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 Degree Discipline: Music Education
An Investigation into the Stability of Students' Timbre Preferences from the Sixth through the Tenth Grade

An Investigation into the Stability of Students' Timbre Preferences from the Sixth through the Tenth Grade

Date: May 1995
Creator: May, Brack M. (Brack Miles)
Description: The purpose of the study was to determine whether students' timbre preferences in the sixth grade remain stable through the tenth grade. The investigation also examined whether gender, band instruction, or musical home environment makes any difference in influencing the stability of students' timbre preferences from grade six through ten. Students' timbre preferences at the beginning of the study were compared to their preferences four years later. The students' timbre preferences were obtained by employing Gordon's Instrument Timbre Preference Test (ITPT). A questionnaire was also utilized at the conclusion of the study to determine which students had musical home environments and which did not. All sixth grade students enrolled in a single school district took the ITPT. Each student's scores were tallied and ranked in order to determine their timbre preferences; four years later they were retested and their scores were ranked again.
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Music Performance Program Enrollment and Course Availability for Educationally Disadvantaged versus Non-Educationally Disadvantaged High School Students in Texas

Music Performance Program Enrollment and Course Availability for Educationally Disadvantaged versus Non-Educationally Disadvantaged High School Students in Texas

Date: May 1995
Creator: Nabb, David B.
Description: The purpose of this study was to measure music performance program enrollments and course availability for educationally disadvantaged and non-educationally disadvantaged groups (grades 9-12) in Texas, and to further examine relationships which could help music educators understand the role which music performance programs play in the lives of educationally disadvantaged students. Data analyzed were collected by Texas' Public Education Information Management System (PEIMS). Educationally disadvantaged groups under consideration included economically disadvantaged, at risk (as defined by Texas Education Agency guidelines), limited English proficient, as well as Black and Hispanic students. Separate analyses were conducted for band, choir, and orchestra. Subjects included 907,327 students from 1,048 school districts.
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An Investigation of Selected Muscle Potential Activity in Violin/Viola Vibrato

An Investigation of Selected Muscle Potential Activity in Violin/Viola Vibrato

Date: August 1995
Creator: Weber, Matthew J. (Matthew Joseph)
Description: The purpose was to investigate muscle potential during the vibrato motion for successful, healthy violin/viola performers. Electromyography was used to analyze parameters of muscle potentials during performance of a standardized exercise. These parameters were (a) evidence of potentials, (b) patterns of potentials, and (c) timing relationships (24 muscles). This study also sought to replicate and expand performance data from previous studies. Procedures from three pilot studies were used to standardize collection of EMG data. Synchronized video recordings were used to determine vibrato speed and conduct motion analysis. EMG data processing prior to analysis included power spectrum analysis and rectification, low-pass filtering, and smoothing data. Motion analysis findings (£D) were 1.09 for the elbow joints and 3.25 for the wrist joints. which was an indication of range of motion, suggested much greater activity in muscles controlling wrist movement than those moving the elbow. The degree of muscle potential and control were generally related to distance from the vibrating hand. Forearm muscle groups (8) demonstrated the greatest evidence of potential (76.5%) and were 18.1% non-periodic. Muscles of the upper arm (7) were off 59.4% and 57.0% non-periodic. Upper arm muscles had greater individual differences. Muscles of the chest and back (9) were ...
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An Examination of the Presence of Schön's Concept of "Reflective Conversation" as a Defining Component in the Applied Studio Music Lesson

An Examination of the Presence of Schön's Concept of "Reflective Conversation" as a Defining Component in the Applied Studio Music Lesson

Date: December 1995
Creator: Murphy, Vanissa B. (Vanissa Braswell)
Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of Schön's concept of reflective conversation as a defining component in the applied studio music lesson. The research problems were (1) to determine the presence of complete and incomplete reflective conversations; (2) to determine the verbally exhibited knowledge base within complete conversations in relationship to conversation length; and (3) to establish an instructional profile of stable behaviors based on reflective conversation as a distinguishing characteristic among selected teachers. Videotapes of twenty-six applied studio music lessons of thirteen university teachers were analyzed according to problem solving, on-the-spot experimentation, and evaluation. An observation form was developed and was a reliable tool to collect information concerning number and type of reflective conversations, conversation length, and the teachers' verbally demonstrated knowledge base. Knowledge base was obtained by using the procedural model of Flanagan's critical incident technique. Reflective conversations existed and were a distinguishing characteristic of the teachers. With the exception of two teachers, a stable use of both number and length of reflective conversations, and knowledge base areas, was found. A discernible difference in the teachers' knowledge base within conversation length existed, and thus established instructional profiles for the teachers. Complete reflective conversations ranged ...
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Student Interpretations of Teacher Verbal Praise in Selected Seventh and Eighth Grade Choral Classes

Student Interpretations of Teacher Verbal Praise in Selected Seventh and Eighth Grade Choral Classes

Date: December 1995
Creator: Taylor, Ouida O. (Ouida Oswalt)
Description: This study investigated the effect familiarity with a teacher had on student interpretations of teacher verbal praise in seventh and eighth grade choral ensembles. A stimulus tape was constructed of 16, 30-second videotaped clips containing verbal praise of four teachers. Teachers identified their intent in the use of praise in each example. Students (n = 80) from the four choirs responded to the tape by labeling the praise in each clip as deserved or as one of three types of instructional praise (i.e., praise to encourage, to send a message to other students, or to seek student cooperation). Comparisons were made between choirs in labeling the praise. Comparisons were made also between each teacher's stated purpose in praising and the interpretations of choirs familiar and unfamiliar with the teacher. Choirs who were unfamiliar with the teacher differed from the teachers' own students in interpreting the praise: Students who knew a teacher labeled the praise as deserved in five clips, but unfamiliar choirs thought the praise served an instructional purpose. In four clips, choirs differed in their interpretations of the type of instructional praise. Students familiar with a teacher recognized their teacher's intent in praising in 12 of 16 clips. In ...
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"Making the Change": Middle School Band Students' Perspectives on the Learning of Musical-Technical Skills in Jazz Performance

"Making the Change": Middle School Band Students' Perspectives on the Learning of Musical-Technical Skills in Jazz Performance

Date: August 1996
Creator: Leavell, Brian K.
Description: Students' perspectives in jazz education have gone largely ignored. A modified analytic inductive design allowed me to look broadly at the students' jazz band experience while specifically investigating their views about playing individualized parts, improvising, and interpreting and articulating swing rhythms. A focus group procedure was altered (Krueger, 1995) and incorporated into my teaching of 19 students. Two 30 minute sessions per week over a 12 week period were video- and audiotaped. Audiotaped exit interviews provided data in a non-social environment. All data were transcribed and coded in order to identify major themes and trends. Conclusions were verified through member checks, several types of triangulation and other qualitative analysis techniques. Trustworthiness was determined through an audit. Cognitively and physically, students had to accommodate musical techniques as these differed from those used in concert band. Some students were confused by the new seating arrangement and the playing of individualized parts. While some students could perform distinctly different swing and straight interpretations of the same song without external cues, others could only perform this task with external cues. Some changes in articulation were well within the students' capabilities while other techniques were more difficult to accommodate. Several students felt 'uptight' while they ...
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An Attitude Assessment of Amateur Musicians in Adult Community Bands

An Attitude Assessment of Amateur Musicians in Adult Community Bands

Date: December 1996
Creator: Spencer, William David, 1952-
Description: The purpose of this study was to ascertain certain factors which lead adults to participate in community band activity. This study attempted to answer the following questions: 1. What are the factors of rewards for community band participants based on the responses of a selected sample to validated attitude statements? 2. What are the relationships that might exist between certain demographic characteristics of the sample such as age, gender, education, occupation, musical training, geographic region (independent variables) and factors of participation (dependent variables) determined by principal components analysis? 3. What are the relationships that might exist between the findings of this study using member generated attitude statements and the findings of other attitude studies using researcher generated attitude statements? A 179-item survey was developed from an initital pool of 839 attitude statements after two pilot studies and an expert review. A randomly selected, stratified cluster sample of 74 organizational members of the Association of Concert Bands participated in the study. The average number of band members present during the survey process was 35. The average number of surveys returned per band was 23.66 for a return rate of 65.9% One thousand seven hundred twenty five individuals participated in the study. ...
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The Preferred Oboe Vibrato: An Analysis of Pitch Modulation and Intensity Level Modulation

The Preferred Oboe Vibrato: An Analysis of Pitch Modulation and Intensity Level Modulation

Date: December 1996
Creator: Remley, Jon Stephen
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the pitch and intensity level characteristics found in the vibrati of preferred oboe players whose vibrato was ranked by a panel of experts. The investigation also sought to discover factors that distinguish the preferred oboe vibrato from vibrato that is less preferred.
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A Study of Intensity Control in Males with Developing Voices: Implications for Pitch Range and Tessitura

A Study of Intensity Control in Males with Developing Voices: Implications for Pitch Range and Tessitura

Date: December 1996
Creator: Harris, Lee Davis
Description: Research on voice change in males has generally fallen into two categories: music education studies of changes in the singing voice and speech studies of changes in the speaking voice. These studies rarely consider differences in the dynamic ability of male singers at different stages of vocal development. The concept of tessitura, a portion of the vocal range in which the singer sounds best, is referred to in the literature on vocal music, but the means for identifying its size and location within the range have not been consistently specified. Tessitura appears to be a portion of the range which is most controllable in terms of dynamics and agility and is optimal in tonal quality. This study used the phonetograph to investigate differences in measures of intensity control between pre-pubertal, pubertal (changing) and post-pubertal voices in 48 males aged 9 to 18 years old. These intensity measures were compared to ratings of vocal effort from a panel of 4 music educators in order to determine if tessitura could be identified from acoustic and perceptual evidence of an optimum vocal area. Results of the study were: 1) post-pubertal voices demonstrated greater control of vocal intensity as revealed in lower mean minimum ...
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An Investigation of the Influence of Evaluator Background on Appraisals of a Music Lesson Using the Texas Teacher Appraisal System

An Investigation of the Influence of Evaluator Background on Appraisals of a Music Lesson Using the Texas Teacher Appraisal System

Date: December 1997
Creator: Bohnstengel, Carol
Description: This study's purpose was to investigate the differences in scores and written comments given by two appraisal groups in their evaluation of a music teacher using the Texas Teacher Appraisal System (TTAS). One appraiser group had musical training while the other group specialized in other subjects. Analyses of both group's appraisal scores showed no significant differences. An examination of the written comments revealed that both appraisal groups focused on the same aspects of the lesson and used similar vocabulary. The TTAS instrument was a consistent measure of generic teacher behaviors in the music lesson, but it did not measure specific music teaching behaviors or encourage suggestions for improving musical instruction.
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