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 Serial/Series Title: Synthesis and Assessment Product
Decision-Support Experiments and Evaluations using Seasonal-to-Interannual Forecasts and Observational Data: A Focus on Water Resources

Decision-Support Experiments and Evaluations using Seasonal-to-Interannual Forecasts and Observational Data: A Focus on Water Resources

Date: January 2009
Creator: Beller-Simms, Nancy
Description: This Synthesis and Assessment Product focuses on the connection between the scientific ability to predict climate on seasonal scales and the opportunity to incorporate such understanding into water resource management decisions. It directly addresses decision support experiments and evaluations that have used seasonal-to-interannual forecasts and observational data, and is expected to inform (1) decision makers about the relative success of experiences of others who have experimented with these forecasts and data in resource management; (2) climatologists, hydrologists, and social scientists on how to advance the delivery of decision-support resources that use the most recent forecast products, methodologies, and tools; and (3) science and resource managers as they plan for future investments in research related to forecasts and their role in decision support. It is important to note, however, that while the focus of this Product is on the water resources management sector, the findings within this Synthesis and Assessment Product may be directly transferred to other sectors.
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The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity in the United States

The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity in the United States

Date: May 2008
Creator: U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research.
Description: This document is a part of the Synthesis and Assessment Products described in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program Strategic Plan. The report describes how climate affects the design, construction, safety, operations, and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and systems. The prospect of a changing climate raises critical questions regarding how alterations in temperature, precipitation, storm events, and other aspects of the climate could affect the nation's roads, airports, rail, transit systems, pipelines, ports, and waterways. Phase I of this regional assessment of climate change and its potential impacts on transportation systems addresses these questions for the region of the U.S. central Gulf Coast between Galveston, Texas and Mobile, Alabama.
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Effects of Climate Change on Energy Production and Use in the United States

Effects of Climate Change on Energy Production and Use in the United States

Date: February 2008
Creator: U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research
Description: This document, part of the Synthesis and Assessment Products described in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Strategic Plan. Climate affects the design, construction, safety, operations, and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and systems. The prospect of a changing climate raises critical questions regarding how alterations in temperature, precipitation, storm events, and other aspects of the climate could affect the nation's roads, airports, rail, transit systems, pipelines, ports, and waterways. Phase I of this regional assessment of climate change and its potential impacts on transportation systems addresses these questions for the region of the U.S. central Gulf Coast between Galveston, Texas and Mobile, Alabama. This region contains multimodal transportation infrastructure that is critical to regional and national transportation services. Historical trends and future climate scenarios were used to establish a context for examining the potential effects of climate change on all major transportation modes within the region. Climate changes anticipated during the next 50 to 100 years for the central Gulf Coast include warming temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, and increased storm intensity. The warming of the oceans and decline of polar ice sheets is expected to accelerate the rate of sea level rise globally. The effects of sea level ...
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Findings of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Report 2.2: The First State of the Carbon Cycle Report: North American Carbon Budget and Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle

Findings of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Report 2.2: The First State of the Carbon Cycle Report: North American Carbon Budget and Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle

Date: 2007
Creator: U.S. Global Change Research Program
Description: This brochure describes sources of carbon emissions in North America, and ways to remove those emissions from the atmosphere.
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Human Health and Welfare and Climate Change: Summary and Findings of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program

Human Health and Welfare and Climate Change: Summary and Findings of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program

Date: 2008
Creator: U.S. Global Change Research Program
Description: This brochure summarizes a report of the same title. It describes the likely impacts of climate change on human health, and potential adaptation strategies to limit the risks and damages.
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Impacts of Climate Change and Variability on Transportation Systems and Infrastructure: Gulf Coast Study, Phase I

Impacts of Climate Change and Variability on Transportation Systems and Infrastructure: Gulf Coast Study, Phase I

Date: March 2008
Creator: U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research
Description: This document, part of the Synthesis and Assessment Products described in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Strategic Plan. Climate affects the design, construction, safety, operations, and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and systems. The prospect of a changing climate raises critical questions regarding how alterations in temperature, precipitation, storm events, and other aspects of the climate could affect the nation's roads, airports, rail, transit systems, pipelines, ports, and waterways. Phase I of this regional assessment of climate change and its potential impacts on transportation systems addresses these questions for the region of the U.S. central Gulf Coast between Galveston, Texas and Mobile, Alabama. This region contains multimodal transportation infrastructure that is critical to regional and national transportation services. The significance of various climate factors for transportation systems was assessed.
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The North American Carbon Budget and Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle

The North American Carbon Budget and Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle

Date: November 2007
Creator: U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research.
Description: A primary objective of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is to provide the best possible scientific information to support public discussion, as well as government and private sector decision making, on key climate-related issues. To help meet this objective, the CCSP has identified an initial set of 21 Synthesis and Assessment Products (SAPs) that address its highest priority research, observation, and decision support needs. This report-CCSP SAP 2.2-addresses Goal 2 of the CCSP Strategic Plan: Improve quantification of the forces bringing about changes in the Earth's climate and related systems. The report provides a synthesis and integration of the current knowledge of the North American carbon budget and its context within the global carbon cycle. In a format useful to decision makers, it (1) summarizes our knowledge of carbon cycle properties and changes relevant to the contributions of and impacts upon North America and the rest of the world, and (2) provides scientific information for decision support focused on key issues for carbon management and policy. Consequently, this report is aimed at both the decision-maker audience and to the expert scientific and stakeholder communities.
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The Ozone Layer: Ozone Depletion, Recovery in a Changing Climate, and the "World Avoided"

The Ozone Layer: Ozone Depletion, Recovery in a Changing Climate, and the "World Avoided"

Date: 2008
Creator: U.S. Global Change Research Program
Description: This brochure describes the role of ozone in the stratosphere, and the effect it has on ultraviolet light, as well as how the Montreal Protocol and subsequent laws have affected ozone-depleting pollutants in the atmosphere.
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Past Climate Variability and Change in the Arctic and at High Latitudes

Past Climate Variability and Change in the Arctic and at High Latitudes

Date: January 2009
Creator: U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research
Description: This Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product addresses current capabilities to integrate observations of the climate system into a consistent description of past and current conditions through the method of reanalysis. In addition, the Product assesses present capabilities to attribute causes for climate variations and trends over North America during the reanalysis period, which extends from the mid-twentieth century to the present. This Product reviews Past Climate Variability and Change in the Arctic and at High Latitudes. Paleoclimate records play a key role in our understanding of Earth's past and present climate system and in our confidence in predicting future climate changes. Paleoclimate data help to elucidate past and present active mechanisms of climate change by placing the short instrumental record into a longer term context and by permitting models to be tested beyond the limited time that instrumental measurements have been available. Recent observations in the Arctic have identified large ongoing changes and important climate feedback mechanisms that multiply the effects of global-scale climate changes. As discussed in this report, paleoclimate data show that land and sea ice have grown with cooling temperatures and have shrunk with warming ones, amplifying temperature changes while causing and responding to ...
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Preliminary Review of Adaptation Options for Climate-Sensitive Ecosystems and Resources

Preliminary Review of Adaptation Options for Climate-Sensitive Ecosystems and Resources

Date: June 2008
Creator: U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research
Description: The U.S. Government's Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is responsible for providing the best science-based knowledge possible to inform management of the risks and opportunities associated with changes in the climate and related environmental systems. To support its mission, the CCSP has commissioned 21 "synthesis and assessment products" (SAPs) to advance decision making on climate change-related issues by providing current evaluations of climate change science and identifying priorities for research, observation, and decision support. This Report-SAP 4.4-focuses on federally managed lands and waters to provide a "Preliminary Review of Adaptation Options for Climate-Sensitive Ecosystems and Resources." It is one of seven reports that support Goal 4 of the CCSP Strategic Plan to understand the sensitivity and adaptability of different natural and managed ecosystems and human systems to climate and related global changes. The purpose of SAP 4.4 is to provide useful information on the state of knowledge regarding adaptation options for key, representative ecosystems and resources that may be sensitive to climate variability and change. As its title suggests, this report is a preliminary review, defined as "the process of collecting and reviewing available information about known or potential adaptation options."
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