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UNT Theses and Dissertations
 The Effect of Average Grain Size on Polycrystalline Diamond Films
 The work function of hydrogenterminated, polycrystalline diamond was studied using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Polycrystalline diamond films were deposited onto molybdenum substrates by electrophoresis for grain sizes ranging from 0.3 to 108 microns. The work function and electron affinity were measured using 21.2 eV photons from a helium plasma source. The films were characterized by xray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine elemental composition and the sp2/sp3 carbon fraction. The percentage of (111) diamond was determined by xray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy was performed to determine average grain size. The measured work function has a maximum of 5.1 eV at 0.3 microns, and decreases to 3.2 eV at approximately 4 microns. Then the work function increases with increasing grain size to 4.0 eV at 15 microns and then asymptotically approaches the 4.8 eV work function of single crystal diamond at 108 microns. These results are consistent with a 3component model in which the work function is controlled by singlecrystal (111) diamond at larger grain sizes, graphitic carbon at smaller grain sizes, and by the electron affinity for the intervening grain sizes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3164/
 Solutions of the Equations of Radiative Transfer by an Invariant Imbedding Approach
 This thesis is a study of the solutions of the equations of radiative transfer by an invariant imbedding approach. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc131045/
 Perturbation of renewal processes
 Renewal theory began development in the early 1940s, as the need for it in the industrial engineering subdiscipline operations research had risen. In time, the theory found applications in many stochastic processes. In this thesis I investigated the effect of seasonal effects on Poisson and nonPoisson renewal processes in the form of perturbations. It was determined that the statistical analysis methods developed at UNT Center for Nonlinear Science can be used to detect the effects of seasonality on the data obtained from Poisson/nonPoisson renewal systems. It is proved that a perturbed Poisson process can serve as a paradigmatic model for a case where seasonality is correlated to the noise and that diffusion entropy method can be utilized in revealing this relation. A renewal model making a connection with the stochastic resonance phenomena is used to analyze a previous neurological experiment, and it was shown that under the effect of a nonlinear perturbation, a nonPoisson system statistics may make a transition and end up in the of Poisson basin of statistics. I determine that nonlinear perturbation of the power index for a complex system will lead to a change in the complexity characteristics of the system, i.e., the system will reach a new form of complexity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc6140/
 Structural and Photoelectron Emission Properties of Chemical Vapor Deposition Grown Diamond Films
 The effects of methane (CH4), diborone (B2H6) and nitrogen (N2) concentrations on the structure and photoelectron emission properties of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) polycrystalline diamond films were studied. The diamond films were grown on singlecrystal Si substrates using the hottungsten filament CVD technique. Raman spectroscopy and xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the different forms of carbon in the films, and the fraction of sp3 carbon to sp3 plus sp2 carbon at the surface of the films, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the surface morphology of the films. The photoelectron emission properties were determined by measuring the energy distributions of photoemitted electrons using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and by measuring the photoelectric current as a function of incident photon energy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279053/
 Investigation of the Uniaxial Stress Dependence of the Effective Mass in NType InSb Using the Magnetophonon Effect
 The magnetophonon effect was used to investigate the uniaxial stress dependence of the effective mass in ntype InSb (indium antimonide). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164537/
 Thermal Properties of a Single Crystal of Bismuth at Liquidhelium Temperatures
 The purpose of this investigation was the determination of the thermal conduction properties of a single crystal of bismuth at liquidhelium temperatures in magnetic fields up to eighteen kilogauss. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc108252/
 Studying Interactions of Gas Molecules with Nanomaterials Loaded in a Microwave Resonant Cavity
 A resonant cavity operating in TE011 mode was used to study the adsorption response of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and other nanomaterials for different types of gas molecules. The range of the frequency signal as a probe was chosen as geometry dependent range between 9.1 9.8 GHz. A highly specific range can be studied for further experiments dependent on the type of molecule being investigated. It was found that for different pressures of gases and for different types of nanomaterials, there was a different response in the shifts of the probe signal for each cycle of gassing and degassing of the cavity. This dissertation suggests that microwave spectroscopy of a complex medium of gases and carbon nanotubes can be used as a highly sensitive technique to determine the complex dielectric response of different polar as well as nonpolar gases when subjected to intense electromagnetic fields within the cavity. Also, as part of the experimental work, a range of other microporous materials was tested using the residual gas analysis (RGA) technique to determine their intrinsic absorption/adsorption characteristics when under an ultrahigh vacuum environment. The scientific results obtained from this investigation, led to the development of a chemical biological sensor prototype. The method proposed is to develop operational sensors to detect toxin gases for homeland security applications and also develop sniffers to detect toxin drugs for law enforcement agency personnel. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4009/
 Absolute Beta Counting Using Thick Sources
 The problem with which we shall concern ourselves in this paper is the selfscattering and selfabsorption of beta particles by the source. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96872/
 NonPoissonian statistics, aging and "blinking'" quantum dots.
 This dissertation addresses the delicate problem of aging in complex systems characterized by nonPoissonian statistics. With reference to a generic twostates system interacting with a bath it is shown that to properly describe the evolution of such a system within the formalism of the continuous time random walk (CTRW), it has to be taken into account that, if the system is prepared at time t=0 and the observation of the system starts at a later time ta>0, the distribution of the first sojourn times in each of the two states depends on ta, the age of the system. It is shown that this aging property in the fractional derivative formalism forces to introduce a fractional index depending on time. It is shown also that, when a stationary condition exists, the Onsager regression principle is fulfilled only if the system is aged and consequently if an infinitely aged distribution for the first sojourn times is adopted in the CTRW formalism used to describe the system itself. This dissertation, as final result, shows how to extend to the nonPoisson case the Kubo Anderson (KA) lineshape theory, so as to turn it into a theoretical tool adequate to describe the time evolution of the absorption and emission spectra of CdSe quantum dots. The fluorescence emission of these single nanocrystals exhibits interesting intermittent behavior, namely, a sequence of "light on" and "light off" states, departing from Poisson statistics. Taking aging into account an exact analytical treatment is derived to calculate the spectrum. In the regime fitting experimental data this final result implies that the spectrum of the "blinking" quantum dots must age forever. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4555/
 EEG, Alpha Waves and Coherence
 This thesis addresses some theoretical issues generated by the results of recent analysis of EEG time series proving the brain dynamics are driven by abrupt changes making them depart from the ordinary Poisson condition. These changes are renewal, unpredictable and nonergodic. We refer to them as crucial events. How is it possible that this form of randomness be compatible with the generation of waves, for instance alpha waves, whose observation seems to suggest the opposite view the brain is characterized by surprisingly extended coherence? To shed light into this apparently irretrievable contradiction we propose a model based on a generalized form of Langevin equation under the influence of a periodic stimulus. We assume that there exist two different forms of time, a subjective form compatible with Poisson statistical physical and an objective form that is accessible to experimental observation. The transition from the former to the latter form is determined by the brain dynamics interpreted as emerging from the cooperative interaction among many units that, in the absence of cooperation would generate Poisson fluctuations. We call natural time the brain internal time and we make the assumption that in the natural time representation the time evolution of the EEG variable y(t) is determined by a Langevin equation perturbed by a periodic process that in this time representation is hardly distinguishable from an erratic process. We show that the representation of this random process in the experimental time scale is characterized by a surprisingly extended coherence. We show that this model generates a sequence of damped oscillations with a time behavior that is remarkably similar to that derived from the analysis of real EEG's. The main result of this research work is that the existence of crucial events is not incompatible with the alpha wave coherence. In addition to this important result, we find another result that may help our group, or any other research group working on the analysis of brain's dynamics, to prove or to disprove the existence of crucial events. We study the diffusion process generated by fluctuations emerging from the same model after filtering out the alpha coherence, and we study the recursion to the origin. We study the survival probability of this process, namely the probability that up to a given time no recrossing of the origin occurs. We find that this is an inverse power law with a power that depends on whether or not crucial events exist. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc28389/
 The Nonadditive Generalization of Klimontovich's STheorem for Open Systems and Boltzmann's Orthodes
 We show that the nonadditive open systems can be studied in a consistent manner by using a generalized version of Stheorem. This new generalized Stheorem can further be considered as an indication of selforganization in nonadditive open systems as prescribed by Haken. The nonadditive Stheorem is then illustrated by using the modified Van der Pol oscillator. Finally, Tsallis entropy as an equilibrium entropy is studied by using Boltzmann's method of orthodes. This part of dissertation shows that Tsallis ensemble is on equal footing with the microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical ensembles. However, the associated entropy turns out to be Renyi entropy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9124/
 Anderson Localization in TwoChannel Wires with Correlated Disorder: DNA as an Application
 This research studied the Anderson localization of electrons in twochannel wires with correlated disorder and in DNA molecules. It involved an analytical calculation part where the formula for the inverse localization length for electron states in a twochannel wire is derived. It also involved a computational part where the localization length is calculated for some DNA molecules. Electron localization in twochannel wires with correlated disorder was studied using a singleelectron tightbinding model. Calculations were within secondorder Bornapproximation to secondorder in disorder parameters. An analytical expression for localization length as a functional of correlations in potentials was found. Anderson localization in DNA molecules were studied in singlechannel wire and twochannel models for electron transport in DNA. In both of the models, some DNA sequences exhibited delocalized electron states in their energy spectrum. Studies with twochannel wire model for DNA yielded important link between electron localization properties and genetic information. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5204/
 Design and Testing of a Coincidence System
 This paper is concerned with the design, testing and performance of a coincidence system, the proposed North Texas State College accelerator. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc108113/
 The Interactions of Plasma with Lowk Dielectrics: Fundamental Damage and Protection Mechanisms
 Nanoporous lowk dielectrics are used for integrated circuit interconnects to reduce the propagation delays, and cross talk noise between metal wires as an alternative material for SiO2. These materials, typically organosilicate glass (OSG) films, are exposed to oxygen plasmas during photoresist stripping and related processes which substantially damage the film by abstracting carbon, incorporating O and OH, eventually leading to significantly increased k values. Systematic studies have been performed to understand the oxygen plasmainduced damage mechanisms on different lowk OSG films of various porosity and pore interconnectedness. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, xray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy are used to understand the damage kinetics of O radicals, ultraviolet photons and charged species, and possible ways to control the carbon loss from the film. FTIR results demonstrate that O radical present in the plasma is primarily responsible for carbon abstraction and this is governed by diffusion mechanism involving interconnected film nanopores. The loss of carbon from the film can be controlled by closing the pore interconnections, He plasma pretreatment is an effective way to control the damage at longer exposure by closing the connections between the pores. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84175/
 Work Function Study of Iridium Oxide and Molybdenum Using UPS and Simultaneous FowlerNordheim IV Plots with Field Emission Energy Distributions
 The characterization of work functions and field emission stability for molybdenum and iridium oxide coatings was examined. Single emission tips and flat samples of molybdenum and iridium oxide were prepared for characterization. The flat samples were characterized using Xray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Xray diffraction to determine elemental composition, chemical shift, and crystal structure. Flat coatings of iridium oxide were also scanned by Atomic Force Microscopy to examine topography. Work functions were characterized by Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy from the flat samples and by Field Emission Electron Distributions from the field emission tips. Field emission characterization was conducted in a custom build analytical chamber capable of measuring Field Emission Electron Distribution and FowlerNordheim IV plots simultaneously to independently evaluate geometric and work function changes. Scanning Electron Microscope pictures were taken of the emission tips before and after field emission characterization to confirm geometric changes. Measurement of emission stability and work functions were the emphasis of this research. In addition, use of iridium oxide coatings to enhance emission stability was evaluated. Molybdenum and iridium oxide, IrO2, were characterized and found to have a work function of 4.6 eV and 4.2 eV by both characterization techniques, with the molybdenum value in agreement with previous research. The analytic chamber used in the field emission analysis demonstrated the ability to independently determine the value and changes in work function and emitter geometry by simultaneous measurement of the Field Emission Energy Distribution and FowlerNordheim IV plots from single emitters. Iridium oxide coating was found to enhance the stability of molybdenum emission tips with a relatively low work function of 4.2 eV and inhibited the formation of high work function molybdenum oxides. However, the method of deposition of iridium and annealing in oxygen to form iridium oxide on molybdenum emitters left rather severe cracking in the protective oxide coating exposing the molybdenum substrate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc2211/
 Complexity as Aging NonPoisson Renewal Processes
 The search for a satisfactory model for complexity, meant as an intermediate condition between total order and total disorder, is still subject of debate in the scientific community. In this dissertation the emergence of nonPoisson renewal processes in several complex systems is investigated. After reviewing the basics of renewal theory, another popular approach to complexity, called modulation, is introduced. I show how these two different approaches, given a suitable choice of the parameter involved, can generate the same macroscopic outcome, namely an inverse power law distribution density of events occurrence. To solve this ambiguity, a numerical instrument, based on the theoretical analysis of the aging properties of renewal systems, is introduced. The application of this method, called renewal aging experiment, allows us to distinguish if a time series has been generated by a renewal or a modulation process. This method of analysis is then applied to several physical systems, from blinking quantum dots, to the human brain activity, to seismic fluctuations. Theoretical conclusions about the underlying nature of the considered complex systems are drawn. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3706/
 Energy Distribution of Sputtered Neutral Atoms from a Multilayer Target
 Energy distribution measurements of sputtered neutral particles contribute to the general knowledge of sputtering, a common technique for surface analysis. In this work emphasis was placed on the measurement of energy distribution of sputtered neutral atoms from different depths. The liquid GaIn eutectic alloy as a sample target for this study was ideal due to an extreme concentration ratio gradient between the top two monolayers. In pursuing this study, the method of sputterinitiated resonance ionization spectroscopy (SIRIS) was utilized. SIRIS employs a pulsed ion beam to initiate sputtering and tunable dye lasers for resonance ionization. Observation of the energy distribution was achieved with a positionsensitive detector. The principle behind the detector's energy resolution is time of flight (TOF) spectroscopy. For this specific detector, programmed time intervals between the sputtering pulse at the target and the ionizing laser pulse provided information leading to the energy distribution of the secondary neutral particles. This experiment contributes data for energy distributions of sputtered neutral particles to the experimental database, required by theoretical models and computer simulations for the sputtering phenomenon. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc2657/
 The dynamic foundation of fractal operators.
 The fractal operators discussed in this dissertation are introduced in the form originally proposed in an earlier book of the candidate, which proves to be very convenient for physicists, due to its heuristic and intuitive nature. This dissertation proves that these fractal operators are the most convenient tools to address a number of problems in condensed matter, in accordance with the point of view of many other authors, and with the earlier book of the candidate. The microscopic foundation of the fractal calculus on the basis of either classical or quantum mechanics is still unknown, and the second part of this dissertation aims at this important task. This dissertation proves that the adoption of a master equation approach, and so of probabilistic as well as dynamical argument yields a satisfactory solution of the problem, as shown in a work by the candidate already published. At the same time, this dissertation shows that the foundation of Levy statistics is compatible with ordinary statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. The problem of the connection with the KolmogorovSinai entropy is a delicate problem that, however, can be successfully solved. The derivation from a microscopic Liouvillelike approach based on densities, however, is shown to be impossible. This dissertation, in fact, establishes the existence of a striking conflict between densities and trajectories. The third part of this dissertation is devoted to establishing the consequences of the conflict between trajectories and densities in quantum mechanics, and triggers a search for the experimental assessment of spontaneous wavefunction collapses. The research work of this dissertation has been the object of several papers and two books. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4235/
 Stochastic Mechanical Systems
 To understand the phenomena associated with such stochastic processes and to predict, at least qualitatively, the behavior of mechanical systems within environments which are completely random in time, new mechanical tools are necessary. Fortunately, the derivation of these tools does not necessitate a complete departure from existing theories. In fact, they may be considered as an extension of the welldefined theory of the integral transform, in particular, the exponential Fourier integral transform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc130453/
 Gamma Ray Distribution from Neutron Excitation in Cesium
 The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the gamma rays resulting from excitation of Cs133 by the inelastic scattering of 14 MeV neutrons and to determine the relative intensity of each gamma ray. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc163933/
 Distribution of Nighttime Fregion Molecular Ion Concentrations and 6300 Å Nightglow Morphology
 The purpose of this study is twofold. The first is to determine the dependence of the molecular ion profiles on the various ionospheric and atmospheric parameters that affect their distributions. The second is to demonstrate the correlation of specific ionospheric parameters with 6300 Å nightglow intensity during periods of magnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278620/
 Radar Scattering Crosssection of Triangular Corner Reflectors
 The series of experimental studies to be described has been carried out in order to determine the feasibility of using corner reflectors as laboratory standards for model crosssection measurements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc107940/
 Steadystate and Dynamic Probe Characteristics in a Lowdensity Plasma
 The problem with which this investigation is concerned is that of determining the steadystate and dynamic characteristics of the admittance of a metallic probe immersed in a laboratory plasma which has the low electron densities and low electron temperatures characteristic of the ionospheric plasma. The problem is separated into three related topics: the design and production of the laboratory plasma, the measurement of the steadystate properties of dc and very low frequency probe admittance, and the study of transient ion sheath effects on radio frequency probe admittance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278232/
 Maxwell's Equations from Electrostatics and Einstein's Gravitational Field Equation from Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation Using Tensors
 Maxwell's equations are obtained from Coulomb's Law using special relativity. For the derivation, tensor analysis is used, charge is assumed to be a conserved scalar, the Lorentz force is assumed to be a pure force, and the principle of superposition is assumed to hold. Einstein's gravitational field equation is obtained from Newton's universal law of gravitation. In order to proceed, the principle of least action for gravity is shown to be equivalent to the maximization of proper time along a geodesic. The conservation of energy and momentum is assumed, which, through the use of the Bianchi identity, results in Einstein's field equation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4532/
 On Delocalization Effects in Multidimensional Lattices
 A cubic lattice with random parameters is reduced to a linear chain by the means of the projection technique. The continued fraction expansion (c.f.e.) approach is herein applied to the density of states. Coefficients of the c.f.e. are obtained numerically by the recursion procedure. Properties of the nonstationary second moments (correlations and dispersions) of their distribution are studied in a connection with the other evidences of transport in a onedimensional Mori chain. The second moments and the spectral density are computed for the various degrees of disorder in the prototype lattice. The possible directions of the further development are outlined. The physical problem that is addressed in the dissertation is the possibility of the existence of a nonAnderson disorder of a specific type. More precisely, this type of a disorder in the onedimensional case would result in a positive localization threshold. A specific type of such nonAnderson disorder was obtained by adopting a transformation procedure which assigns to the matrix expressing the physics of the multidimensional crystal a tridiagonal Hamiltonian. This Hamiltonian is then assigned to an equivalent onedimensional tightbinding model. One of the benefits of this approach is that we are guaranteed to obtain a linear crystal with a positive localization threshold. The reason for this is the existence of a threshold in a prototype sample. The resulting linear model is found to be characterized by a correlated and a nonstationary disorder. The existence of such special disorder is associated with the absence of Anderson localization in specially constructed onedimensional lattices, when the noise intensity is below the nonzero critical value. This work is an important step towards isolating the general properties of a nonAnderson noise. This gives a basis for understanding of the insulator to metal transition in a linear crystal with a subcritical noise. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278868/
 Fractional Brownian motion and dynamic approach to complexity.
 The dynamic approach to fractional Brownian motion (FBM) establishes a link between nonPoisson renewal process with abrupt jumps resetting to zero the system's memory and correlated dynamic processes, whose individual trajectories keep a nonvanishing memory of their past time evolution. It is well known that the recrossing times of the origin by an ordinary 1D diffusion trajectory generates a distribution of time distances between two consecutive origin recrossing times with an inverse power law with index m=1.5. However, with theoretical and numerical arguments, it is proved that this is the special case of a more general condition, insofar as the recrossing times produced by the dynamic FBM generates process with m=2H. Later, the model of ballistic deposition is studied, which is as a simple way to establish cooperation among the columns of a growing surface, to show that cooperation generates memory properties and, at same time, nonPoisson renewal events. Finally, the connection between trajectory and density memory is discussed, showing that the trajectory memory does not necessarily yields density memory, and density memory might be compatible with the existence of abrupt jumps resetting to zero the system's memory. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3992/
 Microscopic Foundations of Thermodynamics and Generalized Statistical Ensembles
 This dissertation aims at addressing two important theoretical questions which are still debated in the statistical mechanical community. The first question has to do with the outstanding problem of how to reconcile timereversal asymmetric macroscopic laws with the timereversal symmetric laws of microscopic dynamics. This problem is addressed by developing a novel mechanical approach inspired by the work of Helmholtz on monocyclic systems and the Heat Theorem, i.e., the Helmholtz Theorem. By following a line of investigation initiated by Boltzmann, a Generalized Helmholtz Theorem is stated and proved. This theorem provides us with a good microscopic analogue of thermodynamic entropy. This is the volume entropy, namely the logarithm of the volume of phase space enclosed by the constant energy hypersurface. By using quantum mechanics only, it is shown that such entropy can only increase. This can be seen as a novel rigorous proof of the Second Law of Thermodynamics that sheds new light onto the arrow of time problem. The volume entropy behaves in a thermodynamiclike way independent of the number of degrees of freedom of the system, indicating that a whole thermodynamiclike world exists at the microscopic level. It is also shown that breaking of ergodicity leads to microcanonical phase transitions associated with nonanalyticities of volume entropy. The second part of the dissertation deals with the problem of the foundations of generalized ensembles in statistical mechanics. The starting point is Boltzmann's work on statistical ensembles and its relation with the Heat Theorem. We first focus on the nonextensive thermostatistics of Tsallis and the associated deformed exponential ensembles. These ensembles are analyzed in detail and proved (a) to comply with the requirements posed by the Heat Theorem, and (b) to interpolate between canonical and microcanonical ensembles. Further they are showed to describe finite systems in contact with finite heat baths. Their mechanical and informationtheoretic foundation, are highlighted. Finally, a wide class of generalized ensembles is introduced, all of which reproduce the Heat Theorem. This class, named the class of dual orthodes, contains microcanonical, canonical, Tsallis and Gaussian ensembles as special cases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc6128/
 Precision Atomic Spectroscopy with an Integrated Electro Optic Modulator and DBR Diode Laser at 1083nm

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We have explored the use of recently developed high speed integrated electro optic modulators and DBR diode lasers as a tool for precision laser studies of atoms. In particular, we have developed a technique using a high speed modulator as a key element and applied it to the study of the fine structure of the 23P state of atomic helium. This state has been of long standing interest in atomic physics and its study has been the aim of several recent experiments using various precision techniques. We present our method and results, which will describe a new method for determining the fine structure constant, and lead to a precision test of atomic theory. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5847/  The Concept of Collision Strength and Its Applications
 Collision strength, the measure of strength for a binary collision, hasn't been defined clearly. In practice, many physical arguments have been employed for the purpose and taken for granted. A scattering angle has been widely and intensively used as a measure of collision strength in plasma physics for years. The result of this is complication and unnecessary approximation in deriving some of the basic kinetic equations and in calculating some of the basic physical terms. The Boltzmann equation has a fivefold integral collision term that is complicated. Chandrasekhar and Spitzer's approaches to the linear FokkerPlanck coefficients have several approximations. An effective variablechange technique has been developed in this dissertation as an alternative to scattering angle as the measure of collision strength. By introducing the square of the reduced impulse or its equivalencies as a collision strength variable, many plasma calculations have been simplified. The fivefold linear Boltzmann collision integral and linearized Boltzmann collision integral are simplified to threefold integrals. The arbitrary order linear FokkerPlanck coefficients are calculated and expressed in a uniform expression. The new theory provides a simple and exact method for describing the equilibrium plasma collision rate, and a precise calculation of the equilibrium relaxation time. It generalizes bimolecular collision reaction rate theory to a reaction rate theory for plasmas. A simple formula of high precision with wide temperature range has been developed for electron impact ionization rates for carbon atoms and ions. The universality of the concept of collision strength is emphasized. This dissertation will show how Arrhenius' chemical reaction rate theory and Thomson's ionization theory can be unified as one single theory under the concept of collision strength, and how many important physical terms in different disciplines, such as activation energy in chemical reaction theory, ionization energy in Thomson's ionization theory, and the Coulomb logarithm in plasma physics, can be unified into a single one  the threshold value of collision strength. The collision strength, which is a measure of a transfer of momentum in units of energy, can be used to reconcile the differences between Descartes' opinion and Leibnitz's opinion about the "true'' measure of a force. Like Newton's second law, which provides an instantaneous measure of a force, collision strength, as a cumulative measure of a force, can be regarded as part of a law of force in general. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4530/
 Microstructure and Electronic Structures of ErDoped Si Nanoparticles Synthesized by Vapor Phase Pyrolysis

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Si nanoparticles are new prospective optoelectronic materials. Unlike bulk Si crystals, Si nanoparticles display intriguing roomtemperature photoluminescence. A major challenge in the fabrication of Si nanoparticles is the control of their size distribution. The rareearth element Er has unique photo emission properties, including low pumping power, and a temperature independent, sharp spectrum. The emission wavelength matches the transmission window of optical fibers used in the telecommunications industry. Therefore, the study of Erdoped Si nanoparticles may have practical significance. The goals of the research described in this dissertation are to investigate vapor phase pyrolysis methods and to characterize the microstructure and associated defects, particles size distributions and photoluminescence efficiencies of doped and undoped Si nanoparticles using analytical transmission electron microscopy, high resolution electron microscopy, and optical spectroscopy. Erdoped and undoped Si nanoparticles were synthesized via vaporphase pyrolysis of disilane at Texas Christian University. To achieve monodisperse size distributions, a process with fast nucleation and slow growth was employed. Disilane was diluted to 0.48% with helium. A horizontal pyrolysis oven was maintained at a temperature of 1000 °C. The oven length was varied from 1.5 cm to 6.0 cm to investigate the influence of oven length on the properties of the nanoparticles. The Si nanoparticles were collected in ethyleneglycol. The doped and undoped Si nanoparticles have a Si diamond cubic crystal structure. Neither Er precipitation, Er oxides or Er silicides were detected in any of the samples. The Er dopant concentration was about 2 atom% for doped samples from the 3.0 and 6.0 cm ovens as determined by quantitative analysis using Xray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The average Si nanoparticle size increases from 11.3 to 15.2 nm in the doped samples and from 11.1 to 15.7 nm in the undoped samples as the oven length increases from 1.5 to 6.0 cm. HREM data show that average Si nanocrystallite size varies from 6.4 to 3.3 to 5.9 nm in the doped samples, and from 7.5 to 12.2 nm in the undoped samples as the oven length increases. Roomtemperature Er photoluminescence has been detected near 1.54 :m from all doped samples. Saturation of the Er photoluminescence intensity at large emission power and the monotonic decrease of the intensity as a function of the emission wavelength in the doped sample from the 3.0 cm oven suggest that a carriermediated energy transfer process occurs in the Erdoped Si nanoparticles. It is the first time to successfully fabricate and investigate Erdoped Si nanoparticles. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc2476/  Synthesis and Study of Engineered Heterogenous Polymer Gels
 This dissertation studies physical properties and technological applications of engineered heterogenous polymer gels. Such gels are synthesized based on modulation of gel chemical nature in space. The shape memory gels have been developed in this study by using the modulated gel technology. At room temperature, they form a straight line. As the temperature is increased, they spontaneously bend or curl into a predetermined shape such as a letter of the alphabet, a numerical number, a spiral, a square, or a fish. The shape changes are reversible. The heterogenous structures have been also obtained on the gel surface. The central idea is to cover a dehydrated gel surface with a patterned mask, then to sputterdeposit a gold film onto it. After removing the mask, a gold pattern is left on the gel surface. Periodical surface array can serve as gratings to diffract light. The grating constant can be continuously changed by the external environmental stimuli such as temperature and electric field. Several applications of gels with periodic surface arrays as sensors for measuring gel swelling ratio, internal strain under an uniaxial stress, and shear modulus have been demonstrated. The porous NIPA gels have been synthesized by suspension technique. Microstructures of newly synthesized gels are characterized by both SEM and capillary test and are related to their swelling and mechanical properties. The heterogenous porous NIPA gel shrink about 35,000 times faster than its counterpartthe homogeneous NIPA gel. Development of such fast responsive gels can result in sensors and devices applications. A new gel system with builtin anisotropy is studied. This gel system consists of interpenetrated polymer network (IPN) gels of polyacrylamide (PAAM) and Nisopropylacrylamide (NIPA). The swelling property of the anisotropy IPN gels along the prestressing direction is different from that along other directions, in contrast to conventional gels which swell isotropically. It is found that the ratio (L/D) of length (L) and diameter (D) of IPN samples has stepwise changes as the samples are heated from below the volume phase transition temperature to the above. A theoretical model is proposed and is in good agreement with the experimental results. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278503/
 Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Peg Based Thermo Sensitive Hydro Microgel
 Poly ethylene glycol (PEG) based microgels were synthesized and investigated. The PEG microgel has the same phase transition as the traditional poly Nisopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM). As a good substitute of PNIPAM, PEG microgel exhibits many advantages: it is easier to control the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the microgel by changing the component of copolymers; it has a more solid spherical coreshell structure to have a double thermo sensitivity; it is straightforward to add other sensitivities such as pH, magnetic field or organic functional groups; it readily forms a photonic crystal structure exhibiting Bragg diffraction; and, most importantly, the PEG microgel is biocompatible with human body and has been approved by FDA while PNIPAM has not. PEG microgels with coreshell structure are synthesized with a twostep free radical polymerization and characterized with DLS, SLS and UV–Vis. The dynamic mechanics of melting and recrystallizing of the PEG coreshell microgel are presented and discussed. Photonic crystals of PEG microgels were synthesized and characterized. The crystal can be isolated in a thin film or a bulk column. The phase transition of PEG microgel was simulated with the mean field theory. The enthalpy and entropy of phase transition can be estimated from the best fit to theoretical calculation with experimental data. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc177187/
 Magnetically Driven Instabilities in Gas Discharges
 In the present experiment a gas discharge plasma generator was designed and constructed and a search was made for evidence of a plasma instability due to the influence of an externally applied magnetic field. The evidence for such an unstable mode of operation is too indirect to make a possible conclusion, but an approach to more certain identification will be indicated. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc108219/
 Temperature Dependence of Line Widths of the Inversion Spectra of Ammonia
 One of the purposes of this work is to investigate modifications that have to be made to a standard sourcemodulation microwave spectrograph so that it can be used to study gases at various temperatures. Another objective in this work is to determine experimentally the function of temperature that describes how the line widths of microwave spectral lines vary with changing temperature. The most important segment of the study is the temperature dependence of the line width since from an accurate knowledge of this temperature dependence one is able to determine what molecular force fields are present and the relative importance of parts of the molecular force field. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc131126/
 Quantized Hydrodynamics
 The object of this paper is to derive Landau's theory of quantized hydrodynamics from the manyparticle Schroedinger equation. Landau's results are obtained, together with an additional term in the Hamiltonian. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc131535/
 Growth and Characterization of βIron Disilicide, βIron Silicon Germanide, and Osmium Silicides
 The semiconducting silicides offer significant potential for use in optoelectronic devices. Full implementation of the materials, however, requires the ability to tailor the energy gap and band structure to permit the synthesis of heterojunctions. One promising approach is to alloy the silicides with Ge. As part of an investigation into the synthesis of semiconducting silicide heterostructures, a series of βFe(Si1−xGex)2 epilayer samples, with nominal alloy content in the range 0 < x < 0.15, have been prepared by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(100). I present results of the epitaxial and crystalline quality of the films, as determined by reflection highenergy electron diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and double crystal xray diffraction, and of the band gap dependence on the alloy composition, as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A reduction in band gap was observed with increasing Ge content, in agreement with previous theoretical predictions. However Ge segregation was also observed in βFe(Si1−xGex)2 epilayers when x > 0.04. Osmium silicide films have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(100). The silicides have been grown using ebeam evaporation sources for both Os and Si onto Si(100) substrates at varying growth rates and temperatures ranging from 600700ºC. The resulting films have been analyzed using reflection highenergy electron diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, reflectivity measurements, inplane and out of plane Xray diffraction and temperature dependent magnetotransport. A change in crystalline quality is observed with an increase in Si overpressure. For a lower silicon to osmium flux ration (JSi/JOs=1.5) both OsSi2 and Os2Si3 occur, whereas with a much larger Si overpressure (JSi/JOs>4), crystalline quality is greatly increased and only a single phase, Os2Si3, is present. The outofplane Xray diffraction data show that the film grows along its [4 0 2] direction, with a good crystal quality as evidenced by the small FWHM in the rocking curve. The inplane Xray diffraction data show growth twins with perpendicular orientation to each other. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12107/
 Extinguishment of a Lowpressure Argon Discharge by a Magnetic Field
 The experiment in this study involves the extinguishment of a lowpressure argon discharge by a magnetic field. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc108257/
 Magnetic Resonance of Protons in the Earth's Magnetic Field
 The purpose of the work reported here was to determine the feasibility of applying the nuclear induction technique of Bloch to the direct observation of nuclear magnetic resonance in the very weak magnetic field of the earth. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc108047/
 A Computer Analysis of Complex GammaRay Spectra
 The purpose of this investigation was to provide a method for determining the relative intensities of all gamma rays in a particular spectrum, and thereby determine the relative transition probabilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc130612/
 High Efficiency High Power Blue Laser by Resonant Doubling in PPKTP
 I developed a high power blue laser for use in scientific and technical applications (eg. precision spectroscopy, semiconductor inspection, flow cytometry, etc). It is linearly polarized, single longitudinal and single transverse mode, and a convenient fiber coupled continuous wave (cw) laser source. My technique employs external cavity frequency doubling and provides better power and beam quality than commercially available blue diode lasers. I use a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) stabilized infrared (IR) semiconductor laser source with a polarization maintaining (PM) fiber coupled output. Using a custom made optical and mechanical design this output is coupled with a mode matching efficiency of 96% into the doubling cavity. With this carefully designed and optimized cavity, measurements were carried out at various fundamental input powers. A net efficie ncy of 81 % with an output power of 680 mW at 486 nm was obtained using 840 mW of IR input. Also I report an 87.5 % net efficiency in coupling of blue light from servo locked cavity into a single mode PM fiber. Thus I have demonstrated a total fiber to fiber efficiency of 71% can be achieved in our approach using periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP). To obtain these results, all losses in the system were carefully studied and minimized. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103306/
 DD and DT Neutron Excitation of Energy Levels in Cs133
 The purpose of this experiment was to make positive assignment of the Cs133 energy levels excited by the inelastic scattering of neutrons. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc130455/
 Nested Well Plasma Traps
 Criteria for the confinement of plasmas consisting of a positive and negative component in Penning type traps with nested electric potential wells are presented. Computational techniques for the selfconsistent calculation of potential and plasma density distributions are developed. Analyses are presented of the use of nested well Penning traps for several applications. The analyses include: calculations of timescales relevant to the applications, e.g. reaction, confinement and relaxation timescales, selfconsistent computations, and consideration of other physical phenomenon important to the applications. Possible applications of a nested well penning trap include production of high charge state ions, studies of high charge state ions, and production of antihydrogen. In addition the properties of a modified Penning trap consisting of an electric potential well applied along a radial magnetic field are explored. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc2647/
 The Angular Distribution and Total Flux of Neutrons Obtained from the DeuteriumTritium Reaction
 Monoenergetic neutrons have been produced with the lowvoltage CockroftWalton accelerator at North Texas State College using two different reactions. It is the purpose of this paper to report the angular distribution and total flux of the neutrons obtained from the T(D,n) reaction. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc107901/
 Approach to Quantum Information starting from Bell's Inequality (Part I) and Statistical Analysis of Time Series Corresponding to Complex Processes (Part II)

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I: Quantum information obeys laws that subtly extend those governing classical information, making possible novel effect such as cryptography and quantum computation. Quantum computations are extremely sensitive to disruption by interaction of the computer with its environment, but this problem can be overcome by recently developed quantum versions of classical errorcorrecting codes and faulttolerant circuits. Based on these ideas, the purpose of this paper is to provide an approach to quantum information by analyzing and demonstrating Bell's inequality and by discussing the problems related to decoherence and errorcorrecting. II: The growing need for a better understanding of complex processes has stimulated the development of new and more advanced data analysis techniques. The purpose of this research was to investigate some of the already existing techniques (Hurst's rescaled range and relative dispersion analysis), to develop a software able to process time series with these techniques, and to get familiar with the theory of diffusion processes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3092/  Random growth of interfaces: Statistical analysis of single columns and detection of critical events.

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The dynamics of growth and formation of surfaces and interfaces is becoming very important for the understanding of the origin and the behavior of a wide range of natural and industrial dynamical processes. The first part of the paper is focused on the interesting field of the random growth of surfaces and interfaces, which finds application in physics, geology, biology, economics, and engineering among others. In this part it is studied the random growth of surfaces from within the perspective of a single column, namely, the fluctuation of the column height around the mean value, which is depicted as being subordinated to a standard fluctuationdissipation process with friction g. It is argued that the main properties of KardarParisiZhang theory are derived by identifying the distribution of return times to y(0) = 0, which is a truncated inverse power law, with the distribution of subordination times. The agreement of the theoretical prediction with the numerical treatment of the model of ballistic deposition is remarkably good, in spite of the finite size effects affecting this model. The second part of the paper deals with the efficiency of the diffusion entropy analysis (DEA) when applied to the studies of stromatolites. In this case it is shown that this tool can be confidently used for the detection of complexity. The connection between the two studies is established by the use of the DEA itself. In fact, in both analyses, that is, the random growth of interfaces and the study of stromatolites, the method of diffusion entropy is able to detect the real scaling of the system, namely, the scaling of the process is determined by genuinely random events, also called critical events. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4550/  Effect of Sample Geometry on Magnetomorphic Oscillations in the Hall Effect in Cadium at LiquidHelium Temperatures
 This thesis presents observations on sizeeffect oscillations in the Hall effect in an oriented single crystal of highly pure cadmium at liquidhelium temperatures. All measurements were made in transverse magnetic field. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc130799/
 Measurement of Dielectric Constant and Dipole Moment of Liquids
 A study of procedures and techniques of measuring dielectric constant and dipole moment of liquids. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83399/
 Boundary Scattering of Electrons in Thin Cadmium Single Crystals
 In the present investigation, zinc was plated onto a cadmium crystal to determine the effect on the scattering parameter. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc130996/
 The Diurnal Variation of Cosmic Radiation
 The primary purpose of this investigation was to study the diurnal variation of cosmicray intensity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc163872/
 The Use of Mossbauer Effect for the Study of Recoilless Rayleigh Scattering of LowEnergy Gamma Rays from Sodium Chloride
 Evidence that recoilless emission and absorption exist may be shown by an experiment in which the source gamma rays are allowed to pass through a suitable absorber to a detector. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc108227/