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 Degree Discipline: Physics
The Concept of Collision Strength and Its Applications

The Concept of Collision Strength and Its Applications

Date: May 2004
Creator: Chang, Yongbin
Description: Collision strength, the measure of strength for a binary collision, hasn't been defined clearly. In practice, many physical arguments have been employed for the purpose and taken for granted. A scattering angle has been widely and intensively used as a measure of collision strength in plasma physics for years. The result of this is complication and unnecessary approximation in deriving some of the basic kinetic equations and in calculating some of the basic physical terms. The Boltzmann equation has a five-fold integral collision term that is complicated. Chandrasekhar and Spitzer's approaches to the linear Fokker-Planck coefficients have several approximations. An effective variable-change technique has been developed in this dissertation as an alternative to scattering angle as the measure of collision strength. By introducing the square of the reduced impulse or its equivalencies as a collision strength variable, many plasma calculations have been simplified. The five-fold linear Boltzmann collision integral and linearized Boltzmann collision integral are simplified to three-fold integrals. The arbitrary order linear Fokker-Planck coefficients are calculated and expressed in a uniform expression. The new theory provides a simple and exact method for describing the equilibrium plasma collision rate, and a precise calculation of the equilibrium relaxation time. It generalizes ...
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Surface Segregation in Multi-component Systems: Modeling Binary Ni-Al Alloys Using the BFS Method

Surface Segregation in Multi-component Systems: Modeling Binary Ni-Al Alloys Using the BFS Method

Date: August 2004
Creator: Kasmi, Azeddine
Description: Although the study of surface segregation has a great technological importance, the work done in the field was for a long time largely restricted to experimental studies and the theoretical work was neglected. However, recent improvements in both first principles and semi-empirical methods are opening a new era for surface scientists. A method developed by Bozzolo, Ferrante, and Smith (BFS) is particularly suitable for complex systems and several aspects of the computational modeling of surfaces and segregation, including alloy surface segregation, structure and composition of alloy surfaces and the formation of surface alloys. In the following work I introduce the BFS method and apply it to model the Ni-Al alloy through a Monte-Carlo simulation. A comparison between my results and those results published by the group mentioned above was my goal. This thesis also includes a detailed explanation of the application of the BFS method to surfaces of multi-component metallic systems, beyond binary alloys.
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Random growth of interfaces: Statistical analysis of single columns and detection of critical events.

Random growth of interfaces: Statistical analysis of single columns and detection of critical events.

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Date: August 2004
Creator: Failla, Roberto
Description: The dynamics of growth and formation of surfaces and interfaces is becoming very important for the understanding of the origin and the behavior of a wide range of natural and industrial dynamical processes. The first part of the paper is focused on the interesting field of the random growth of surfaces and interfaces, which finds application in physics, geology, biology, economics, and engineering among others. In this part it is studied the random growth of surfaces from within the perspective of a single column, namely, the fluctuation of the column height around the mean value, which is depicted as being subordinated to a standard fluctuation-dissipation process with friction g. It is argued that the main properties of Kardar-Parisi-Zhang theory are derived by identifying the distribution of return times to y(0) = 0, which is a truncated inverse power law, with the distribution of subordination times. The agreement of the theoretical prediction with the numerical treatment of the model of ballistic deposition is remarkably good, in spite of the finite size effects affecting this model. The second part of the paper deals with the efficiency of the diffusion entropy analysis (DEA) when applied to the studies of stromatolites. In this case ...
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Non-Poissonian statistics, aging and "blinking'" quantum dots.

Non-Poissonian statistics, aging and "blinking'" quantum dots.

Date: August 2004
Creator: Aquino, Gerardo
Description: This dissertation addresses the delicate problem of aging in complex systems characterized by non-Poissonian statistics. With reference to a generic two-states system interacting with a bath it is shown that to properly describe the evolution of such a system within the formalism of the continuous time random walk (CTRW), it has to be taken into account that, if the system is prepared at time t=0 and the observation of the system starts at a later time ta>0, the distribution of the first sojourn times in each of the two states depends on ta, the age of the system. It is shown that this aging property in the fractional derivative formalism forces to introduce a fractional index depending on time. It is shown also that, when a stationary condition exists, the Onsager regression principle is fulfilled only if the system is aged and consequently if an infinitely aged distribution for the first sojourn times is adopted in the CTRW formalism used to describe the system itself. This dissertation, as final result, shows how to extend to the non-Poisson case the Kubo Anderson (KA) lineshape theory, so as to turn it into a theoretical tool adequate to describe the time evolution of ...
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Brownian Movement and Quantum Computers

Brownian Movement and Quantum Computers

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Date: December 2004
Creator: Habel, Agnieszka
Description: This problem in lieu of thesis is a discussion of two topics: Brownian movement and quantum computers. Brownian movement is a physical phenomenon in which the particle velocity is constantly undergoing random fluctuations. Chapters 2, 3 and 4, describe Brownian motion from three different perspectives. The next four chapters are devoted to the subject of quantum computers, which are the signal of a new era of technology and science combined together. In the first chapter I present to a reader the two topics of my problem in lieu of thesis. In the second chapter I explain the idea of Brownian motion, its interpretation as a stochastic process and I find its distribution function. The next chapter illustrates the probabilistic picture of Brownian motion, where the statistical averages over trajectories are related to the probability distribution function. Chapter 4 shows how to derive the Langevin equation, introduced in chapter 1, using a Hamiltonian picture of a bath with infinite number of harmonic oscillators. The chapter 5 explains how the idea of quantum computers was developed and how step-by-step all the puzzles for the field of quantum computers were created. The next chapter, chapter 6, discus the basic quantum unit of information ...
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Chaos and Momentum Diffusion of the Classical and Quantum Kicked Rotor

Chaos and Momentum Diffusion of the Classical and Quantum Kicked Rotor

Date: August 2005
Creator: Zheng, Yindong
Description: The de Broglie-Bohm (BB) approach to quantum mechanics gives trajectories similar to classical trajectories except that they are also determined by a quantum potential. The quantum potential is a "fictitious potential" in the sense that it is part of the quantum kinetic energy. We use quantum trajectories to treat quantum chaos in a manner similar to classical chaos. For the kicked rotor, which is a bounded system, we use the Benettin et al. method to calculate both classical and quantum Lyapunov exponents as a function of control parameter K and find chaos in both cases. Within the chaotic sea we find in both cases nonchaotic stability regions for K equal to multiples of π. For even multiples of π the stability regions are associated with classical accelerator mode islands and for odd multiples of π they are associated with new oscillator modes. We examine the structure of these regions. Momentum diffusion of the quantum kicked rotor is studied with both BB and standard quantum mechanics (SQM). A general analytical expression is given for the momentum diffusion at quantum resonance of both BB and SQM. We obtain agreement between the two approaches in numerical experiments. For the case of nonresonance the ...
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Decoherence, Master Equation for Open Quantum Systems, and the Subordination Theory

Decoherence, Master Equation for Open Quantum Systems, and the Subordination Theory

Date: August 2005
Creator: Giraldi, Filippo
Description: This thesis addresses the problem of a form of anomalous decoherence that sheds light into the spectroscopy of blinking quantum dots. The system studied is a two-state system, interacting with an external environment that has the effect of establishing an interaction between the two states, via a coherence generating coupling, called inphasing. The collisions with the environment produce also decoherence, named dephasing. Decoherence is interpreted as the entanglement of the coherent superposition of these two states with the environment. The joint action of inphasing and dephasing generates a Markov master equation statistically equivalent to a random walker jumping from one state to the other. This model can be used to describe intermittent fluorescence, as a sequence of "light on" and "light off" states. The experiments on blinking quantum dots indicate that the sojourn times are distributed with an inverse power law. Thus, a proposal to turn the model for Poisson fluorescence intermittency into a model for non-Poisson fluorescence intermittency is made. The collision-like interaction of the two-state system with the environment is assumed to takes place at random times rather than at regular times. The time distance between one collision and the next is given by a distribution, called the ...
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Mechanism and the Effect of Microwave-Carbon Nanotube Interaction

Mechanism and the Effect of Microwave-Carbon Nanotube Interaction

Date: December 2005
Creator: Ye, Zhou
Description: A series of experimental results about unusual heating of carbon nanotubes by microwaves is analyzed in this dissertation. Two of vibration types, cantilever type (one end is fixed and the other one end is free), the second type is both ends are fixed, have been studied by other people. A third type of forced vibration of carbon nanotubes under an alternating electromagnetic field is examined in this paper. Heating of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by microwaves is described in terms of nonlinear dynamics of a vibrating nanotube. Results from the model provide a way to understand several observations that have been made. It is shown that transverse vibrations of CNTs during microwave irradiation can be attributed to transverse parametric resonance, as occurs in the analysis of Melde's experiment on forced longitudinal vibrations of a stretched elastic string. For many kinds of carbon nanotubes (SWNT, DWNT, MWNT, ropes and strands) the resonant parameters are found to be located in an unstable region of the parameter space of Mathieu's equation. Third order wave equations are used to qualitatively describe the effects of phonon-phonon interactions and energy transfer from microwaves to CNTs. This result provides another way to input energy from microwaves to carbon ...
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Anderson Localization in Two-Channel Wires with Correlated Disorder: DNA as an Application

Anderson Localization in Two-Channel Wires with Correlated Disorder: DNA as an Application

Date: December 2007
Creator: Bagci, V. M. Kemal
Description: This research studied the Anderson localization of electrons in two-channel wires with correlated disorder and in DNA molecules. It involved an analytical calculation part where the formula for the inverse localization length for electron states in a two-channel wire is derived. It also involved a computational part where the localization length is calculated for some DNA molecules. Electron localization in two-channel wires with correlated disorder was studied using a single-electron tight-binding model. Calculations were within second-order Born-approximation to second-order in disorder parameters. An analytical expression for localization length as a functional of correlations in potentials was found. Anderson localization in DNA molecules were studied in single-channel wire and two-channel models for electron transport in DNA. In both of the models, some DNA sequences exhibited delocalized electron states in their energy spectrum. Studies with two-channel wire model for DNA yielded important link between electron localization properties and genetic information.
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A Novel Process for GeSi Thin Film Synthesis

A Novel Process for GeSi Thin Film Synthesis

Date: December 2007
Creator: Hossain, Khalid
Description: A unique process of fabricating a strained layer GexSi1-x on insulator is demonstrated. Such strained heterostructures are useful in the fabrication of high-mobility transistors. This technique incorporates well-established silicon processing technology e.g., ion implantation and thermal oxidation. A dilute GeSi layer is initially formed by implanting Ge+ into a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. Thermal oxidation segregates the Ge at the growing oxide interface to form a distinct GexSi1-x thin-film with a composition that can be tailored by controlling the oxidation parameters (e.g. temperature and oxidation ambient). In addition, the film thickness can be controlled by implantation fluence, which is important since the film forms pseudomorphically below 2×1016 Ge/cm2. Continued oxidation consumes the underlying Si leaving the strained GeSi film encapsulated by the two oxide layers, i.e. the top thermal oxide and the buried oxide. Removal of the thermal oxide by a dilute HF etch completes the process. Strain relaxation can be achieved by either of two methods. One involves vacancy injection by ion implantation to introduce sufficient open-volume within the film to compensate for the compressive strain. The other depends upon the formation of GeO2. If Ge is oxidized in the absence of Si, it evaporates as GeO(g) resulting in spontaneous ...
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