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 Degree Discipline: Kinesiology
Accuracy of Self-Reported Height, Weight, and Calculated BMI and Resulting FITNESSGRAM® Healthy Fitness Zone Classification

Accuracy of Self-Reported Height, Weight, and Calculated BMI and Resulting FITNESSGRAM® Healthy Fitness Zone Classification

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Date: May 2006
Creator: Rowell, Chelsie Joyce
Description: The determination of adiposity in adolescents is often assessed with calculations of body mass indices (BMI). Researchers often obtain these measurements from self-reported (SR) values. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of SR height, weight, and calculated BMI (from height and weight). SR and actual measured (ME) BMI values were compared with standards from the FITNESSGRAM® Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ) classifications. SR height and calculated BMI were found to be accurate while SR weight was, on average, underreported by 4.77 lbs. Because of these errors in SR height and weight, accuracy of classification into the FITNESSGRAM® HFZ was compromised. Consequently, it is important that researchers ascertain actual values of height and weight when measuring adolescents rather than use those from self-reports.
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The Acute Hormonal Response to the Kettlebell Swing Exercise

The Acute Hormonal Response to the Kettlebell Swing Exercise

Date: December 2013
Creator: Budnar Jr., Ronald Gene
Description: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute hormonal response to a bout of kettlebell swing exercise. Ten healthy men (19-30 y, 23.6 ± 3.5 y, 174.6 ± 5.7 cm, 78.7 ± 9.9 kg) who were engaged in resistance training at least twice per week but were inexperienced with kettlebell swings participated in this study. Participants were familiarized with the kettlebell swing exercise during an initial visit. During the subsequent experimental protocol visit, participants performed 12 rounds of 30 seconds of 16-kg kettlebell swings alternated with 30 seconds of rest. Heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at the end of every round of swings. Fasted blood samples were collected pre-exercise (PRE), immediately post (IP), 15 minutes post (P15), and 30 minutes post exercise (P30) and analyzed for total testosterone (T), growth hormone (GH), cortisol, and lactate concentrations. Participants completed a total of 227 ± 23 swings (average swings per round: 19 ± 2). HR and RPE increased significantly (P < 0.05) throughout the exercise protocol. Lactate concentrations were significantly increased at all post exercise time points compared to PRE. T was significantly increased at IP compared to PRE. GH was significantly increased at ...
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Attentional focus strategies of multi-sport athletes.

Attentional focus strategies of multi-sport athletes.

Date: August 2003
Creator: Werner, Sara M.
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the attentional focus strategies used by triathletes during the three stages of an Olympic distance triathlon, (b) if level of experience influences the attentional focus strategies used by triathletes, and (c) whether there is a relationship between athletes finishing times and the attentional strategies used in each stage of the race. Triathletes (N = 160) completed the Triathlon Attentional Focus Inventory, which measured association and dissociation during the swim, bike, and run. One-way ANOVAs revealed significant differences between the athletes' level of experience and the attentional strategies used, as well as differences between the athletes overall race time and the attentional strategies used during each stage of the triathlon. Athletes with more experience associated more during the race, whereas athletes with less experience dissociated more throughout the race.
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Body ideals and weight bias: Does ethnicity make a difference?

Body ideals and weight bias: Does ethnicity make a difference?

Date: August 2006
Creator: Liebig, Yvonne D.
Description: The current study investigates whether there are there ethnic differences between Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic women in (a) weight bias, (b) body ideals, (c) social awareness and internalization of appearance standards and (d) physical activity in relation to these constructs. Participants included 130 Caucasian, 103 African American, and 52 Hispanic undergraduate female students. Participants completed a demographic survey, the Antifat Attitudes Test, the Figure Rating Scale, the Sociocultural Attitudes toward Appearance Questionnaire, and the Multiethnic Identity Measure questionnaire. No significant ethnic group differences in weight bias emerged. Differences were found for participants' perceptions of the culturally ideal female body shape, as well as awareness and internalization. No relationship was found between physical activity and weight bias, body ideals, and appearance standards. Future researchers should use health weight classifications, in addition to ethnicity, to examine weight bias, body ideals, and physical activity.
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Coaching behavior preferences of interscholastic athletes.

Coaching behavior preferences of interscholastic athletes.

Date: May 2003
Creator: Kravig, Seth Dayton
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether coaching behavior preferences of interscholastic athletes differ as a function of gender and type of sport. The Coaching Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ; Martin & Barnes, 1999) was administered to 372 interscholastic athletes. The mean scores of the participants' responses to each subscale on the CBQ were the dependent variables and gender and type of sport were the independent variables. Descriptive statistics revealed that female and male interscholastic athletes who perform on coactive, mixed, and interactive sport teams preferred coaches who engage in supportive and instructional behaviors, as opposed to non-responses or negative responses. A 2 (Gender) X 3 (Type of Sport) MANOVA and discriminant function analyses indicated that gender and the degree of interdependency between group members affects preferred coaching behavior. Thus, coaches should consider situational factors and personal characteristics when working with interscholastic athletes.
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The Construct Validity of Self-Reported Historical Physical Activity

The Construct Validity of Self-Reported Historical Physical Activity

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Date: May 2002
Creator: Bowles, Heather R.
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity of self-reported historical walking, running, and jogging (WRJ) activity. The criterion measure was concurrent performance on a maximal treadmill test. Subjects completed a medical exam and treadmill test between the years 1976 and 1985, and completed a follow-up questionnaire in 1986. Questionnaire included an item that assessed WRJ for each year from 1976 through 1985. Data analysis included Spearman correlations, partial correlations, ANOVA, and ANCOVA. Results indicated self-reported historical WRJ can be assessed with reasonable validity when compared with concurrently measured treadmill performance, and there is no decay in the accuracy of this reporting for up to ten years in the past.
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Do American Adults Know How to Exercise for a Health Benefit?

Do American Adults Know How to Exercise for a Health Benefit?

Date: December 1998
Creator: Krzewinski-Malone, Jeanette A. (Jeanette Aileen)
Description: Approximately 950,000 Americans die annually from cardiovascular disease. Physical activity is a major risk factor for the development of CVD and a risk factor for stroke. The purpose of this research was to determine whether American adults know how to exercise to achieve health benefits and whether this knowledge is a function of demographics. Items included knowledge of exercise guidelines and knowledge of traditional and non-traditional exercise activities. This information was obtained from 22 questions that were a part of a larger national survey of 2,002 American households. Statistical analyses of this sample, indicate American adults have knowledge which varies by demographic groups. Data revealed that overall the 61+, Less than High School, African-American, Hispanic-American, and Male groups have the least amount of knowledge about exercise. These data can provide health educators with important aspects of exercise knowledge for future health promotions/interventions.
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Ecological analysis of physical activity and health-related quality of life in female college students.

Ecological analysis of physical activity and health-related quality of life in female college students.

Date: December 2011
Creator: Dunn, Jacqueline
Description: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a comprehensive construct including physical and psychosocial health functioning. Despite significant health benefits of regular physical activity (PA), over 40% of female college students do not meet recommended PA guidelines to improve their health. This study investigated the influences of individual, social, and physical environmental factors on students’ PA and HRQOL. Participants were 235 female university students who completed validated surveys assessing their perceptions of PA, HRQOL, and social ecological factors. Three hierarchical regressions revealed individual and physical environmental factors as predictors of PA and HRQOL. These findings indicated health professionals need to consider students’ individual factors and physical environmental factors to promote female students’ PA and HRQOL.
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Effect of Chronic Alcohol Abuse and Resistance Training on the Skeletal Muscle Androgen Receptor Concentration of Rats

Effect of Chronic Alcohol Abuse and Resistance Training on the Skeletal Muscle Androgen Receptor Concentration of Rats

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Date: August 2004
Creator: Vingren, Jakob L.
Description: The purpose was to examine the effect of chronic alcohol abuse on the androgen receptor content (AR) in skeletal muscle, and to determine if this effect was influenced by resistance training. Thirty-four male rats (456 ± 1 g; mean ± SE) were divided into 4 groups: Sham exercise-Ethanol, Sham exercise-Normal diet, Exercise-Ethanol, and Exercise-Normal diet. Both Exercise groups underwent a 6-week "squat" resistance training protocol and both Ethanol groups received an alcohol-rich diet throughout the 6-week period. Western blot analysis showed no effect of alcohol or resistance training on the AR of the extensor digitorum longus. For the rectus femoris, alcohol caused a decline in the AR (p=0.01). This reduction was not attenuated by resistance training. The AR of the soleus was not affected by chronic alcohol abuse alone; however, the resistance training induced increase in the AR was prevented by chronic alcohol abuse (p=0.03).
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The effect of mode and intensity on VO2 kinetics in the severe intensity domain

The effect of mode and intensity on VO2 kinetics in the severe intensity domain

Date: May 2000
Creator: Updyke, Rhonda S.
Description: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mode and intensity on VO2 kinetics in the severe intensity domain. Seventeen participants completed 3-7 tests each on a cycle ergometer and treadmill. For each test, Tfatigue, VO2max, Tmean response, VO2GAIN, TVO2max and T@VO2max were determined. Linear regression techniques were used to describe the relationship between TVO2max and Tfatigue . VO2max values were higher in running. The VO2 response profile was faster for running than cycling and faster at higher intensities. The faster VO2 response in running may be associated with larger active muscle mass or differences in muscle activation patterns. The faster response at higher intensities may suggest that VO2 response is driven by O2 demand.
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