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 Degree Discipline: Physics
Investigation of Selected Optically-Active Nanosystems Fashioned using Ion Implantation

Investigation of Selected Optically-Active Nanosystems Fashioned using Ion Implantation

Date: May 2006
Creator: Mitchell, Lee
Description: Opto-electronic semiconductor technology continues to grow at an accelerated pace, as the industry seeks to perfect devices such as light emitting diodes for purposes of optical processing and communication. A strive for greater efficiency with shrinking device dimensions, continually pushes the technology from both a design and materials aspect. Nanosystems such a quantum dots, also face new material engineering challenges as they enter the realm of quantum mechanics, with each system and material having markedly different electronic properties. Traditionally, the semiconductor industry has focused on materials such Group II-VI and III-V compounds as the basis material for future opto-electronic needs. Unfortunately, these material systems can be expensive and have difficulties integrating into current Si-based technology. The industry is reluctant to leave silicon due in part to silicon's high quality oxide, and the enormous amount of research invested into silicon based circuit fabrication. Although recently materials such as GaN are starting to dominate the electro-optical industry since a Si-based substitute has not been found. The purpose of the dissertation was to examine several promising systems that could be easily integrated into current Si-based technology and also be produced using simple inexpensive fabrication techniques such ion implantation. The development of optically active ...
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Ion-Induced Damage In Si: A Fundamental Study of Basic Mechanisms over a Wide Range of Implantation Conditions

Ion-Induced Damage In Si: A Fundamental Study of Basic Mechanisms over a Wide Range of Implantation Conditions

Date: May 2006
Creator: Roth, Elaine Grannan
Description: A new understanding of the damage formation mechanisms in Si is developed and investigated over an extended range of ion energy, dose, and irradiation temperature. A simple model for dealing with ion-induced damage is proposed, which is shown to be applicable over the range of implantation conditions. In particular the concept of defect "excesses" will be discussed. An excess exists in the lattice when there is a local surplus of one particular type of defect, such as an interstitial, over its complimentary defect (i.e., a vacancy). Mechanisms for producing such excesses by implantation will be discussed. The basis of this model specifies that accumulation of stable lattice damage during implantation depends upon the excess defects and not the total number of defects. The excess defect model is validated by fundamental damage studies involving ion implantation over a range of conditions. Confirmation of the model is provided by comparing damage profiles after implantation with computer simulation results. It will be shown that transport of ions in matter (TRIM) can be used effectively to model the ion-induced damage profile, i.e. excess defect distributions, by a simple subtraction process in which the spatially correlated defects are removed, thereby simulating recombination. Classic defect studies ...
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Magnetotransport Properties of  AlxIn1-xAsySb1-y/GaSb and Optical Properties of GaAs1-xSbx

Magnetotransport Properties of AlxIn1-xAsySb1-y/GaSb and Optical Properties of GaAs1-xSbx

Date: May 2003
Creator: Lukic- Zrnic, Reiko
Description: Multilayer structures of AlxIn1-xAsySb1-y/GaSb (0.37 £ x £ 0.43, 0.50 £ y £ 0.52), grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaSb (100) substrates were characterized using variable temperature Hall and Shubnikov-de Haas techniques. For nominally undoped structures both p and n-type conductivity was observed. The mobilities obtained were lower than those predicted by an interpolation method using the binary alloys; therefore, a detailed analysis of mobility versus temperature data was performed to extract the appropriate scattering mechanisms. For p-type samples, the dominant mechanism was ionized impurity scattering at low temperatures and polar optical phonon scattering at higher temperatures. For n-type samples, ionized impurity scattering was predominant at low temperatures, and electron-hole scattering dominated for both the intermediate and high temperature range. Analyses of the Shubnikov-de Haas data indicate the presence of 2-D carrier confinement consistent with energy subbands in GaAszSb1-z potential wells. Epilayers of GaAs1-xSbx (0.19<x<0.71), grown by MBE on semi-insulating GaAs with various substrate orientations, were studied by absorption measurements over the temperature range of 4-300 K. The various substrate orientations were chosen to induce different degrees of spontaneous atomic ordering. The temperature dependence of the energy gap (Eg) for each of these samples was modeled using three semi-empirical ...
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Characterization, properties and applications of novel nanostructured hydrogels.

Characterization, properties and applications of novel nanostructured hydrogels.

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Date: December 2006
Creator: Tang, Shijun
Description: The characterization, properties and applications of the novel nanostructured microgel (nanoparticle network and microgel crystal) composed of poly-N-isopropylacrylanmide-co-allylamine (PNIPAM-co-allylamine) and PNIPAM-co-acrylic acid(AA) have been investigated. For the novel nanostructured hydrogels with the two levels of structure: the primary network inside each individual particle and the secondary network of the crosslinked nanoparticles, the new shear modulus, drug release law from hydrogel with heterogeneous structure have been studied. The successful method for calculating the volume fraction related the phase transition of colloid have been obtained. The kinetics of crystallization in an aqueous dispersion of PNIPAM particles has been explored using UV-visible transmission spectroscopy. This dissertation also includes the initial research on the melting behavior of colloidal crystals composed of PNIPAM microgels. Many new findings in this study area have never been reported before. The theoretical model for the columnar crystal growth from the top to bottom of PNIPAM microgel has been built, which explains the growth mechanism of the novel columnar hydrogel colloidal crystals. Since the unique structure of the novel nanostructured hydrogels, their properties are different with the conventional hydrogels and the hard-sphere-like system. The studies and results in this dissertation have the important significant for theoretical study and valuable application ...
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Precision Atomic Spectroscopy with an Integrated Electro- Optic Modulator and DBR Diode Laser at 1083nm

Precision Atomic Spectroscopy with an Integrated Electro- Optic Modulator and DBR Diode Laser at 1083nm

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Date: December 1999
Creator: Castillega, Jaime
Description: We have explored the use of recently developed high speed integrated electro optic modulators and DBR diode lasers as a tool for precision laser studies of atoms. In particular, we have developed a technique using a high speed modulator as a key element and applied it to the study of the fine structure of the 23P state of atomic helium. This state has been of long standing interest in atomic physics and its study has been the aim of several recent experiments using various precision techniques. We present our method and results, which will describe a new method for determining the fine structure constant, and lead to a precision test of atomic theory.
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Carbon nanotube/microwave interactions and applications to hydrogen fuel cells.

Carbon nanotube/microwave interactions and applications to hydrogen fuel cells.

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Date: May 2004
Creator: Imholt, Timothy James
Description: One of the leading problems that will be carried into the 21st century is that of alternative fuels to get our planet away from the consumption of fossil fuels. There has been a growing interest in the use of nanotechnology to somehow aid in this progression. There are several unanswered questions in how to do this. It is known that carbon nanotubes will store hydrogen but it is unclear how to increase that storage capacity and how to remove this hydrogen fuel once stored. This document offers some answers to these questions. It is possible to implant more hydrogen in a nanotube sample using a technique of ion implantation at energy levels ~50keV and below. This, accompanied with the rapid removal of that stored hydrogen through the application of a microwave field, proves to be one promising avenue to solve these two unanswered questions.
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Perturbation of renewal processes

Perturbation of renewal processes

Date: May 2008
Creator: Akin, Osman Caglar
Description: Renewal theory began development in the early 1940s, as the need for it in the industrial engineering sub-discipline operations research had risen. In time, the theory found applications in many stochastic processes. In this thesis I investigated the effect of seasonal effects on Poisson and non-Poisson renewal processes in the form of perturbations. It was determined that the statistical analysis methods developed at UNT Center for Nonlinear Science can be used to detect the effects of seasonality on the data obtained from Poisson/non-Poisson renewal systems. It is proved that a perturbed Poisson process can serve as a paradigmatic model for a case where seasonality is correlated to the noise and that diffusion entropy method can be utilized in revealing this relation. A renewal model making a connection with the stochastic resonance phenomena is used to analyze a previous neurological experiment, and it was shown that under the effect of a nonlinear perturbation, a non-Poisson system statistics may make a transition and end up in the of Poisson basin of statistics. I determine that nonlinear perturbation of the power index for a complex system will lead to a change in the complexity characteristics of the system, i.e., the system will reach ...
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Microscopic Foundations of Thermodynamics and Generalized Statistical Ensembles

Microscopic Foundations of Thermodynamics and Generalized Statistical Ensembles

Date: May 2008
Creator: Campisi, Michele
Description: This dissertation aims at addressing two important theoretical questions which are still debated in the statistical mechanical community. The first question has to do with the outstanding problem of how to reconcile time-reversal asymmetric macroscopic laws with the time-reversal symmetric laws of microscopic dynamics. This problem is addressed by developing a novel mechanical approach inspired by the work of Helmholtz on monocyclic systems and the Heat Theorem, i.e., the Helmholtz Theorem. By following a line of investigation initiated by Boltzmann, a Generalized Helmholtz Theorem is stated and proved. This theorem provides us with a good microscopic analogue of thermodynamic entropy. This is the volume entropy, namely the logarithm of the volume of phase space enclosed by the constant energy hyper-surface. By using quantum mechanics only, it is shown that such entropy can only increase. This can be seen as a novel rigorous proof of the Second Law of Thermodynamics that sheds new light onto the arrow of time problem. The volume entropy behaves in a thermodynamic-like way independent of the number of degrees of freedom of the system, indicating that a whole thermodynamic-like world exists at the microscopic level. It is also shown that breaking of ergodicity leads to microcanonical ...
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Multifunctional Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nanophotonic Devices

Multifunctional Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nanophotonic Devices

Date: May 2008
Creator: Garner, Brett William
Description: The emergence of optical applications, such as lasers, fiber optics, and semiconductor based sources and detectors, has created a drive for smaller and more specialized devices. Nanophotonics is an emerging field of study that encompasses the disciplines of physics, engineering, chemistry, biology, applied sciences and biomedical technology. In particular, nanophotonics explores optical processes on a nanoscale. This dissertation presents nanophotonic applications that incorporate various forms of the organic polymer N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) with inorganic semiconductors. This includes the material characterization of NIPA, with such techniques as ellipsometry and dynamic light scattering. Two devices were constructed incorporating the NIPA hydrogel with semiconductors. The first device comprises a PNIPAM-CdTe hybrid material. The PNIPAM is a means for the control of distances between CdTe quantum dots encapsulated within the hydrogel. Controlling the distance between the quantum dots allows for the control of resonant energy transfer between neighboring quantum dots. Whereby, providing a means for controlling the temperature dependent red-shifts in photoluminescent peaks and FWHM. Further, enhancement of photoluminescent due to increased scattering in the medium is shown as a function of temperature. The second device incorporates NIPA into a 2D photonic crystal patterned on GaAs. The refractive index change of the NIPA hydrogel as ...
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Emergence of Complexity from Synchronization and Cooperation

Emergence of Complexity from Synchronization and Cooperation

Date: May 2008
Creator: Geneston, Elvis L.
Description: The dynamical origin of complexity is an object of intense debate and, up to moment of writing this manuscript, no unified approach exists as to how it should be properly addressed. This research work adopts the perspective of complexity as characterized by the emergence of non-Poisson renewal processes. In particular I introduce two new complex system models, namely the two-state stochastic clocks and the integrate-and-fire stochastic neurons, and investigate its coupled dynamics in different network topologies. Based on the foundations of renewal theory, I show how complexity, as manifested by the occurrence of non-exponential distribution of events, emerges from the interaction of the units of the system. Conclusion is made on the work's applicability to explaining the dynamics of blinking nanocrystals, neuron interaction in the human brain, and synchronization processes in complex networks.
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