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 Degree Discipline: Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Mirthful Laughter and Directed Relaxation: a Comparison of Physiological Response

Mirthful Laughter and Directed Relaxation: a Comparison of Physiological Response

Date: August 1985
Creator: Woods, Barbara Jane Simmons
Description: The differences among certain physiological changes occurring in response to mirthful laughter, directed relaxation, and verbal speech were investigated. These changes included amount of muscle tension, as measured with surface electromyography, in the forehead and in the upper body as recorded from the forearms bilaterally, peripheral surface skin temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate. The study sought to determine whether the net effect of laughter, as measured on these five variables after a three-minute refractory period, is a more relaxed state than existed before the laughter. Determination of the similarity between the changes following laughter and the changes following directed relaxation was made in comparison with the changes following verbal speech. Factors of prior anxiety, pre- and post-self-esteem levels, humor level, and laughter intensity were examined. Historical and theoretical perspectives were reviewed, as well as the known information on physiological responses to laughter.
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Assessment of Brain Damage: Discriminant Validity of a Neuropsychological Key Approach with the McCarron-Dial System

Assessment of Brain Damage: Discriminant Validity of a Neuropsychological Key Approach with the McCarron-Dial System

Date: December 1985
Creator: Norton, Carole Lynn
Description: The present study investigates the predictive accuracy of a key approach to interpretation of the verbal-spatialcognitive (VSC) and sensorimotor (SM) factors of the McCarron-Dial System (MDS). The subjects include 99 brain damaged and 30 normal adults. The following research questions are addressed: (a) Does the neuropsychological key classify brain damaged and non-brain damaged subjects at a level significantly above chance? (b) Among the brain damaged subjects, does the neuropsychological key identify right brain damage, left brain damage and diffuse brain damage at an accuracy level significantly above chance? (c) Is the neuropsychological key approach superior to the empirical model derived from discriminant function analysis in predictive accuracy? The neuropsychological key correctly classifies 90% of the cases as brain damaged and 90% of the cases as non-brain damaged, for a total of 89.9% predictive accuracy. The obtained Kappa coefficient of .74 is statistically significant. The key accurately classifies 71.4% of the brain damaged group as right damage, 70% as left damage, and 93.8% as diffuse damage, for a total predictive accuracy of 7 9.5%. The Kappa coefficient of .68 is statistically significant. Chi square analysis of the difference between the key approach and multiple discriminant function analysis reveals that no significant ...
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Cognitive Coping Strategies with Chronic Back Pain Patients

Cognitive Coping Strategies with Chronic Back Pain Patients

Date: December 1985
Creator: Hinnant, Donald Wayne
Description: Low back pain has long been estimated to be the most prevalent and debilitating source of chronic pain. The present study first reviews the literature addressing the various theories of pain, the physiological and psychological variables important in pain research, and the psychotherapeutic approaches that have been used to date to reduce pain. Thirty-seven hospitalized chronic back pain patients were administered the cold-pressor test and a medical pain stimulus procedure which was medically relevant to their back pathology. A card-sort method was utilized in order to assess the coping strategies employed by the patients during these two pain stimulus tasks. These procedures were repeated following treatment. Coping strategies used by patients during the two pain tasks were compared. Results demonstrated that there was a significant difference in the manner in which patients coped with the two types of pain. Cold-pressor measures of pain threshold and tolerance were not significantly different between pretreatment and post-treatment. These measures were also not positively correlated with treatment outcome. A multiple regression approach demonstrated that particular coping strategies were significantly predictive of treatment outcome. The medical pain stimulus procedure was found to provide more significant pedictor variables than the cold-pressor test. At pre-treatment assessment, patients ...
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A Measure of Dependency in Patients with Chronic Illness: Clinical Ecology

A Measure of Dependency in Patients with Chronic Illness: Clinical Ecology

Date: December 1985
Creator: Jones, Frances McManemin
Description: This study briefly reviews both historical and recent conceptualizations of dependency. In particular, it focuses on this concept's applicability to patients with chronic illnesses, especially those with allergies. Type and degree of dependency were seen as an important factor in the approach to the medical and psychological treatment of clinical ecology patients. The purpose of the study was to develop an objective measure of dependency which could quickly identify patients whose dependency conflicts interfere with the treatment process. The study was divided into three phases. In the first phase test responses by 84 inpatients to the CAQ, MMPI, and the HAT as well as historical and demographic data were analyzed by a series of stepwise discriminant analysis. The 53 resulting items were examined for those which most concisely discriminated between the two identified groups (pathologically dependent and nonpathologically dependent). These 15 items were used to test 120 additional patients in phase II. Fourteen items were retained and the coefficients obtained classified the patients in phase I and II with a 98.81 percent and 94.17 percent degree of accuracy respectively. These classification coefficients were used to classify another 30 patients in phase III with a 96.67 percent rate of accuracy. These ...
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Temperature Biofeedback and Visual Imagery in the Treatment of Migraine Headaches

Temperature Biofeedback and Visual Imagery in the Treatment of Migraine Headaches

Date: December 1985
Creator: Clark, Susan Matthews
Description: After an initial four week baseline period, during which headache activity and medication consumption were monitored, 28 migraineurs were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: (a) the biofeedback temperature warming group, (b) the visual imagery group, (c) the combined treatment group, or (d) the comparison group. All four groups continued to monitor their headache activity and medication consumption during the eight week treatment period and the eight week follow-up period. A two way analysis of variance computed on groups over time indicated a significant decrease in headache activity and medication consumption. During the follow-up period (a) the combined treatment group had significantly fewer headaches than the biofeedback group or the comparison group and (b) the visual imagery group and the combined treatment group had significantly fewer headache hours than the biofeedback group or the comparison group. These results do not appear to be attributable to differences between groups on the amount of time spent in home practice or subjective ratings of relaxation. There was no consistent relationship between increases in finger temperature and headache activity improvement. Decreases in powerful other scores, as measured by the Health Attribution Test, and increases in subjective ratings of internal control were consistent ...
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A Comparison of Imagery Relaxation and an Educational Treatment Modality for Dysmenorrhea

A Comparison of Imagery Relaxation and an Educational Treatment Modality for Dysmenorrhea

Date: August 1986
Creator: Skewis, Sally Sweitzer
Description: This study is a comparison of four treatments involving education and imagery relaxation for the amelioration of dysmenorrhea. Treatment was presented to 76 subjects by videotape during a one-hour session. A six month follow-up was performed using one of the original instruments, the Symptom Severity Scale (Cox & Meyer, 1978) and a questionnaire designed for the study. Analysis of the test instruments indicated a significant treatment effect for the educational group. The second most effective treatment was a combined treatment utilizing imagery relaxation and education, although this group did not produce significant results. The no-treatment control group was more effective in diminishing symptoms than the fourth group, imagery relaxation alone. The lack of effectiveness of the imagery relaxation treatment was hypothesized to be due to lack of reinforcement of the technique. The educational treatment modality offered the individual an opportunity to learn about many different etiological facets of dysmenorrhea, including biological, learning, and cognitive factors. The presentation also introduced the individual to several different treatment modalities in order to provide an armamentarium of effective methods for diminishing or eliminating dysmenorrhea. These results suggest that there is a need for education about dysmenorrhea before menarche, in order to prepare, prevent, treat, ...
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Total Stress Load Inventory: A Validation Study

Total Stress Load Inventory: A Validation Study

Date: December 1986
Creator: Sherck-O'Connor, Robin
Description: The purpose of this study was to validate a stress inventory which would differentiate between a normative group and a patient population suffering from environmental illness. The hypotheses of this study were: (1) the Total Stress Load Inventory would be predictive in discriminating between clinical ecology patients and a normative group; (2) each section or subscale of the Total Stress Load Inventory would be predictive of psychological, cognitive, nutritional, and/or medical factors.
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Factor Analysis of the Clinical Scales on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery, Form II

Factor Analysis of the Clinical Scales on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery, Form II

Date: August 1987
Creator: Von Seggern, Heather Beth
Description: The Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) was published in 1980 as an attempt to provide clinicians with a standardized version of the neuropsychological assessment and diagnostic procedures proposed by A. R. Luria and A, L. Christensen. Research on the LNNB included a series of factor analyses for each of eleven clinical scales. The analyses were completed on the combined scores obtained from a sample of normal, brain-damaged, and psychiatric populations. A second version of the LNNB was published in 1985 as a largely parallel version of Form I, but included changes in stimulus materials, administration procedures, and scoring procedures. The present study completed factor analyses on same eleven clinical scales using data generated with the newer LNNB Form II. The statistical procedures and criteria employed in the present investigation were identical to those used earlier on Form I to allow for comparisons between the two resulting sets of factor structures. The patient populations were different, however, in that all subjects in the current study were receiving inpatient care in a private psychiatric hospital which specializes in long-term treatment. Despite the changes in materials and procedures and the difference in subject parameters, the factors identified in the present investigation are similar to ...
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Aerobic Conditioning: Effects on Locus of Control, Mood States, and General Well-Being

Aerobic Conditioning: Effects on Locus of Control, Mood States, and General Well-Being

Date: December 1987
Creator: Bertschler, John Joseph, 1948-
Description: This study was conducted to examine the sequelae of cardiovascular conditioning on locus of control, short-term mood, and psychological well-being. A pre-post test design, with control group, was used to measure the effects of a one month program of aerobic conditioning on adult volunteers. This study also sought to examine ways in which fitness changes covaried with psychological changes, and to describe patterns of change taking place during aerobic conditioning.
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Anger Reduction in Closed Head Injured Individuals with Group Social Skills Training

Anger Reduction in Closed Head Injured Individuals with Group Social Skills Training

Date: May 1990
Creator: Nicolette, Myrna K. (Myrna Kay)
Description: In the present study, an anger management treatment program was compared to a pseudo-social skills training program (self-help group) and waiting list control group to determine its effectiveness in reducing irritable/angry behavior in head injured subjects. Subjects consisted of 28 adults with previous head injury trauma who had difficulty with excessive irritability and anger. Subjects averaged 35.4 years of age and had an average of 8.9 years post head injury. Treatment consisted of 10 group sessions over a five week period. Anger management training was designed to teach subjects self management skills aimed at reducing the frequency of angry acting out behavior. Training methods included role playing, relaxation training, assertiveness training and cognitive restructuring. The pseudo-social skills training group was a self-help group designed to encourage discussion of irritability problems without teaching specific coping techniques. To assure some degree of homogeneity in cognitive abilities among subjects, minimum eligibility scores were required on five subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Revised and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Dependent measures were pre and posttreatment scores obtained from five categories of the Katz Adjustment Scale - Relative form: belligerence, negativity, general psychopathology, social obstreperousness, and social role functioning. In addition, pre ...
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