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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Degree Discipline: Music Education
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
The effect of individual versus collective creative problem solving experiences on fourth- and fifth-grade students' compositional products.

The effect of individual versus collective creative problem solving experiences on fourth- and fifth-grade students' compositional products.

Date: December 2004
Creator: Aguilar, Beatriz E.
Description: The purpose of the study was to explore the effects that individual vs. collective structured creative musical problem solving tasks had on students' compositional products. Subjects in a convenience sample of 32 fourth-graders and 32 fifth-graders were randomly assigned to either the individual or collective condition. The 3 treatment sessions were characterized by an open-ended creative problem solving task, which included questions intended to guide subjects through 3 stages of the creative problem solving process: Understanding the Problem, Generating Ideas, and Planning for Action. Subjects participated in the pre- and posttest individually. Three experienced music educators assessed the compositional products in terms of pattern use, cohesiveness, and creativity. The originally intended MANCOVAs could not be carried out because the data did not meet the necessary assumptions. Pretest and posttest scores were explored with individual ANOVAs. The Bonferroni technique was used to adjust the alpha level. The statistical analyses showed that subjects exposed to the individual condition obtained higher scores than subjects exposed to the collective condition on six of the eight explored subtests, but these differences were not significant. The level of interjudge reliability decreased at each of the three measurements of the study: pilot test, pretest, and posttest. The ...
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The Effect of Three Compositional Structures on the Compositional and Instructional Self-efficacy of Pre-service Music Teachers

The Effect of Three Compositional Structures on the Compositional and Instructional Self-efficacy of Pre-service Music Teachers

Date: August 2012
Creator: Hauser, Christian Vernon
Description: The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to compare the effects of three different composition tasks with varying degrees of structure on pre-service music teachers’ creative self-efficacy as composers and their instructional self-efficacy as pedagogues of composition; and 2) to describe through pre-service music teachers’ talk perceptions of composition and their experiences completing the three composition tasks. Participants (N = 29) were music education majors from three different sized universities in the northern-central region of the United States. At the beginning of the study, the participants answered a researcher-design self-efficacy questionnaire that measured (a) their self-efficacy as composers and (b) their self-efficacy as teachers of composition. Next, they composed three compositions of various task structures (unstructured, poem, and rhythm). Immediately after completing each task they again completed the self-efficacy questionnaire. Statistically significant mean differences between the pre-task administration of the measuring instrument and all three composition tasks were found for the pre-service teachers’ compositional self-efficacy. Statistically significant mean differences were also found between the unstructured task and the rhythm task, but not between the rhythm and poem tasks or the unstructured and poem tasks. For the pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy as pedagogues of composition question, the results were also statistically ...
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The effect of three different levels of skill training in musical timbre discrimination on alphabet sound discrimination in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children

The effect of three different levels of skill training in musical timbre discrimination on alphabet sound discrimination in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children

Date: May 2000
Creator: Battle, Julia Blair
Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three different levels of skill training in musical timbre discrimination on alphabet sound discrimination in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children. The findings of prior investigations indicated similarities between aural music and language perception. Psychoacoustic and neurological findings have reported the discrimination of alphabet quality and musical timbre to be similar perceptual functions and have provided, through imaging technology, physical evidence of music learning simultaneously stimulating non-musical areas of the brain. This investigator hypothesized that timbre discrimination, the process of differentiating the characteristic quality of one complex sound from another of identical pitch and loudness, may have been a common factor between music and alphabet sound discrimination. Existing studies had not explored this relationship or the effects of directly teaching for transfer on learning generalization between skills used for the discrimination of musical timbre and alphabet sounds. Variables identified as similar from the literature were the discrimination of same- different musical and alphabet sounds, visual recognition of musical and alphabet pictures as sound sources, and association of alphabet and musical sounds with matching symbols. A randomized pre-post test design with intermittent measures was used to implement the study. There were 5 ...
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The effects of amplification and selected vocal exercises on the perceived vocal health of elementary music educators.

The effects of amplification and selected vocal exercises on the perceived vocal health of elementary music educators.

Date: May 2008
Creator: Vincent, Lynette Susanne
Description: The main purpose of this study was to consider the effects of amplification and vocal function exercises on the perceived vocal health of elementary music educators (N = 37) from Oklahoma (n = 11) and Texas (n = 26). Participants were assigned to the use of the ChatterVoxTM amplifier or vocal function exercises based on pretest scores on the Voice Handicap Index with Music Teacher Voice Questionnaire (VHI/MVQ). Following the 4-week study period, participants completed the posttest VHI/MVQ. The results of a one-way ANCOVA that used treatment group as the independent variable, the summed posttest scores as the dependent variable, and the summed pretest scores as the covariate or control variable indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the adjusted means for the posttest scores, favoring the exercises group. The overall group and both treatment groups reported frequent loud voice use in work settings and in public places. The overall group and the amplification group reported hoarseness after prolonged talking. The exercises group did not report as great a problem with hoarseness after prolonged talking. Secondary purposes addressed demographic variables. Women perceived greater overall vocal difficulties than men; men frequently reported specific vocal complaints that were not commonly ...
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The effects of free play as an instructional tool on the quality of improvisation of first, second, and third grade children

The effects of free play as an instructional tool on the quality of improvisation of first, second, and third grade children

Date: December 2000
Creator: Burger, Tammie L.
Description: To look at the effect of free play on the musical improvisations of first, second and third grade children, 108 children were randomly assigned to either a control or treatment group. Subjects were tested using a researcher-designed instrument to elicit an improvisatory response. The control group then received regular music instruction (120 minutes every 2 weeks) and the treatment group received regular music instruction in conjunction with musical free play (100 minutes of instruction and 20 minutes of free play every 2 weeks). The treatment lasted 14 weeks. At the end of the treatment, all students were tested with the same testing instrument used for the pre test. Videotapes of the improvisations were submitted to three independent judges to rate for quality on a 5-point Likert scale. The change in ratings between pre and post tests were analyzed with an analysis of variance to determine if there were significant differences between the control and treatment groups. The analysis of the data revealed no significant difference in the change of ratings between control and treatment groups for the group as a whole, or for any particular grade level within the total group.
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The effects of practice procedure and task difficulty on tonal pattern accuracy.

The effects of practice procedure and task difficulty on tonal pattern accuracy.

Date: May 2003
Creator: Cahn, Dan
Description: The study investigated the relative effectiveness of different proportions of time spent on physical and mental practice, in the context of a music performance of a tonal pattern over harmonic progressions of two difficulty levels. Using a sampling without replacement procedure, sixty undergraduate students were assigned to four practice groups partially blocked for musical instrument. The groups included a physical practice group, a mental practice group and two combined mental and physical practice groups in the proportions of (a) 66% physical and 33% mental, and (b) 33% physical and 66% mental. Each subject performed a pretest, a 3 minute practice session, and a posttest on both harmonic progressions. Presentation of the harmonic progressions were counterbalanced to control for practice effects All pre- and posttests were recorded and scored according to number of note errors. An ANCOVA procedure using pretest scores as covariates revealed that: (a) there were no differences between the different practice groups on the measure of note errors, (b) there was a significant difference between the two harmonic progressions on the measure of note errors, such that performance on the easy progression was significantly better than performance on the hard progression, and (c) there was a significant interaction ...
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Elementary music teachers instructing English language learners: Reflection on practice.

Elementary music teachers instructing English language learners: Reflection on practice.

Date: December 2005
Creator: Scherler, Kathy L.
Description: This qualitative study investigated four monolingual, English-only speaking Caucasian elementary music teachers and their reflections regarding instruction of English language learners (ELL). The purpose of this multiple case study was to investigate the teaching practice and curricular decisions of elementary music teachers who instruct Hispanic ELL students. The investigation was conducted during a nine-week period, and data collection included classroom observations, phenomenological interviewing, and teacher audio journals. None of the teachers had prior education or pre-service preparation in teaching music to ELL students. The major theoretical base from which the study was developed was the reflective teaching theory of Donald Schön (1983). The main research question was: "What are the participating teachers' reflections about their curricular and pedagogical decisions when teaching ELL students?" Following a description of the elementary music teachers' reflections on practice with ELL students, the study revealed that the majority of elementary music teachers had a lack of preparation and ELL music curriculum, and negative perceptions of the placement program for ESL students. Despite these factors, the teachers made attempts to include ELL students in all music activities. This study showed that while one teacher accommodated specifically for the ELL students' learning, three out of four teachers ...
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Experiencing the interdependent nature of musicianship and educatorship as defined by David J. Elliott in the context of the collegiate level vocal jazz ensemble.

Experiencing the interdependent nature of musicianship and educatorship as defined by David J. Elliott in the context of the collegiate level vocal jazz ensemble.

Date: August 2005
Creator: Jensen-Hole, Catherine
Description: Examination of the relationship of musicianship and educatorship of teacher and students as interacting partners in a specific musical context proceeded with investigation of how formal, informal, impressionistic, and supervisory musical and educational knowledge were evidenced in rehearsal. Attention was also given to how the teaching strategies of modeling, coaching, scaffolding, fading, articulating, reflecting comparatively, and exploring were used to develop student musicianship. The research methodology may best be described as an inductive analytical case study approach. Multiple data sources included: videotaped observations of 19 bi-weekly rehearsals, audio taped interviews of the 12 participants, supplemental materials, (a published interview, journal articles, rehearsal schedules), and member checking with the teacher and David Elliott. Rehearsal data were initially organized into categories identified in David J. Elliott's (1995) model. The relationship of teacher and student musicianship, and teacher educatorship emerged during analysis. Musical details of problem finding, reducing and solving were also identified. Three themes emerged from the student interviews: their perceptions of the teacher's musicianship, general rehearsal strategies, and the teacher's use of specific teaching strategies. Interviews with the teacher illuminated his perception of musicianship and teaching strategies employed in the context. The findings confirmed that as music making transpired in the ...
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Factors Relating to Student Participation in Public School String Programs

Factors Relating to Student Participation in Public School String Programs

Date: December 1998
Creator: Perkins, Deborah L. (Deborah Louise)
Description: This study explored factors relating to participation in public school orchestra programs and the relationship and predictability of such factors in accordance with Maehr's theory of personal investment.
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High school string orchestra teacher as a career choice: A survey of 11th- and 12th-grade high school string orchestra students in Texas.

High school string orchestra teacher as a career choice: A survey of 11th- and 12th-grade high school string orchestra students in Texas.

Date: December 2003
Creator: Brumbaugh, Sherron M.
Description: The purpose of this study was to describe 11th- and 12th-grade high school string orchestra students in Texas public schools in terms of their decision to enter the field of string orchestra teaching as a possible career choice or to pursue another field of study. Convenience sampling techniques were used to secure a study population of 1,683 high school string orchestra students. The Junior and Senior High School String Orchestra Student Survey (researcher designed) was used to gather demographic characteristics, students' perceptions on selected intrinsic/extrinsic work values, tangible elements of teaching, intrinsic characteristics of string orchestra teaching, and individuals assisting in students' career choices. Selected elements of teaching cited by students for their lack of interest in string orchestra teaching were also reviewed. Analysis procedures for descriptive statistics included measures of central tendency, crosstabulation, frequencies and percentages. Consistent with prior research, it was found that a larger number of female students over male students were interested in string orchestra teaching. Students interested in fields outside of string orchestra teaching reported higher class grades, more honors and advanced classes and higher SAT/ACT mean scores. Students interested in string orchestra teaching reported a higher percentage of brothers/sisters, mothers and fathers who played ...
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