Pearson correlation analyses were conducted to determine relationships among and between the 3 independent variables mentioned above and total and subscale CCAI scores. The results revealed no statistically significant differences among the various groups and CCAI scores. A statistically significant relationship (r = .148) was found between age and 1 of the 4 CCAI subscale scores, flexibility/openness. No other statistically significant relationships were found. The study concluded that number of years for degree, level of practice, ethnicity, and years employed may not play a significant role in enhancing cross-cultural adaptability. Further research needs to be conducted to determine differences and relationships between and among various dental hygiene groups and their cross-cultural adaptability performance.
- Culture and Anxiety: a Cross-Cultural Study
- By measuring interactions among and between anxiety and the independent variables of country of origin, gender, level of education, and age, this study attempted to gain insight into how students from different countries experience anxiety on a U.S. college campus. Results of the Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and the univariate test(ANOVA) indicated that the gender and level of education of the subjects made no significant difference. However, when it came to country of origin, there were significant differences between two of the cultural groups and respective anxiety level. Findings also support a positive correlation between age and anxiety levels, with the youngest participants having the lowest anxiety levels.
- Decision making factors in child caregiver reporting of child abuse and neglect
- This study investigated decision making factors used by child caregivers to identify suspected child abuse and neglect and collected data on caregiver training in the recognition and reporting of suspected child abuse and neglect. Data was collected in July 1999 in fourteen north Texas childcare programs. One hundred twenty three teaching and administrative staff completed a survey based on Jacobson, A., Glass, J. and Ruggiere, P. (1998). Five teachers and five administrators chosen for convenience were read eleven vignettes describing possibly abusive situations to decide whether they were reportable or non-reportable, and to indicate factors used to make their decisions. Administrators (50%) and teachers (13.3%) reported being unfamiliar with child abuse and neglect definitions and reporting laws. Two thirds (66.7%) of the administrators and 39.8% of the teachers had received specific training in recognizing and reporting child abuse and neglect. Administrators were more likely than teachers to report suspected child abuse and neglect. Teachers often reported to program administrators rather than state designated authorities. All subjects relied on information about children, but administrators also used information about parents, with teachers more likely to make excuses for parental actions. With 110 reporting opportunities, training was cited as a factor only twice by administrators. No teachers made reports to anyone other than program administrators, a factor named deference in this study. Four of five administrators expected deference from teachers when reporting decisions were made. Present training in the recognition and reporting of suspected child abuse and neglect is inadequate. Caregivers need additional training in differences between accidental and intentional injuries, detection of child sexual abuse and emotional neglect, recognition and assessment of injuries among infants and toddlers, and mandated reporting procedures. Further research on optimal training for accurate reporting of suspected abuse and neglect is needed. A mandate to report to authorities outside the child care center should be clarified in state law. Licensing individuals as well as programs would strengthen reporting by caregivers.
- Depression, anxiety, self-esteem, and coping in children and adolescents newly diagnosed with cancer and children and adolescents on cancer treatment for a period of seven months or longer
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Differences in self-reported depression, anxiety, self-esteem, and coping were evaluated in two groups of pediatric oncology patients: newly diagnosed (less than six months post-diagnosis) (n=5) and patients on cancer treatment for seven months or longer (n=5). Participants (6 males, 4 females, ages 7-17 years) completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), and the Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory (CFSEI-2); nine of the ten participants discussed in a semi-structured interview their personal experiences and feelings about having cancer. Although the newly diagnosed group had a higher mean score on the CDI than the 7 months or greater group, the difference was not significant (p = .054). The newly diagnosed group also had higher mean state and trait anxiety scores on the STAIC, indicating higher anxiety levels, and a slightly lower CFSEI-2 mean score, indicating slightly lower self-esteem than the 7 months or greater group, but differences were not at a statistically significant level (p>.05).
- Descriptive Analysis of the Association for the Study of Higher Education Dissertation of the Year Award Winning Dissertation and Recipients, 1979 - 2004
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This mixed-methodology study examined a set of award winning dissertations to determine what factors may have led to their receiving recognition by the Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE). The study addressed seven specific research questions which were answered via two different research designs: 1) a survey administered to the 27 recipients of the dissertation award, and 2) through the qualitative assessment of a sample of the winning dissertations. The quantitative survey was distributed to recipients of the Association for the Study of Higher Education Dissertation of the Year award from 1979 through 2004. The survey collected specific information on the personal attributes and characteristics of the award recipients, descriptive information about the award winning dissertations, information concerning the quality of the winner's doctoral experiences, the quality of their relationship with their dissertations advisors and the progression of their careers after winning the award. The qualitative assessment involved applying a set of evaluative questions provided by Gall, Gall and Borg to describe a sample of the award winning documents. The results indicated that recipients of the ASHE award were not representative of education doctoral students as indicated by 2004 data. The results of the study also indicated that, as a group, these dissertations winners were full-time doctoral students, likely recipients of some form of financial assistance (assistantship and fellowships) and were able to complete their dissertations and degrees in substantially less time than typical education doctoral students. The findings also suggest that Gall, Gall and Borg's procedure for evaluating educational research can be used to assess doctoral dissertations.
- A descriptive study of accredited counseling programs.
- The Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Education Programs (CACREP) is the accrediting body for the field of counselor education. Since the inception of the standards, several individuals have published journal articles reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of CACREP accreditation. The purpose of this study was to do a preliminary survey of the opinions of individuals within CACREP accredited programs to discover the effects of accreditation on programs. The survey of opinions from respondent CACREP accredited programs indicated interesting results. The eleven frequently held beliefs about improvements after accreditation was substantiated by the number, the percentage, and the Chi Square results from respondent programs. Therefore, after CACREP accreditation, most programs reported the opinion that: students have higher grade point averages and test scores; students are younger, learn better, and receive more employment opportunities; a higher percentage of students pass the licensed professional counselor examination; average scores are higher on the nationally certified counselor examination; programs receive more applicants and faculty is more professionally active, publishes more, and presents more. The second part of the survey indicated that a large percentage of respondent programs offer courses beyond the CACREP core curriculum experiences (91%) and that a variety of courses are offered (78 courses). In addition, 91 respondent programs indicated that courses are required beyond the CACREP core curriculum experiences and that a variety of courses are required (29 courses). Three primary limitations exist in this study. First, the eleven frequently held beliefs were marked by the opinion of one faculty member for each program. Second, the number of blanks for each item was frequently close to or sometimes exceeded the number of respondents who marked the after CACREP column. Third, the survey data collected on courses that were offered by programs beyond the core were based upon memory and/or opinion and may be inaccurate. A recommendation for future research would be to study the hard data collected prior to and after accreditation.
- A descriptive study of students who were accepted for admission at West Texas A&M University but did not enroll
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Each year, institutions of higher education devote valuable financial and personnel resources in the hope of enhancing student recruitment and matriculation. The purpose of this study was to examine the demographic characteristics, the factors that influenced students decisions to apply for admission to a university, their educational intentions, and their reasons for not enrolling after they had been admitted. The subjects of the study were first-time freshmen accepted for admission to a mid-size, public, southwestern university who did not enroll for the fall 1997 semester. Statistically significant differences were found when comparing no-shows and enrolled students by gender, ethnicity, age, ACT/SAT score, and distance of their hometown from the university. There were more female no-shows, and more males enrolled than females; a greater percentage of no-shows reported the distance of their hometown to be more than 200 miles; and the mean test score for no-shows was higher. Factors important in the college selection process found to be statistically significant among the groups were: a greater percentage of Minorities than Caucasians reported the importance of the financial aid award or a scholarship offer; students living within 100 miles of the campus reported the proximity of the university as important, advice received from current or former students and high school counselors was more important to those living more than 100 miles from the campus. Cost of attendance and scholarships were important to students with the higher test scores. Statistically significant reasons cited by the no-shows for not enrolling were more Minorities than Caucasians reported financial difficulties and job demands; students living farther from the campus reported attending other universities while those living within 100 miles reported attending a community college. Recommendations the university studied could pursue include: developing a program to follow-up on the no-shows, directing more energy at recruiting students living within 200 miles of the university, and increasing the availability of scholarships.
- Determining the relationship between motivation and academic outcomes among students in the health professions.
- Admissions processes for health professions programs result in students entering these programs academically homogeneous. Yet some students have great difficulty with the programs. Research has shown a limited ability of traditional academic indicators to predict successful outcomes for health professions education. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between learning motivation and academic outcomes for students in health professions programs. The Modified Archer Health Professions Motivation Scale (MAHPMS) and a demographic survey were administered at orientation to 131 medical and 29 physician assistant students at the University of North Texas Health Science Center in the fall of 2005. At the end of the semester, the same version of the MAHPMS was administered, and final course grades and semester averages were collected. Descriptive statistics were analyzed for all the study variables. Analysis of variance was utilized to examine within subjects and between subjects differences for the learning motivation scores among programs and demographic categories. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between learning motivation scores and end-of-semester grades. And finally, logistic regression was performed to explore the ability of the motivation scores to predict academically high-risk students. Approximately three-fourths of the students indicated a preference for mastery learning and an internal locus of control. For the PA students, alienation to learning and performance goal scores statistically related to semester grades, and alienation to learning scores predicted high-risk academic performance almost 90% of the time. For the medical students, mastery goal scores statistically related to semester grades, but no motivation score predicted high-risk performance. External locus of control scores predicted high-risk performance 81% of the time for the total group of students at the end of the semester. Students in this study exhibited learning motivation preferences similar to those of other health professions students reported in the literature. The findings of this study agreed with the literature on achievement motivation theory and raised questions regarding the effect of health professions curricula on student learning goals. Similar studies, measuring larger samples longitudinally need to be conducted in order to further validate or elucidate the results of this study.
- Development of a Trauma Play Scale: An Observation-Based Assessment of the Impact of Trauma on the Play Therapy Behaviors of Young Children