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 Degree Discipline: Music Education
The Beginning Piano Class at the College Level

The Beginning Piano Class at the College Level

Date: August 1976
Creator: LeCroy, Jacquelyn Aken
Description: The problem was to investigate current thoughts concerning the beginning piano class at the college level, Data were collected from published and unpublished materials from 1964 to 1976. It was found that class piano instruction usually occurs in a three- to four-semester sequence, with classes meeting from two to five periods per week, containing from four to twenty-five students. Classification of students is by interview, placement test, and/or audition. Varying room arrangements are used with either conventional or electronic pianos, plus a variety of audio-visual equipment, Course content, with varying emphases, includes sight-reading, functional skills, technique, and repertoire. Teaching techniques used are numerous and varying. Recommendations were submitted for administrators, teachers, and researchers.
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Improvisation in the Beginning Piano Class

Improvisation in the Beginning Piano Class

Date: December 1977
Creator: Jones, Nancy Ragsdale
Description: The problem was to survey and collect ideas on the use of improvisation as a teaching and learning tool in elementary piano instruction and to prescribe activities and exercises for second through fourth grade piano classes. These areas were examined: philosophies and theories influencing traditional instruction, effects of creative keyboard activities on children's musical development, specific teaching strategies using improvisation, evaluative procedures, and suitability of materials for young children. Data collected from published and unpublished materials were classified, and presented concerning the feasibility of using keyboard improvisation with early elementary children. It was found that suitable improvisational exercises allow the child to organize his perceptions into the basic concepts of music. Recommendations for teachers and researchers were made.
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An Investigation of Perception of a Frequency Modulated Band Location of Pitch Within a Musical Vibrato

An Investigation of Perception of a Frequency Modulated Band Location of Pitch Within a Musical Vibrato

Date: May 1986
Creator: Brown, Steven Franklin
Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate aspects of pitch perception of auditors when presented with musical tones whose frequencies were modulated. Research problems were: estimation of the effect of musical training upon pitch perception; estimation of the effect of stimuli of differing tonal qualities and frequency ranges upon perception; and estimation of the effect of solo and ensemble performances upon pitch perception. Subjects for the study were thirty musicians and thirty nonmusicians. Subjects were students at North Texas State University and Paris Junior College who had volunteered for the study. A test containing thirty-six items was developed which required subjects to match a tone created by a sawtooth wave generator to a simultaneously presented musical tone performed with vibrato. Each subject was tested individually, and allowed three attempts to match each test item. After the third playing of each item, a reading was taken of the frequency selected by the subject, Using the split half method, reliability for the test was found to be .86 for nonmusicians and .88 for musicians. ANOVA evaluation of responses of subjects indicated that there was a significant difference.in the location of pitch among musicians and nonmusicians, with musicians locating the pitch somewhat ...
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An Investigation of the Whistle Register in the Female Voice

An Investigation of the Whistle Register in the Female Voice

Date: May 1986
Creator: Walker, Steven
Description: The purpose of the study was concerned with specific elements of the portion of the female voice commonly referred to as whistle or flute register. Three elements of vocal production were chosen for which past research has demonstrated relationships to source function. These elements included spectral characteristics, airflow rates, and perceptual identification. The research compared what the singer-subjects perceived as being whistle register phonations with that which they perceived as being head register phonations. A comparative technique was utilized where pitch, intensity and phonemic category were held relatively constant, register, therefore, being the only variable. Spectral characteristics and airflow rates of the two subject-determined registers were compared. In addition, an attempt was made to determine if the whistle register could be perceptually differentiated on the basis of voice quality,
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An Investigation of Conflicts in the Perceptions of Band Directors, School Administrators, and Selected Members of the Community About Their Respective Band Programs

An Investigation of Conflicts in the Perceptions of Band Directors, School Administrators, and Selected Members of the Community About Their Respective Band Programs

Date: December 1986
Creator: Whitelegg, Clifford Paul
Description: The purpose of the study was to investigate conflicts in the perceptions of band directors, band parents, band students, and selected school personnel regarding the role and scope of their respective band programs. The problems were to examine the relationships among these four groups in terms of selective perception, perceptual constancy, and polarization. Questionnaires were developed in order to survey the senior public high schools in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. In addition to demographic data, the questionnaires included perceptions about public performances, marching, concert, and jazz bands; contests and festivals; and other band related activities which might be desirable in a band program. The questionnaires concluded with opportunities for open-ended comments and suggestions about the survey instrument and the band program. Statistical computations included one-way analysis of variance, chi-square test, frequency counts, and cross-tabulations. Qualitative analyses and reports of interviews helped to clarify and interpret all statistical findings.
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Relationships Between Selected Musical Aural Discrimination Skills and a Multivariate Measure of Intellectual Skills

Relationships Between Selected Musical Aural Discrimination Skills and a Multivariate Measure of Intellectual Skills

Date: December 1986
Creator: Hornstein, Daniel L. (Daniel Lather)
Description: This study attempted to explore the strength and nature of relationships between specific intellectual information processing skills included in a multi-dimensional model conceived by Guilford, and measured by Meeker's Structure of Intellect - Learning Abilities Test, and specific musical aural discrimination skills as measured by Gordon's Musical Aptitude Profile. Three research questions were posed, which involved determining the strength and the nature of the relationship between MAP melodic, rhythmic, and aesthetic discrimination abilities and the intellectual information processing skills comprising the SOI - LA. Both instruments were administered to 387 fourth, fifth, and sixth graders from schools in the Dallas area. After a pilot study established the feasibility of the study and reliability estimates of the test instruments, multiple regression analysis determined that 10% to 15% of the variance between intellectual information-processing skills and the individual musical aural discrimination abilities was in common (r = +.32 to r = +.39). It was further determined that only six specific SOI intellectual dimensions, all involving the skills of "Cognition" and "Evaluation", were significantly related to the musical aural discrimination abilities. Through the use of the Coefficient of Partial Correlation, the strength of each individual information-processing skill's unique contribution to that covariance was ...
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Judgment of Intonation in the Context of Three-Part Woodwind Ensemble Performances

Judgment of Intonation in the Context of Three-Part Woodwind Ensemble Performances

Date: August 1987
Creator: Henry, Robert E.
Description: The purpose of the study was to determine judgments of trained musicians regarding the intonation of complex tones in the context of synthesized woodwind ensemble performances. Problems included in the study were (1) estimation of the point in pitch deviation which would result in out-of-tune judgments, (2) investigation of timbral effects on judged intonation, and (3) investigation of effects of mistuning within differential voices.
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The Relationships Between Job Satisfaction and Personality Traits Among Music Teachers

The Relationships Between Job Satisfaction and Personality Traits Among Music Teachers

Date: August 1987
Creator: Coleman, Malcolm James, Jr.
Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between personality traits and job satisfaction among music teachers. The research problems were 1. to investigate the areas of job satisfaction of music teachers; 2. to investigate the patterns of personality traits that were common among music teachers; 3. to determine whether relationships existed between the areas in which the music teachers showed job satisfaction/dissatisfaction and their personality profiles.
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An Investigation of the Needs for Music-Related Content in the Bible College Pastoral Curriculum as Perceived by a Selected Group of Pastors

An Investigation of the Needs for Music-Related Content in the Bible College Pastoral Curriculum as Perceived by a Selected Group of Pastors

Date: December 1987
Creator: Hui, Andrew
Description: The purpose of the study was to investigate the needs for music-related content in the Bible college pastoral curriculum as perceived by a selected group of pastors. The research problems were (1) to assess the extent of musical preparation of recent pastoral graduates from selected accredited Bible colleges in the United States, (2) to assess the music-related duties of those graduates in paid pastoral positions, (3) to assess the pastors' perceived needs for instructional preparation for the fulfillment of their musical duties, and (4) to determine the effect of selected factors on the perceived needs of those pastors.
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Aesthetic Justifications for Music Education: a Theoretical Examination of Their Usefulness

Aesthetic Justifications for Music Education: a Theoretical Examination of Their Usefulness

Date: December 1988
Creator: Paul, Stephen John
Description: Justifications for music education have been studied only by examining historical trends in statements of aesthetic versus utilitarian values, and not from the perspective of evaluating the justifications' usefulness. A number of prominent writers in the music education field, while supporting aesthetic values as important for music education, have expressed doubts about the effectiveness of aesthetic justifications when used for convincing outsiders of the importance of music in the public school curriculum. These doubts, along with a preponderance of aesthetic justifications in the recent music education literature, led to the present study, which conducted a theoretical examination of the usefulness of aesthetic justifications for music education. The study addressed three research problems, namely: (1) the attitudes of the clientele groups of the public schools in terms of their values toward music as a subject in the schools; (2) the attitudes of the groups within the music education profession in terms of their values for music in the public schools and for the profession itself; and 3) the likelihood that justifications based upon "aesthetics" as a system of values would be accepted by the groups both inside arid outside the music education profession. A philosophical-sociological perspective was chosen for the theoretical ...
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Independent Piano Teachers: An Investigation of Their Attitudes toward Selected Attributes of Profession

Independent Piano Teachers: An Investigation of Their Attitudes toward Selected Attributes of Profession

Date: May 1989
Creator: Crane, Joyce L. (Joyce Lydia)
Description: The purpose of the study was to investigate independent piano teachers' view of themselves in the light of selected attributes found in sociological writings on the professions. The research problems were: (a) to determine the attitudes which independent piano teachers held toward selected professional attributes; (b) to determine the relationship between the attitudes toward the professional attributes and selected background variables; and (c) to determine the degree of association between these attributes. The problems were addressed by a questionnaire directed to independent piano teachers active in the area of Dallas-Ft. Worth, Texas. Thirty teachers were also interviewed to determine consistency of response and to explore issues which the questionnaire had raised. Reliability and validity were established at acceptable levels. Techniques of statistical analysis included Pearson's product-moment correlation, multiple regression, chi-square in conjunction with Cramer's V_, and factor analysis. The strongest attitudes expressed by the teachers in the study concerned professional self-image, altruism, client orientation, commitment to work, and independence. The most important background variables were age, years of experience, number of students, certification by a professional association, and college degree in music. A multiple regression analysis tested each variable against the dependent variable professional self-image; recognition by others, commitment to ...
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The Beginnings of Music in the Boston Public Schools: Decisions of the Boston School Committee in 1837 and 1845 in Light of Religious and Moral Concerns of the Time

The Beginnings of Music in the Boston Public Schools: Decisions of the Boston School Committee in 1837 and 1845 in Light of Religious and Moral Concerns of the Time

Date: August 1989
Creator: Miller, David Michael, 1951-
Description: The research problems of this dissertation were: 1) A description of the perceived value of music in light of political undercurrents in Boston prior to and during the years under investigation, and 2) the profile of the constituency of the Boston School Committee and Committee on Music in 1837 and 1845. Questions addressed the effect of religious and moral concerns of the day on the decision by the School Committee in 1837 to try music in the curriculum, and the possible effect of religious politics on Lowell Mason's dismissal from the schools in 1845. In the minds of mid-nineteenth century Bostonians, religious and moral values were intrinsic to the very nature of music. Key members on the School Committee portrayed music as being spiritual yet nonsectarian in its influence. Therefore, the findings suggest that music was believed to provide common ground between opposing and diverse religious sects. Reasons given for Mason's dismissal by John Sargent, a member of the Committee on Music, showed parallels to H. W. Day's accusations in the press a year earlier that Mason had managed his position in a sectarian manner. Sargent's background supports the theory that religious politics were at work in Mason's dismissal. Although ...
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An Investigation of Holland's Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments As Applied to Undergraduate Music Majors

An Investigation of Holland's Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments As Applied to Undergraduate Music Majors

Date: August 1989
Creator: Allen, Michael, 1954-
Description: Holland's theory of vocational personalities and work environments incorporates four theoretical constructs (congruence, consistency, differentiation and identity) which attempt to explain sources in variability of achievement and satisfaction among employed adults and college students. This study sought to: (1) investigate the relationship of Holland's constructs to academic achievement and educational satisfaction of undergraduate music majors; (2) investigate differences in all variables according to gender and degree major. Data were collected from undergraduate music majors (N = 100) enrolled at the University of North Texas using the Vocational Preference Inventory. Mv Vocational Situation. and the Music Major Satisfaction Questionnaire. Reliability for the Music Major Satisfaction Questionnaire was estimated at .92 using Cronbach's coefficient alpha. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients indicated that: (1) congruence was significantly related to academic achievement and educational satisfaction; (2) identity was significantly related to academic achievement and educational satisfaction; (3) consistency was significantly related to academic achievement, but not to educational satisfaction; (4) differentiation was significantly related to academic achievement, but not to educational satisfaction. Multiple regression using a stepwise entry method indicated that: (1) the identity construct was the best predictor of educational satisfaction scores; (2) identity was the best predictor of academic achievement scores. The results ...
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The Texas Music Educators Association: A Historical Study of Selected Landmark Events Between 1938 and 1980 and the Decisions Which Influenced Their Outcomes

The Texas Music Educators Association: A Historical Study of Selected Landmark Events Between 1938 and 1980 and the Decisions Which Influenced Their Outcomes

Date: August 1989
Creator: Grant, Daniel Ross, 1955-
Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate selected landmark events in the historical development of the Texas Music Educators Association, 1938-1980, and the decisions which influenced their outcomes. A polling of twenty former presidents of TMEA selected the following landmark events that helped to shape the history of TMEA: (1) the change from a band organization to a music educators organization in 1938, (2) the University Interscholastic League takeover of contests in 1947, and (3) TMEA's separation from the Music Educators National Conference in 1976. In addition to developing a historical chronology from documentary sources, in-depth interviews were conducted with actual participants in these landmark events. The interviews utilized comparable questions, in order to identify decision-making patterns, while also capturing the atmosphere and visceral context of TMEA history. Literature from the social science disciplines on organizational decision—making was explored for help in understanding what happened, how, and why. In all three events the final decision was strongly influenced by factors external to the TMEA. The strong power position held by school administrators was evident in both the first and second events, while reinforcement from actively lobbying choral directors was also a factor in the first event only. The strong ...
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An Investigation of the Laryngeal Activity of Trumpet Players During the Performance of Selected Exercises

An Investigation of the Laryngeal Activity of Trumpet Players During the Performance of Selected Exercises

Date: December 1989
Creator: Bailey, Robert E. (Robert Elwood), 1946-
Description: The study's purpose was to describe selected laryngeal activity of brass-wind players during the performance of selected musical exercises. Research problems included the observation and description of three internal areas of activity of ten trumpeters as they performed each exercise. Specific areas of observation were 1) movement of the epiglottis during the performance of each exercise, 2) movement of the vocal folds/arytenoid cartilage which includes changes in the size of the glottis during the performance of each prescribed exercise, and 3) movement of the thyroid cartilage during the performance of each prescribed exercise. Musical exercises performed by each of the subjects included a sound volume change, use of vibrato, single-tonguing, step-wise descending and ascending slurs, descending and ascending lip slurs, register change, and a descending chromatic scale. In addition, each subject performed an excerpt from the second movement of the Haydn Trumpet Concerto. Data were collected through direct observation of subject performances and then described using three different means. Data analyses revealed a prominent amount of highly individual, non-patterned laryngeal activity which played an integral role in the performance of each subject. Individuals including Law (1960), Cramer (1955), Jacobs (Stewart, 1987), and Noble (1964) have advocated an unrestricted airway during ...
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An Investigation of Selected Female Singing- and Speaking-Voice Characteristics Through Comparison of a Group of Pre-Menarcheal Girls to a Group of Post-Menarcheal Girls

An Investigation of Selected Female Singing- and Speaking-Voice Characteristics Through Comparison of a Group of Pre-Menarcheal Girls to a Group of Post-Menarcheal Girls

Date: May 1990
Creator: Williams, Bonnie Blu
Description: The purpose of this study was to compare the speaking fundamental frequency, physiological vocal range, singing voice quality, and self-perceptions of the singing and speaking voice between two groups of girls ages 11 through 15 years, who were pre-menarcheal by 6 months and post-menarcheal by 10 months or more. Subjects were volunteers who attended a North Texas public school system. Each subject was examined by an otolaryngologist. Age, height, weight, a hearing screening, and information on music classes and/or private music lessons were obtained. The speaking fundamental frequency measure was obtained by having each subject speak for 30 seconds on a subject of choice and read a passage of approximately 100 syllables. The vocal range measure was obtained by having each subject begin at an arbitrary pitch and sing mah and moo up the scale as high as possible and mah and moo down the scale as low as possible. These four measures were repeated with the researcher giving visual gestures. For singing-voice quality, each subject sang "America" in the key of her choice and again in the key of F major. Each subjects singing voice was rated according to breathiness. Data regarding self-perceptions of the singing and speaking voice ...
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Selected Vocal Exercises and Their Relationship to Specific Laryngeal Conditions: a Description of Seven Case Studies

Selected Vocal Exercises and Their Relationship to Specific Laryngeal Conditions: a Description of Seven Case Studies

Date: May 1990
Creator: Mathis, Barbara
Description: Good vocal health is a vital concern for those people who use the voice in a professional capacity, such as teachers, singers, actors, clergymen, and lawyers. Research in the area of vocal health reveals the need to determine if specific exercises are beneficial to the voice and if exercises used to train the singing voice might be beneficial to alleviate pathological and/or dysfunctional voice disorders. The purpose of this study was to describe the response of a variety of pathological voices to a selected set of singing exercises. Subjects were selected from the private practice of cooperating physicians who felt that the vocal instruction and exercise program might be helpful to the teachers, students, professional "pop" singers, and housewife-singers who were diagnosed to have muscle tension dysphonia, nodules, recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, or iatrogenic dysphonia. Instrumentation for assessing conditions before, during, and after exercise included a brief case history, subject interviews, attending physicians' medical charts, flexible fiberoptic video nasolaryngoscopy, video cassette recorder and video tape segments, three physician/observers, and a specific diagnostic procedure which provided a method of assessing organic, functional, and perceptual variables. For the exercise program the researcher chose seven vocalises from the routine designed by Allan R. ...
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A Spectral Analysis of Selected Vowels Sung by Bass and Baritone Student Singers

A Spectral Analysis of Selected Vowels Sung by Bass and Baritone Student Singers

Date: August 1990
Creator: Tolin, Craig Edmond
Description: While a limited body of research pertaining to vocal sound quality exists, technological advances in sound analyses have facilitated a reexamination of vocal timbre. The sound quality of sung vowels ([ a], [e ], C i ]) produced by ten baritone/bass singers at the University of North Texas was analyzed by the use of Fourier analysis and electronic digital equipment. This procedure and equipment produced results over a wider frequency range with greater accuracy than prior studies on vocal timbre. The study sought to answer the following questions: (1) Using formant regions between 0-20 kHz for comparison, what similarities and differences can be observed among spectra produced from [a], [e], and [ i ] vowels sung by baritone/bass singers? (2) Using formant regions between 0-20 kHz for comparison, what similarities and differences can be observed among spectra produced from [a], [ e ], and [ i ] vowels sung by baritone/bass singers with regard to individual singers? (3) Approximately what vocal-tract tube lengths were used by baritone/bass singers when performing [a], [e ], and [ i ] vowels? (4) What similarities in vocal-tract tube lengths can be generalized as to [ a], L e ], and [ i ] vowels ...
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An Investigation of the Self-perceptions Certified Fine Arts Teachers Have Toward Their Roles as Artist and Instructional Staff Member in Selected Public High Schools of Oklahoma

An Investigation of the Self-perceptions Certified Fine Arts Teachers Have Toward Their Roles as Artist and Instructional Staff Member in Selected Public High Schools of Oklahoma

Date: August 1991
Creator: Clinton, John E. (John Eric)
Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the self-perceptions certified public high school teachers in the fine arts have toward their roles as artist and instructional staff member.
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Theoretical Constructs of Jazz Improvisation Performance

Theoretical Constructs of Jazz Improvisation Performance

Date: December 1991
Creator: Tumlinson, Charles D. (Charles David)
Description: The purpose of this study was to develop and test systematically a theoretical model that delineated the constructs and subsumed variables of jazz improvisation performance. The specific research questions were; what specific performance variables are related to single line jazz solo improvisation performance? and; what is the most cogent groupings of variables into underlying constructs which characterize single line jazz solo improvisation performances for all performers, student performers, and professional performers?
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A Case Study of Interpersonal Influences in a Band Music Setting: Bohumil Makovsky (1878-1950) and His Association with Selected Individuals Involved in Instrumental Music in the State of Oklahoma

A Case Study of Interpersonal Influences in a Band Music Setting: Bohumil Makovsky (1878-1950) and His Association with Selected Individuals Involved in Instrumental Music in the State of Oklahoma

Date: May 1992
Creator: Dugger, Richard Charles
Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the interpersonal influences which Bohumil Makovsky, Director of Bands and Chairman of the Music Department at Oklahoma A&M College from 1915 to 1943, had on his students and peers, as confirmed through the perceptions of selected individuals, and to determine what personal characteristics and means he drew upon to induce changes in his students and peers.
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"Wiggles and Volcanos": an Investigation of Children's Graphing Responses to Music

"Wiggles and Volcanos": an Investigation of Children's Graphing Responses to Music

Date: May 1993
Creator: Lehmann, Sharon Fincher
Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in selected children's Graphing Response Patterns to elemental changes in compositions in theme and variation form. The research problems were (1) to determine points and degrees of elemental change in the compositional structure of the musical examples; (2) to determine number, degree, and nature of changes in subjects' graphing response pattern to aurally presented musical examples; (3) to determine percentages of agreement between changes in graphing response patterns and points of elemental change within the compositional structures; (4) to determine the relationship of changes in subjects' graphing response pattern to the quality and magnitude of elemental change within the compositional structure. Twenty second- and fourth-grade children were individually videotaped as they listened to and graphed a series of aurally-presented musical examples. Each musical example was analysed according to such parameters as timbre, range/interval size, texture, tempo/meter, attack/rhythmic density, key/mode, dynamic level, and melodic presentation. Change in each parameter was scored using an interval scale reflecting change/no change and degree of change. Changes in graphing response pattern were determined by an interval scale which reflected the presence of change/no change and amount of change, using as analytical units speed, size, shape, type, ...
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An Investigation of Heart Response During Trumpet Playing

An Investigation of Heart Response During Trumpet Playing

Date: December 1993
Creator: Hunsaker, Leigh Anne
Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of trumpet playing upon the heart. A Holter monitor was used to record electrocardiograms (ECGs) to examine the heart's response during musical performances and practice sessions.
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Nathaniel Clark Smith (1877-1934): African-American Musician, Music Educator and Composer

Nathaniel Clark Smith (1877-1934): African-American Musician, Music Educator and Composer

Date: December 1993
Creator: Lyle-Smith, Eva Diane
Description: This study is a biography of the life experiences of Nathaniel Clark Smith (1877-1934), an African-American musician, music educator and composer who lived during the early part of America's music education's history. Smith became one of the first international bandmasters to organize bands, orchestras, and glee clubs in schools and industries in the United States. Smith was raised and attended school on a military post. He later received a B.S.M.A. from the Chicago Musical College and a Masters in Composition from the Sherwood School of Music. He taught music at five educational institutions: Tuskegee Institute, Western University, Lincoln, Wendell Phillips and Sumner High Schools. Some of his students became prominent musicians. They were Lionel Hampton, Nat "King" Cole, Milton Hinton, Bennie Moten and Charlie Parker. Smith also worked with industries. He conducted the newsboys band for the Chicago Defender Newspaper and he became the music supervisor for the porters of the Pullman Railroad Company. Smith was stated to have introduced the saxophone to African-Americans and he was considered as one of the first composers to notate spirituals. Smith published over fifty works in America. One of his compositions received a copyright from England. His Negro Folk Suite, published by the ...
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