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 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Studies of Highly Charged Molecular Ions
 The existence of singly, doubly, and triply charged diatomic molecular ions was observed by using an Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique. The mean lifetimes of 3 MeV boron diatomic molecular ions were measured. No isotopic effects on the mean lifetimes of boron diatomic molecules were observed for charge state 3+. Also, the mean lifetime of SiF^3+ was measured. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279004/
 Anderson Localization in TwoChannel Wires with Correlated Disorder: DNA as an Application
 This research studied the Anderson localization of electrons in twochannel wires with correlated disorder and in DNA molecules. It involved an analytical calculation part where the formula for the inverse localization length for electron states in a twochannel wire is derived. It also involved a computational part where the localization length is calculated for some DNA molecules. Electron localization in twochannel wires with correlated disorder was studied using a singleelectron tightbinding model. Calculations were within secondorder Bornapproximation to secondorder in disorder parameters. An analytical expression for localization length as a functional of correlations in potentials was found. Anderson localization in DNA molecules were studied in singlechannel wire and twochannel models for electron transport in DNA. In both of the models, some DNA sequences exhibited delocalized electron states in their energy spectrum. Studies with twochannel wire model for DNA yielded important link between electron localization properties and genetic information. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5204/
 Angular Dependence of the Stopping Processes and the Yields of Ioninduced Electron Emission from Channeled MEV Protons in <100> Silicon Foils
 The present work reports the experimental evidence of anomalous energy loss, energy straggling, and the corresponding ioninduced electron emission yields of channeled protons in silicon. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279025/
 Anisotropic Relaxation Time for Solids with Ellipsoidal Fermi Surfaces
 Many solids have Fermi surfaces which are approximated as ellipsoids. A comprehensive solution for the magnetoconductivity of an ellipsoid is obtained which proves the existence of a relaxation time tensor which can be anisotropic and which is a function of energy only. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278322/
 Broadband Light Emission From Ion Implanted Silicon Nanocrystals Via Plasmonic and Nonplasmonic Effects for Optoelectronics
 Broad band light emission ranging from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near infrared (NIR) has been observed from silicon nanoparticles fabricated using low energy (3045 keV) metal and nonmetal ion implantation with a fluence of 5*1015 ions/cm2 in crystalline Si(100). It is found from a systematic study of the annealing carried out at certain temperatures that the spectral characteristics remains unchanged except for the enhancement of light emission intensity due to annealing. The annealing results in nucleation of metal nanoclusters in the vicinity of Si nanoparticles which enhances the emission intensity. Structural and optical characterization demonstrate that the emission originates from both highly localized defect bound excitons at the Si/Sio2 interface, as well as surface and interface traps associated with the increased surface area of the Si nanocrystals. The emission in the UV is due to interband transitions from localized excitonic states at the interface of Si/SiO2 or from the surface of Si nanocrystals. The radiative efficiency of the UV emission from the Si nanoparticles can be modified by the localized surface plasmon (LSP) interaction induced by the nucleation of silver nanoparticles with controlled annealing of the samples. The UV emission from Si nanoclusters are coupled resonantly to the LSP modes. The nonresonant emission can be enhanced by electrostaticimage charge effects. The emission in the UV (~3.3 eV) region can also be significantly enhanced by electrostatic image charge effects induced by Au nanoparticles. The UV emission from Si nanoclusters, in this case, can be coupled without LSP resonance. The recombination of carriers in Si bound excitons is mediated by transverse optical phonons due to the polarization of the surface bound exciton complex. The low energy side of emission spectrum at low temperature is dominated by 1st and 2nd order phonon replicas. Broad band emission ranging from the UV to the NIR wavelength range can be obtained from Ag implanted onto a single silicon substrate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc177255/
 Carbon nanotube/microwave interactions and applications to hydrogen fuel cells.

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One of the leading problems that will be carried into the 21st century is that of alternative fuels to get our planet away from the consumption of fossil fuels. There has been a growing interest in the use of nanotechnology to somehow aid in this progression. There are several unanswered questions in how to do this. It is known that carbon nanotubes will store hydrogen but it is unclear how to increase that storage capacity and how to remove this hydrogen fuel once stored. This document offers some answers to these questions. It is possible to implant more hydrogen in a nanotube sample using a technique of ion implantation at energy levels ~50keV and below. This, accompanied with the rapid removal of that stored hydrogen through the application of a microwave field, proves to be one promising avenue to solve these two unanswered questions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5796/  Chaos and Momentum Diffusion of the Classical and Quantum Kicked Rotor
 The de BroglieBohm (BB) approach to quantum mechanics gives trajectories similar to classical trajectories except that they are also determined by a quantum potential. The quantum potential is a "fictitious potential" in the sense that it is part of the quantum kinetic energy. We use quantum trajectories to treat quantum chaos in a manner similar to classical chaos. For the kicked rotor, which is a bounded system, we use the Benettin et al. method to calculate both classical and quantum Lyapunov exponents as a function of control parameter K and find chaos in both cases. Within the chaotic sea we find in both cases nonchaotic stability regions for K equal to multiples of π. For even multiples of π the stability regions are associated with classical accelerator mode islands and for odd multiples of π they are associated with new oscillator modes. We examine the structure of these regions. Momentum diffusion of the quantum kicked rotor is studied with both BB and standard quantum mechanics (SQM). A general analytical expression is given for the momentum diffusion at quantum resonance of both BB and SQM. We obtain agreement between the two approaches in numerical experiments. For the case of nonresonance the quantum potential is not zero and must be included as part of the quantum kinetic energy for agreement. The numerical data for momentum diffusion of classical kicked rotor is well fit by a power law DNβ in the number of kicks N. In the anomalous momentum diffusion regions due to accelerator modes the exponent β(K) is slightly less than quadratic, except for a slight dip, in agreement with an upper bound (K2/2)N2. The corresponding coefficient D(K) in these regions has three distinct sections, most likely due to accelerator modes with period greater than one. We also show that the local Lyapunov exponent of the classical kicked rotor has a plateau for a duration that depends on the initial separation and then decreases asymptotically as O(t1lnt), where t is the time. This behavior is consistent with an upper bound that is determined analytically. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4824/
 Characterization and Field Emission Properties of Mo2C and Diamond Thin Films Deposited on Mo Foils and Tips by Electrophoresis
 In this dissertation M02C and diamond films deposited by electrophoresis on flat Mo foils and tips have been studied to determine their suitability as field emission tips. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278393/
 Characterization, properties and applications of novel nanostructured hydrogels.

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The characterization, properties and applications of the novel nanostructured microgel (nanoparticle network and microgel crystal) composed of polyNisopropylacrylanmidecoallylamine (PNIPAMcoallylamine) and PNIPAMcoacrylic acid(AA) have been investigated. For the novel nanostructured hydrogels with the two levels of structure: the primary network inside each individual particle and the secondary network of the crosslinked nanoparticles, the new shear modulus, drug release law from hydrogel with heterogeneous structure have been studied. The successful method for calculating the volume fraction related the phase transition of colloid have been obtained. The kinetics of crystallization in an aqueous dispersion of PNIPAM particles has been explored using UVvisible transmission spectroscopy. This dissertation also includes the initial research on the melting behavior of colloidal crystals composed of PNIPAM microgels. Many new findings in this study area have never been reported before. The theoretical model for the columnar crystal growth from the top to bottom of PNIPAM microgel has been built, which explains the growth mechanism of the novel columnar hydrogel colloidal crystals. Since the unique structure of the novel nanostructured hydrogels, their properties are different with the conventional hydrogels and the hardspherelike system. The studies and results in this dissertation have the important significant for theoretical study and valuable application of these novel nanostructured hydrogels. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5605/  Charge Collection Studies on Integrated Circuit Test Structures using HeavyIon Microbeams and MEDICI Simulation Calculations
 Ion induced charge collection dynamics within Integrated Circuits (ICs) is important due to the presence of ionizing radiation in the IC environment. As the charge signals defining data states are reduced by voltage and area scaling, the semiconductor device will naturally have a higher susceptibility to ionizing radiation induced effects. The ionizing radiation can lead to the undesired generation and migration of charge within an IC. This can alter, for example, the memory state of a bit, and thereby produce what is called a "soft" error, or Single Event Upset (SEU). Therefore, the response of ICs to natural radiation is of great concern for the reliability of future devices. Immunity to soft errors is listed as a requirement in the 1997 National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors prepared by the Semiconductor Industry Association in the United States. To design more robust devices, it is essential to create and test accurate models of induced charge collection and transport in semiconductor devices. A heavy ion microbeam produced by an accelerator is an ideal tool to study charge collection processes in ICs and to locate the weak nodes and structures for improvement through hardening design. In this dissertation, the Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) technique is utilized to simulate recoil effects of ions in ICs. These silicon or light ion recoils are usually produced by the elastic scattering or inelastic reactions between cosmic neutrons or protons and the lattice atoms in ICs. Specially designed test structures were experimentally studied, using microbeams produced at Sandia National Laboratories. A new technique, Diffusion Time Resolved IBICC, is first proposed in this work to measure the average arrival time of the diffused charge, which can be related to the first moment (or the average time) of the arrival carrier density at the junction. A 2D device simulation tool, the MEDICI code, and heavyion microbeams are used to calculate and measure charge collection and relative arrival time on stripelike test junctions. The MEDICI simulation is in qualitative and sometimes even quantitative agreement with the microbeam measurements. The amount of charge collection and the magnitude of average arrival time for diffused charge collection can be crucial to understanding and mitigating radiation induced circuit malfunctions during normal IC operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc2469/
 Charge State Dependence of MShell XRay Production in 67Ho by 212 MeV Carbon Ions
 The charge state dependence of Mshell xray production cross sections of 67HO bombarded by 212 MeV carbon ions with and without Kvacancies are reported. The experiment was performed using an NEC 9SDH2 tandem accelerator at the Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory of the University of North Texas. The high charge state carbon ions were produced by a postaccelerator stripping gas cell. Ultraclean holmium targets were used in ionatom collision to generate Mshell x rays at energies from 1.05 to 1.58 keV. The xray measurements were made with a windowless Si(Li) xray detector that was calibrated using radiative sources, particle induced xray emission (PIXE), and the atomic field bremsstrahlung (AFB) techniques. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278725/
 Charge State Distributions in Molecular Dissociation
 The present work provides charge state fractions that may be used to generate TEAMS relative sensitivity factors for impurities in semiconductor materials. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278340/
 Complexity as a form of transition from dynamics to thermodynamics: Application to sociological and biological processes.
 This dissertation addresses the delicate problem of establishing the statistical mechanical foundation of complex processes. These processes are characterized by a delicate balance of randomness and order, and a correct paradigm for them seems to be the concept of sporadic randomness. First of all, we have studied if it is possible to establish a foundation of these processes on the basis of a generalized version of thermodynamics, of nonextensive nature. A detailed account of this attempt is reported in Ignaccolo and Grigolini (2001), which shows that this approach leads to inconsistencies. It is shown that there is no need to generalize the KolmogorovSinai entropy by means of a nonextensive indicator, and that the anomaly of these processes does not rest on their nonextensive nature, but rather in the fact that the process of transition from dynamics to thermodynamics, this being still extensive, occurs in an exceptionally extended time scale. Even, when the invariant distribution exists, the time necessary to reach the thermodynamic scaling regime is infinite. In the case where no invariant distribution exists, the complex system lives forever in a condition intermediate between dynamics and thermodynamics. This discovery has made it possible to create a new method of analysis of nonstationary time series which is currently applied to problems of sociological and physiological interest. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4209/
 Complexity as Aging NonPoisson Renewal Processes
 The search for a satisfactory model for complexity, meant as an intermediate condition between total order and total disorder, is still subject of debate in the scientific community. In this dissertation the emergence of nonPoisson renewal processes in several complex systems is investigated. After reviewing the basics of renewal theory, another popular approach to complexity, called modulation, is introduced. I show how these two different approaches, given a suitable choice of the parameter involved, can generate the same macroscopic outcome, namely an inverse power law distribution density of events occurrence. To solve this ambiguity, a numerical instrument, based on the theoretical analysis of the aging properties of renewal systems, is introduced. The application of this method, called renewal aging experiment, allows us to distinguish if a time series has been generated by a renewal or a modulation process. This method of analysis is then applied to several physical systems, from blinking quantum dots, to the human brain activity, to seismic fluctuations. Theoretical conclusions about the underlying nature of the considered complex systems are drawn. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3706/
 The Concept of Collision Strength and Its Applications
 Collision strength, the measure of strength for a binary collision, hasn't been defined clearly. In practice, many physical arguments have been employed for the purpose and taken for granted. A scattering angle has been widely and intensively used as a measure of collision strength in plasma physics for years. The result of this is complication and unnecessary approximation in deriving some of the basic kinetic equations and in calculating some of the basic physical terms. The Boltzmann equation has a fivefold integral collision term that is complicated. Chandrasekhar and Spitzer's approaches to the linear FokkerPlanck coefficients have several approximations. An effective variablechange technique has been developed in this dissertation as an alternative to scattering angle as the measure of collision strength. By introducing the square of the reduced impulse or its equivalencies as a collision strength variable, many plasma calculations have been simplified. The fivefold linear Boltzmann collision integral and linearized Boltzmann collision integral are simplified to threefold integrals. The arbitrary order linear FokkerPlanck coefficients are calculated and expressed in a uniform expression. The new theory provides a simple and exact method for describing the equilibrium plasma collision rate, and a precise calculation of the equilibrium relaxation time. It generalizes bimolecular collision reaction rate theory to a reaction rate theory for plasmas. A simple formula of high precision with wide temperature range has been developed for electron impact ionization rates for carbon atoms and ions. The universality of the concept of collision strength is emphasized. This dissertation will show how Arrhenius' chemical reaction rate theory and Thomson's ionization theory can be unified as one single theory under the concept of collision strength, and how many important physical terms in different disciplines, such as activation energy in chemical reaction theory, ionization energy in Thomson's ionization theory, and the Coulomb logarithm in plasma physics, can be unified into a single one  the threshold value of collision strength. The collision strength, which is a measure of a transfer of momentum in units of energy, can be used to reconcile the differences between Descartes' opinion and Leibnitz's opinion about the "true'' measure of a force. Like Newton's second law, which provides an instantaneous measure of a force, collision strength, as a cumulative measure of a force, can be regarded as part of a law of force in general. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4530/
 Cooperationinduced Criticality in Neural Networks
 The human brain is considered to be the most complex and powerful informationprocessing device in the known universe. The fundamental concepts behind the physics of complex systems motivate scientists to investigate the human brain as a collective property emerging from the interaction of thousand agents. In this dissertation, I investigate the emergence of cooperationinduced properties in a system of interacting units. I demonstrate that the neural network of my research generates a series of properties such as avalanche distribution in size and duration coinciding with the experimental results on neural networks both in vivo and in vitro. Focusing attention on temporal complexity and fractal index of the system, I discuss how to define an order parameter and phase transition. Criticality is assumed to correspond to the emergence of temporal complexity, interpreted as a manifestation of nonPoisson renewal dynamics. In addition, I study the transmission of information between two networks to confirm the criticality and discuss how the network topology changes over time in the light of Hebbian learning. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc283813/
 Criticality in Cooperative Systems
 Cooperative behavior arises from the interactions of single units that globally produce a complex dynamics in which the system acts as a whole. As an archetype I refer to a flock of birds. As a result of cooperation the whole flock gets special abilities that the single individuals would not have if they were alone. This research work led to the discovery that the function of a flock, and more in general, that of cooperative systems, surprisingly rests on the occurrence of organizational collapses. In this study, I used cooperative systems based on selfpropelled particle models (the flock models) which have been proved to be virtually equivalent to sociological network models mimicking the decision making processes (the decision making model). The critical region is an intermediate condition between a highly disordered state and a strong ordered one. At criticality the waiting times distribution density between two consecutive collapses shows an inverse power law form with an anomalous statistical behavior. The scientific evidences are based on measures of information theory, correlation in time and space, and fluctuation statistical analysis. In order to prove the benefit for a system to live at criticality, I made a flock system interact with another similar system, and then observe the information transmission for different disturbance values. I proved that at criticality the transfer of information gets the maximal efficiency. As last step, the flock model has been shown that, despite its simplicity, is sufficiently a realistic model as proved via the use of 3D simulations and computer animations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271910/
 Decoherence, Master Equation for Open Quantum Systems, and the Subordination Theory
 This thesis addresses the problem of a form of anomalous decoherence that sheds light into the spectroscopy of blinking quantum dots. The system studied is a twostate system, interacting with an external environment that has the effect of establishing an interaction between the two states, via a coherence generating coupling, called inphasing. The collisions with the environment produce also decoherence, named dephasing. Decoherence is interpreted as the entanglement of the coherent superposition of these two states with the environment. The joint action of inphasing and dephasing generates a Markov master equation statistically equivalent to a random walker jumping from one state to the other. This model can be used to describe intermittent fluorescence, as a sequence of "light on" and "light off" states. The experiments on blinking quantum dots indicate that the sojourn times are distributed with an inverse power law. Thus, a proposal to turn the model for Poisson fluorescence intermittency into a model for nonPoisson fluorescence intermittency is made. The collisionlike interaction of the twostate system with the environment is assumed to takes place at random times rather than at regular times. The time distance between one collision and the next is given by a distribution, called the subordination distribution. If the subordination distribution is exponential, a sequence of collisions yielding no persistence is turned into a sequence of "light on" and "light off" states with significant persistence. If the subordination function is an inverse power law the sequel of "light on" and "light off" states becomes equivalent to the experimental sequences. Different conditions are considered, ranging from predominant inphasing to predominant dephasing. When dephasing is predominant the sequel of "light on" and "light off" states in the time asymptotic limit becomes an inverse power law. If the predominant dephasing involves a time scale much larger than the minimum time scale accessible to the experimental observation, thereby generating persistence, the resulting distribution becomes a MittagLeffler function. If dephasing is predominant, in addition to the inverse power law distribution of "light off" and "light on" time duration, a strong correlation between "light on" and "light off" state is predicted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4812/
 A Determination of the Fine Structure Constant Using Precision Measurements of Helium Fine Structure
 Spectroscopic measurements of the helium atom are performed to high precision using an atomic beam apparatus and electrooptic laser techniques. These measurements, in addition to serving as a test of helium theory, also provide a new determination of the fine structure constant α. An apparatus was designed and built to overcome limitations encountered in a previous experiment. Not only did this allow an improved level of precision but also enabled new consistency checks, including an extremely useful measurement in 3He. I discuss the details of the experimental setup along with the major changes and improvements. A new value for the J = 0 to 2 fine structure interval in the 23P state of 4He is measured to be 31 908 131.25(30) kHz. The 300 Hz precision of this result represents an improvement over previous results by more than a factor of three. Combined with the latest theoretical calculations, this yields a new determination of α with better than 5 ppb uncertainty, α1 = 137.035 999 55(64). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31547/
 Deterministic Brownian Motion
 The goal of this thesis is to contribute to the ambitious program of the foundation of developing statistical physics using chaos. We build a deterministic model of Brownian motion and provide a microscpoic derivation of the FokkerPlanck equation. Since the Brownian motion of a particle is the result of the competing processes of diffusion and dissipation, we create a model where both diffusion and dissipation originate from the same deterministic mechanism  the deterministic interaction of that particle with its environment. We show that standard diffusion which is the basis of the FokkerPlanck equation rests on the Central Limit Theorem, and, consequently, on the possibility of deriving it from a deterministic process with a quickly decaying correlation function. The sensitive dependence on initial conditions, one of the defining properties of chaos insures this rapid decay. We carefully address the problem of deriving dissipation from the interaction of a particle with a fully deterministic nonlinear bath, that we term the booster. We show that the solution of this problem essentially rests on the linear response of a booster to an external perturbation. This raises a longstanding problem concerned with Kubo's Linear Response Theory and the strong criticism against it by van Kampen. Kubo's theory is based on a perturbation treatment of the Liouville equation, which, in turn, is expected to be totally equivalent to a firstorder perturbation treatment of single trajectories. Since the boosters are chaotic, and chaos is essential to generate diffusion, the single trajectories are highly unstable and do not respond linearly to weak external perturbation. We adopt chaotic maps as boosters of a Brownian particle, and therefore address the problem of the response of a chaotic booster to an external perturbation. We notice that a fully chaotic map is characterized by an invariant measure which is a continuous function of the control parameters of the map. Consequently if the external perturbation is made to act on a control parameter of the map, we show that the booster distribution undergoes slight modifications as an effect of the weak external perturbation, thereby leading to a linear response of the mean value of the perturbed variable of the booster. This approach to linear response completely bypasses the criticism of van Kampen. The joint use of these two phenomena, diffusion and friction stemming from the interaction of the Brownian particle with the same booster, makes the microscopic derivation of a FokkerPlanck equation and Brownian motion, possible. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279262/
 Dielectric Relaxation of Aqueous Solutions at Microwave Frequencies for 3[less than or equal to]f[less than or equal to]35 GHz. Using a Loaded Microwave Cavity Operating in the TM010 Mode
 The frequency dependence and temperature dependence of the complex dielectric constant of water is of great interest. The temperature dependence of the physical properties of water given in the literature, specific heat, thermal conductivity, electric conductivity, pH, etc. are compared to the a. c. (microwave) and d. c. conductivity of water with a variety of concentration of different substances such as HC1, NaCl, HaS04, etc. When each of these properties is plotted versus inverse absolute temperature, it can be seen that each sample shows "transition temperatures". In this work, Slater's perturbation equations for a resonant microwave cavity were used to analyze the experimental results for the microwave data. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279039/
 Distribution of Nighttime Fregion Molecular Ion Concentrations and 6300 Å Nightglow Morphology
 The purpose of this study is twofold. The first is to determine the dependence of the molecular ion profiles on the various ionospheric and atmospheric parameters that affect their distributions. The second is to demonstrate the correlation of specific ionospheric parameters with 6300 Å nightglow intensity during periods of magnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278620/
 A dynamic and thermodynamic approach to complexity.
 The problem of establishing the correct approach to complexity is a very hot and crucial issue to which this dissertation gives some contributions. This dissertation considers two main possibilities, one, advocated by Tsallis and coworkers, setting the foundation of complexity on a generalized, nonextensive , form of thermodynamics, and another, proposed by the UNT Center for Nonlinear Science, on complexity as a new condition that, for physical systems, would be equivalent to a state of matter intermediate between dynamics and thermodynamics. In the first part of this dissertation, the concept of KolmogorovSinai entropy is introduced. The Pesin theorem is generalized in the formalism of Tsallis nonextensive thermodynamics. This generalized form of Pesin theorem is used in the study of two major classes of problems, whose prototypes are given by the Manneville and the logistic map respectively. The results of these studies convince us that the approach to complexity must be made along lines different from those of the nonextensive thermodynamics. We have been convinced that the Lévy walk can be used as a prototype model of complexity, as a condition of balance between order and randomness that yields new phenomena such as aging, and multifractality. We reach the conclusions that these properties must be studied within a dynamic rather than thermodynamic perspective. The second part focuses on the study of the heart beating problem using a dynamic model, the socalled memory beyond memory, based on the Lévy walker model. It is proved that the memory beyond memory effect is more obvious in the healthy heart beating sequence. The concepts of fractal, multifractal, wavelet transformation and wavelet transform maximum modulus (WTMM) method are introduced. Artificial time sequences are generated by the memory beyond memory model to mimic the heart beating sequence. Using WTMM method, the multifratal singular spectrums of the sequences are calculated. It is clear that the sequence with strong memory beyond memory effect has broader singular spectrum.200308 digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4276/
 The dynamic foundation of fractal operators.
 The fractal operators discussed in this dissertation are introduced in the form originally proposed in an earlier book of the candidate, which proves to be very convenient for physicists, due to its heuristic and intuitive nature. This dissertation proves that these fractal operators are the most convenient tools to address a number of problems in condensed matter, in accordance with the point of view of many other authors, and with the earlier book of the candidate. The microscopic foundation of the fractal calculus on the basis of either classical or quantum mechanics is still unknown, and the second part of this dissertation aims at this important task. This dissertation proves that the adoption of a master equation approach, and so of probabilistic as well as dynamical argument yields a satisfactory solution of the problem, as shown in a work by the candidate already published. At the same time, this dissertation shows that the foundation of Levy statistics is compatible with ordinary statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. The problem of the connection with the KolmogorovSinai entropy is a delicate problem that, however, can be successfully solved. The derivation from a microscopic Liouvillelike approach based on densities, however, is shown to be impossible. This dissertation, in fact, establishes the existence of a striking conflict between densities and trajectories. The third part of this dissertation is devoted to establishing the consequences of the conflict between trajectories and densities in quantum mechanics, and triggers a search for the experimental assessment of spontaneous wavefunction collapses. The research work of this dissertation has been the object of several papers and two books. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4235/
 EEG, Alpha Waves and Coherence
 This thesis addresses some theoretical issues generated by the results of recent analysis of EEG time series proving the brain dynamics are driven by abrupt changes making them depart from the ordinary Poisson condition. These changes are renewal, unpredictable and nonergodic. We refer to them as crucial events. How is it possible that this form of randomness be compatible with the generation of waves, for instance alpha waves, whose observation seems to suggest the opposite view the brain is characterized by surprisingly extended coherence? To shed light into this apparently irretrievable contradiction we propose a model based on a generalized form of Langevin equation under the influence of a periodic stimulus. We assume that there exist two different forms of time, a subjective form compatible with Poisson statistical physical and an objective form that is accessible to experimental observation. The transition from the former to the latter form is determined by the brain dynamics interpreted as emerging from the cooperative interaction among many units that, in the absence of cooperation would generate Poisson fluctuations. We call natural time the brain internal time and we make the assumption that in the natural time representation the time evolution of the EEG variable y(t) is determined by a Langevin equation perturbed by a periodic process that in this time representation is hardly distinguishable from an erratic process. We show that the representation of this random process in the experimental time scale is characterized by a surprisingly extended coherence. We show that this model generates a sequence of damped oscillations with a time behavior that is remarkably similar to that derived from the analysis of real EEG's. The main result of this research work is that the existence of crucial events is not incompatible with the alpha wave coherence. In addition to this important result, we find another result that may help our group, or any other research group working on the analysis of brain's dynamics, to prove or to disprove the existence of crucial events. We study the diffusion process generated by fluctuations emerging from the same model after filtering out the alpha coherence, and we study the recursion to the origin. We study the survival probability of this process, namely the probability that up to a given time no recrossing of the origin occurs. We find that this is an inverse power law with a power that depends on whether or not crucial events exist. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc28389/
 The Effect of Average Grain Size on Polycrystalline Diamond Films
 The work function of hydrogenterminated, polycrystalline diamond was studied using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Polycrystalline diamond films were deposited onto molybdenum substrates by electrophoresis for grain sizes ranging from 0.3 to 108 microns. The work function and electron affinity were measured using 21.2 eV photons from a helium plasma source. The films were characterized by xray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine elemental composition and the sp2/sp3 carbon fraction. The percentage of (111) diamond was determined by xray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy was performed to determine average grain size. The measured work function has a maximum of 5.1 eV at 0.3 microns, and decreases to 3.2 eV at approximately 4 microns. Then the work function increases with increasing grain size to 4.0 eV at 15 microns and then asymptotically approaches the 4.8 eV work function of single crystal diamond at 108 microns. These results are consistent with a 3component model in which the work function is controlled by singlecrystal (111) diamond at larger grain sizes, graphitic carbon at smaller grain sizes, and by the electron affinity for the intervening grain sizes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3164/
 The Effects of Cesium Deposition and Gas Exposure on the Field Emission Properties of Single Wall and Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes
 The effects of Cs deposition on the field emission (FE) properties of singlewalled carbon nanotube (SWNT) bundles were studied. In addition, a comparative study was made on the effects of O2, Ar and H2 gases on the field emission properties of SWNT bundles and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). We observed that Cs deposition decreases the turnon field for FE by a factor of 2.1  2.9 and increases the FE current by 6 orders of magnitude. After Cs deposition, the FE current versus voltage (IV) curves showed nonFowlerNordheim behavior at large currents consistent with tunneling from adsorbate states. At lower currents, the ratio of the slope of the FE IV curves before and after Cs deposition was approximately 2.1. Exposure to N2 does not decrease the FE current, while exposure to O2 decreases the FE current. Our results show that cesiated SWNT bundles have great potential as economical and reliable vacuum electron sources. We find that H2 and Ar gases do not significantly affect the FE properties of SWNTs or MWNTs. O2 temporarily reduces the FE current and increases the turnon voltage of SWNTs. Full recovery of these properties occurred after operation in UHV. The higher operating voltages in an O2 environment caused a permanent decrease of FE current and increase in turnon field of MWNTs. The ratios of the slopes before and after O2 exposure were approximately 1.04 and 0.82 for SWNTs and MWNTs, respectively. SWNTs compared to MWNTs would appear to make more economical and reliable vacuum electron sources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3110/
 Effects of Dissipation on Propagation of Surface Electromagnetic and Acoustic Waves
 With the recent emergence of the field of metamaterials, the study of subwavelength propagation of plane waves and the dissipation of their energy either in the form of Joule losses in the case of electomagnetic waves or in the form of viscous dissipation in the case of acoustic waves in different interfaced media assumes great importance. with this motivation, I have worked on problems in two different areas, viz., plasmonics and surface acoustics. the first part (chapters 2 & 3) of the dissertation deals with the emerging field of plasmonics. Researchers have come up with various designs in an efort to fabricate efficient plasmonic waveguides capable of guiding plasmonic signals. However, the inherent dissipation in the form of Joule losses limits efficient usage of surface plasmon signal. a dielectricmetal¬dielectric planar structure is one of the most practical plasmonic structures that can serve as an efficient waveguide to guide electromagnetic waves along the metaldielectric boundary. I present here a theoretical study of propagation of surface plasmons along a symmetric dielectricmetaldielectric structure and show how proper orientation of the optical axis of the anisotropic substrate enhances the propagation length. an equation for propagation length is derived in a wide range of frequencies. I also show how the frequency of coupled surface plasmons can be modulated by changing the thickness of the metal film. I propose a KronigPenny model for the plasmonic crystal, which in the long wavelength limit, may serve as a homogeneous dielectric substrate with high anisotropy which do not exist for natural optical crystals. in the second part (chapters 4 & 5) of the dissertation, I discuss an interesting effect of extraordinary absorption of acoustic energy due to resonant excitation of Rayleigh waves in a narrow water channel clad between two metal plates. Starting from the elastic properties of the metal plates, I derive a dispersion equation that gives resonant frequencies, which coincide with those observed in the experiment that was performed by Wave Phenomena Group at Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain. Two eigenmodes with different polarizations and phase velocities are obtained from the dispersion equation. at certain critical aperture of the channel, an interesting cutoff effect, which is unusual for an acoustic wave, is observed for one of the eigenmodes with symmetric distribution of the pressure field. the theoretical prediction of the coupling and synchronization of Rayleigh waves strongly supports the experimentally measured shift of the resonant frequencies in the transmission spectra with channel aperture. the observed high level of absorption may find applications in designing metamaterial acoustic absorbers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115126/
 Effects of Quantum Coherence and Interference

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Quantum coherence and interference (QCI) is a phenomenon that takes place in all multilevel atomic systems interacting with multiple lasers. In this work QCI is used to create several interesting effects like lasing without inversion (LWI), controlling group velocity of light to extreme values, controlling the direction of propagation through nonlinear phase matching condition and for controlling the correlations in field fluctuations. Controlling group velocity of light is very interesting because of many novel applications it can offer. One of the unsolved problems in this area is to achieve a slow and fast light which can be tuned continuously as a function of frequency. We describe a method for creation of tunable slow and fast light by controlling intensity of incident laser fields using QCI effects. Lasers are not new to the modern world but an extreme ultraviolet laser or a xray laser is definitely one of the most desirable technologies today. Using QCI, we describe a method to realize lasing at high frequencies by creating lasing without inversion. Role of QCI in creating correlations and anticorrelations, which are generated by vacuum fluctuations, in a three level lambda system coupled to two strong fields is discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc500094/  The Effects of Residual Gases on the Field Emission Properties of Zno, Gan, Zns Nanostructures, and the Effects of Light on the Resistivity of Graphene
 In this dissertation, I present that at a vacuum of 3×107 Torr, residual O2, CO2, H2 and Ar exposure do not significantly degrade the field emission (FE) properties of ZnO nanorods, but N2 exposure significantly does. I propose that this could be due to the dissociation of N2 into atomic nitrogen species and the reaction of such species with ZnO. I also present the effects of O2, CO2, H2O, N2, H2, and Ar residual gas exposure on the FE properties of GaN and ZnS nanostructure. A brief review of growth of ZnO, GaN and ZnS is provided. In addition, Cs deposition on GaN nanostructures at ultrahigh vacuum results in 30% decrease in turnon voltage and 60% in work function. The improvement in FE properties could be due to a Csinduced spacecharge layer at the surface that reduces the barrier for FE and lowers the work function. I describe a new phenomenon, in which the resistivity of CVDgrown graphene increases to a higher saturated value under light exposure, and depends on the wavelength of the light—the shorter the wavelength, the higher the resistivity. Firstprinciple calculations and theoretical analysis based on density functional theory show that (1) a water molecule close to a graphene defect is easier to be split than that of the case of no defect existing and (2) there are a series of metastable partially disassociated states for an interfacial water molecule. Calculated disassociation energies are from 2.5 eV to 4.6 eV, that match the experimental observation range of light wavelength from visible to 254 nm UV light under which the resistivity of CVDgrown graphene is increased. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc500202/
 An Electro Magnetostatic Field for Confinement of Charged Particle Beams and Plasmas
 A system is presented that is capable of confining an ion beam or plasma within a region that is essentially free of applied fields. An Artificially Structured Boundary (ASB) produces a spatially periodic set of magnetic field cusps that provides charged particle confinement. Electrostatic plugging of the magnetic field cusps enhances confinement. An ASB that has a small spatial period, compared to the dimensions of a confined plasma, generates electro magnetostatic fields with a short range. An ASBlined volume thus constructed creates an effectively field free region near its center. It is assumed that a nonneutral plasma confined within such a volume relaxes to a MaxwellBoltzmann distribution. Space charge based confinement of a second species of charged particles is envisioned, where the second species is confined by the space charge of the first nonneutral plasma species. An electron plasma confined within an ASBlined volume can potentially provide confinement of a positive ion beam or positive ion plasma. Experimental as well as computational results are presented in which a plasma or charged particle beam interact with the electro magnetostatic fields generated by an ASB. A theoretical model is analyzed and solved via selfconsistent computational methods to determine the behavior and equilibrium conditions of a relaxed plasma. The equilibrium conditions of a relaxed two species plasma are also computed. In such a scenario, space charge based electrostatic confinement is predicted to occur where a second plasma species is confined by the space charge of the first plasma species. An experimental apparatus with cylindrical symmetry that has its interior surface lined with an ASB is presented. This system was developed by using a simulation of the electro magnetostatic fields present within the trap to guide mechanical design. The construction of the full experimental apparatus is discussed. Experimental results that show the characteristics of electron beam transmission through the experimental apparatus are presented. A description of the experimental hardware and software used for trapping a charged particle beam or plasma is also presented. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc500001/
 Electron Density and Collision Frequency Studies Using a Resonant Microwave Cavity as a Probe
 Electron densities and collision frequencies were obtained on a number of gases in a dc discharge at low pressures (0.702mm of Hg). These measurements were performed by microwave probing of a filament of the dc discharge placed coaxially in a resonant cavity operating in a TM₀₁₀ mode. The equipment and techniques for making the microwave measurements employing the resonant cavity are described. One of the main features of this investigation is the technique of differentiating the resonance signal of the loaded cavity in order to make accurate measurements of the resonant frequency and halfpower point frequencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279091/
 Electrostatic Effects in IIIV Semiconductor Based Metaloptical Nanostructures

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The modification of the band edge or emission energy of semiconductor quantum well light emitters due to image charge induced phenomenon is an emerging field of study. This effect observed in quantum well light emitters is critical for all metaloptics based light emitters including plasmonics, or nanometallic electrode based light emitters. This dissertation presents, for the first time, a systematic study of the image charge effect on semiconductor–metal systems. the necessity of introducing the image charge interactions is demonstrated by experiments and mathematical methods for semiconductormetal image charge interactions are introduced and developed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115090/  Electrostatic Mechanism of Emission Enhancement in Hybrid Metalsemiconductor Lightemitting Heterostructures
 IIIV nitrides have been put to use in a variety of applications including laser diodes for modern DVD devices and for solidstate white lighting. Plasmonics has come to the foreground over the past decade as a means for increasing the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of devices through resonant interaction with surface plasmons which exist at metal/dielectric interfaces. Increases in emission intensity of an order of magnitude have been previously reported using silver thinfilms on InGaN/GaN MQWs. the dependence on resonant interaction between the plasmons and the light emitter limits the applications of plasmonics for light emission. This dissertation presents a new nonresonant mechanism based on electrostatic interaction of carriers with induced image charges in a nearby metallic nanoparticle. Enhancement similar in strength to that of plasmonics is observed, without the restrictions imposed upon resonant interactions. in this work we demonstrate several key features of this new interaction, including intensitydependent saturation, increase in the radiative recombination lifetime, and strongly inhomogeneous light emission. We also present a model for the interaction based on the aforementioned image charge interactions. Also discussed are results of work done in the course of this research resulting in the development of a novel technique for strain measurement in lightemitting structures. This technique makes use of a spectral fitting model to extract information about electronphonon interactions in the sample which can then be related to strain using theoretical modeling. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115113/
 Emergence of Complexity from Synchronization and Cooperation
 The dynamical origin of complexity is an object of intense debate and, up to moment of writing this manuscript, no unified approach exists as to how it should be properly addressed. This research work adopts the perspective of complexity as characterized by the emergence of nonPoisson renewal processes. In particular I introduce two new complex system models, namely the twostate stochastic clocks and the integrateandfire stochastic neurons, and investigate its coupled dynamics in different network topologies. Based on the foundations of renewal theory, I show how complexity, as manifested by the occurrence of nonexponential distribution of events, emerges from the interaction of the units of the system. Conclusion is made on the work's applicability to explaining the dynamics of blinking nanocrystals, neuron interaction in the human brain, and synchronization processes in complex networks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc6107/
 Energy Distribution of Sputtered Neutral Atoms from a Multilayer Target
 Energy distribution measurements of sputtered neutral particles contribute to the general knowledge of sputtering, a common technique for surface analysis. In this work emphasis was placed on the measurement of energy distribution of sputtered neutral atoms from different depths. The liquid GaIn eutectic alloy as a sample target for this study was ideal due to an extreme concentration ratio gradient between the top two monolayers. In pursuing this study, the method of sputterinitiated resonance ionization spectroscopy (SIRIS) was utilized. SIRIS employs a pulsed ion beam to initiate sputtering and tunable dye lasers for resonance ionization. Observation of the energy distribution was achieved with a positionsensitive detector. The principle behind the detector's energy resolution is time of flight (TOF) spectroscopy. For this specific detector, programmed time intervals between the sputtering pulse at the target and the ionizing laser pulse provided information leading to the energy distribution of the secondary neutral particles. This experiment contributes data for energy distributions of sputtered neutral particles to the experimental database, required by theoretical models and computer simulations for the sputtering phenomenon. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc2657/
 An entropic approach to the analysis of time series.
 Statistical analysis of time series. With compelling arguments we show that the Diffusion Entropy Analysis (DEA) is the only method of the literature of the Science of Complexity that correctly determines the scaling hidden within a time series reflecting a Complex Process. The time series is thought of as a source of fluctuations, and the DEA is based on the Shannon entropy of the diffusion process generated by these fluctuations. All traditional methods of scaling analysis, instead, are based on the variance of this diffusion process. The variance methods detect the real scaling only if the Gaussian assumption holds true. We call H the scaling exponent detected by the variance methods and d the real scaling exponent. If the time series is characterized by Fractional Brownian Motion, we have H¹d and the scaling can be safely determined, in this case, by using the variance methods. If, on the contrary, the time series is characterized, for example, by Lévy statistics, H ¹ d and the variance methods cannot be used to detect the true scaling. Lévy walk yields the relation d=1/(32H). In the case of Lévy flights, the variance diverges and the exponent H cannot be determined, whereas the scaling d exists and can be established by using the DEA. Therefore, only the joint use of two different scaling analysis methods, the variance scaling analysis and the DEA, can assess the real nature, Gauss or Lévy or something else, of a time series. Moreover, the DEA determines the information content, under the form of Shannon entropy, or of any other convenient entopic indicator, at each time step of the process that, given a sufficiently large number of data, is expected to become diffusion with scaling. This makes it possible to study the regime of transition from dynamics to thermodynamics, nonstationary regimes, and the saturation regime as well. First of all, the efficiency of the DEA is proved with theoretical arguments and with numerical work on artificial sequences. Then we apply the DEA to three different sets of real data, Genome sequences, hard xray solar flare waiting times and sequences of sociological interest. In all these cases the DEA makes new properties, overlooked by the standard method of analysis, emerge. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3033/
 Evolution of Vacancy Supersaturations in MeV Si Implanted Silicon
 Highenergy Si implantation into silicon creates a net defect distribution that is characterized by an excess of interstitials near the projected range and a simultaneous excess of vacancies closer to the surface. This defect distribution is due to the spatial separation between the distributions of interstitials and vacancies created by the forward momentum transferred from the implanted ion to the lattice atom. This dissertation investigates the evolution of the nearsurface vacancy excess in MeV Siimplanted silicon both during implantation and postimplant annealing. Although previous investigations have identified a vacancy excess in MeVimplanted silicon, the investigations presented in this dissertation are unique in that they are designed to correlate the freevacancy supersaturation with the vacancies in clusters. Freevacancy (and interstitial) supersaturations were measured with Sb (B) dopant diffusion markers. Vacancies in clusters were profiled by Au labeling; a new technique based on the observation that Au atoms trap in the presence of openvolume defects. The experiments described in this dissertation are also unique in that they were designed to isolate the deep interstitial excess from interacting with the much shallower vacancy excess during postimplant thermal processing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277663/
 An Experimental Study of Collision Broadening of some Excited Rotational States of the Bending Vibration of Methyl Cyanide
 A double modulation microwave spectrometer is used to evaluate the linewidth parameters for some excited rotational components in the bending vibration v_8 of 13CH3 13C 15N and 13CH3C15N isotopomers of methyl cyanide. The linewidth parameters for selfbroadening of the ΔJ=2←1 rotational components for the ground v_8 , 1v_8, and the 2v_8 vibrations were determined over a pressure range of 1 to 13 mtorr and at a temperature of 300 K. The double modulation technique is used to explore the high eighth derivative of the line shape profile of the spectral line. This technique proved to give good signaltonoise ratios and enabled the recovery of weak signals. An experimental method is developed to correct for source modulation broadening. The tests of the ratios of the two inner peak's separation of the eighth derivative of the line showed that they were up to 95% similar to those for a Lorentzian line shape function. The line shapes were assumed to be Lorentzian for the theoretical analysis of the derivative profiles and comparisons were made between experiment and theory on this basis. Dipole moments for vibrationally excited states were calculated from linewidth parameters and show systematic decrease with the increase of excitation. Impact parameters were calculated using the "hard sphere" model of the kinetic theory of gases. The results were many times larger than the size of the molecule itself. This suggests that the dominant interaction is a long range dipoledipole force interaction. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278369/
 Experimental Synchronization of Chaotic Attractors Using Control
 The focus of this thesis is to theoretically and experimentally investigate two new schemes of synchronizing chaotic attractors using chaotically operating diode resonators. The first method, called synchronization using control, is shown for the first time to experimentally synchronize dynamical systems. This method is an economical scheme which can be viably applied to low dimensional dynamical systems. The other, unidirectional coupling, is a straightforward means of synchronization which can be implemented in fast dynamical systems where timing is critical. Techniques developed in this work are of fundamental importance for future problems regarding high dimensional chaotic dynamical systems or arrays of mutually linked chaotically operating elements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278971/
 Exploration of hierarchical leadership and connectivity in neural networks in vitro.
 Living neural networks are capable of processing information much faster than a modern computer, despite running at significantly lower clock speeds. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms neural networks utilize is an issue of substantial importance. Neuronal interaction dynamics were studied using histiotypic networks growing on microelectrode arrays in vitro. Hierarchical relationships were explored using bursting (when many neurons fire in a short time frame) dynamics, pairwise neuronal activation, and information theoretic measures. Together, these methods reveal that global network activity results from ignition by a small group of burst leader neurons, which form a primary circuit that is responsible for initiating most networkwide burst events. Phase delays between leaders and followers reveal information about the nature of the connection between the two. Physical distance from a burst leader appears to be an important factor in follower response dynamics. Information theory reveals that mutual information between neuronal pairs is also a function of physical distance. Activation relationships in developing networks were studied and plating density was found to play an important role in network connectivity development. These measures provide unique views of network connectivity and hierarchical relationship in vitro which should be included in biologically meaningful models of neural networks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9775/
 Expulsion of Carriers from the DoubleBarrier Quantum Well and Investigation of Its Spectral and Transport Consequences
 In this work I investigate the expulsion of carriers from nanostructures using the doublebarrier quantum well (DBQW) as an example and discuss manifestations of this effect in the spectrum of the DBQW in absence of bias, and in the tunneling current in presence of bias. Assuming equality of the Fermi energy in all regions of the considered system, I compute the relative density of carriers localized in the DBQW and conclude that a fraction of carriers is expelled from this nanostructure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277697/
 Fluorine Adsorption and Diffusion in Polycrystalline Silica
 The measurement of fluorine penetration into archeological flint artifacts using Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) has been reported to be a potential dating method. However, the mechanism of how fluorine is incorporated into the flint surface, and finally transported into the bulk is not well understood. This research focuses on the study of the fluorine uptake phenomenon of flint mineral in aqueous fluoride solutions. Both theoretical and experimental approaches have been carried out. In a theoretical approach, a pipediffusion model was used to simulate the complicated fluorine transportation problem in flint, in which several diffusion mechanisms may be involved. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277986/
 Fractional Brownian motion and dynamic approach to complexity.
 The dynamic approach to fractional Brownian motion (FBM) establishes a link between nonPoisson renewal process with abrupt jumps resetting to zero the system's memory and correlated dynamic processes, whose individual trajectories keep a nonvanishing memory of their past time evolution. It is well known that the recrossing times of the origin by an ordinary 1D diffusion trajectory generates a distribution of time distances between two consecutive origin recrossing times with an inverse power law with index m=1.5. However, with theoretical and numerical arguments, it is proved that this is the special case of a more general condition, insofar as the recrossing times produced by the dynamic FBM generates process with m=2H. Later, the model of ballistic deposition is studied, which is as a simple way to establish cooperation among the columns of a growing surface, to show that cooperation generates memory properties and, at same time, nonPoisson renewal events. Finally, the connection between trajectory and density memory is discussed, showing that the trajectory memory does not necessarily yields density memory, and density memory might be compatible with the existence of abrupt jumps resetting to zero the system's memory. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3992/
 Growth and Characterization of βIron Disilicide, βIron Silicon Germanide, and Osmium Silicides
 The semiconducting silicides offer significant potential for use in optoelectronic devices. Full implementation of the materials, however, requires the ability to tailor the energy gap and band structure to permit the synthesis of heterojunctions. One promising approach is to alloy the silicides with Ge. As part of an investigation into the synthesis of semiconducting silicide heterostructures, a series of βFe(Si1−xGex)2 epilayer samples, with nominal alloy content in the range 0 < x < 0.15, have been prepared by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(100). I present results of the epitaxial and crystalline quality of the films, as determined by reflection highenergy electron diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and double crystal xray diffraction, and of the band gap dependence on the alloy composition, as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A reduction in band gap was observed with increasing Ge content, in agreement with previous theoretical predictions. However Ge segregation was also observed in βFe(Si1−xGex)2 epilayers when x > 0.04. Osmium silicide films have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(100). The silicides have been grown using ebeam evaporation sources for both Os and Si onto Si(100) substrates at varying growth rates and temperatures ranging from 600700ºC. The resulting films have been analyzed using reflection highenergy electron diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, reflectivity measurements, inplane and out of plane Xray diffraction and temperature dependent magnetotransport. A change in crystalline quality is observed with an increase in Si overpressure. For a lower silicon to osmium flux ration (JSi/JOs=1.5) both OsSi2 and Os2Si3 occur, whereas with a much larger Si overpressure (JSi/JOs>4), crystalline quality is greatly increased and only a single phase, Os2Si3, is present. The outofplane Xray diffraction data show that the film grows along its [4 0 2] direction, with a good crystal quality as evidenced by the small FWHM in the rocking curve. The inplane Xray diffraction data show growth twins with perpendicular orientation to each other. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12107/
 High Efficiency High Power Blue Laser by Resonant Doubling in PPKTP
 I developed a high power blue laser for use in scientific and technical applications (eg. precision spectroscopy, semiconductor inspection, flow cytometry, etc). It is linearly polarized, single longitudinal and single transverse mode, and a convenient fiber coupled continuous wave (cw) laser source. My technique employs external cavity frequency doubling and provides better power and beam quality than commercially available blue diode lasers. I use a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) stabilized infrared (IR) semiconductor laser source with a polarization maintaining (PM) fiber coupled output. Using a custom made optical and mechanical design this output is coupled with a mode matching efficiency of 96% into the doubling cavity. With this carefully designed and optimized cavity, measurements were carried out at various fundamental input powers. A net efficie ncy of 81 % with an output power of 680 mW at 486 nm was obtained using 840 mW of IR input. Also I report an 87.5 % net efficiency in coupling of blue light from servo locked cavity into a single mode PM fiber. Thus I have demonstrated a total fiber to fiber efficiency of 71% can be achieved in our approach using periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP). To obtain these results, all losses in the system were carefully studied and minimized. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103306/
 How Cooperative Systems Respond to External Forces
 Cooperative interactions permeate through nature, bringing about emergent behavior and complexity. Using a simple cooperative model, I illustrate the mean field dynamics that occur at the critical point of a second order phase transition in the framework of Langevin equations. Through this formalism I discuss the response, both linear and nonlinear, to external forces. Emphasis is placed on how information is transferred from one individual to another in order to facilitate the collective response of the cooperative network to a localized perturbation. The results are relevant to a wide variety of systems, ranging from nematic liquid crystals, to flocks and swarms, social groups, and neural networks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc500014/
 The Interactions of Plasma with Lowk Dielectrics: Fundamental Damage and Protection Mechanisms
 Nanoporous lowk dielectrics are used for integrated circuit interconnects to reduce the propagation delays, and cross talk noise between metal wires as an alternative material for SiO2. These materials, typically organosilicate glass (OSG) films, are exposed to oxygen plasmas during photoresist stripping and related processes which substantially damage the film by abstracting carbon, incorporating O and OH, eventually leading to significantly increased k values. Systematic studies have been performed to understand the oxygen plasmainduced damage mechanisms on different lowk OSG films of various porosity and pore interconnectedness. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, xray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy are used to understand the damage kinetics of O radicals, ultraviolet photons and charged species, and possible ways to control the carbon loss from the film. FTIR results demonstrate that O radical present in the plasma is primarily responsible for carbon abstraction and this is governed by diffusion mechanism involving interconnected film nanopores. The loss of carbon from the film can be controlled by closing the pore interconnections, He plasma pretreatment is an effective way to control the damage at longer exposure by closing the connections between the pores. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84175/
 Investigation of Selected OpticallyActive Nanosystems Fashioned using Ion Implantation
 Optoelectronic semiconductor technology continues to grow at an accelerated pace, as the industry seeks to perfect devices such as light emitting diodes for purposes of optical processing and communication. A strive for greater efficiency with shrinking device dimensions, continually pushes the technology from both a design and materials aspect. Nanosystems such a quantum dots, also face new material engineering challenges as they enter the realm of quantum mechanics, with each system and material having markedly different electronic properties. Traditionally, the semiconductor industry has focused on materials such Group IIVI and IIIV compounds as the basis material for future optoelectronic needs. Unfortunately, these material systems can be expensive and have difficulties integrating into current Sibased technology. The industry is reluctant to leave silicon due in part to silicon's high quality oxide, and the enormous amount of research invested into silicon based circuit fabrication. Although recently materials such as GaN are starting to dominate the electrooptical industry since a Sibased substitute has not been found. The purpose of the dissertation was to examine several promising systems that could be easily integrated into current Sibased technology and also be produced using simple inexpensive fabrication techniques such ion implantation. The development of optically active nanosized precipitates in silica to form the active layer of an optoelectronic device was achieved with ion implantation and thermal annealing. Three material systems were investigated. These systems consisted of carbon, silicon and metal silicide based nanocrystals. The physical morphology and electronic properties were monitored using a variety of material characterization techniques. Rutherford backscattering/channeling were used to monitor elemental concentrations, photoluminescence was used to monitor the optoelectronic properties and transmission electron microscopy was used to study the intricate morphology of individual precipitates. The electronic properties and the morphology were studied as a function of implant dose, anneal times and anneal temperatures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5259/
 Investigation of the Uniaxial Stress Dependence of the Effective Mass in NType InSb Using the Magnetophonon Effect
 The magnetophonon effect was used to investigate the uniaxial stress dependence of the effective mass in ntype InSb (indium antimonide). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164537/