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 Degree Discipline: Criminal Justice
The Integral Role of Training in the Implementation of Hate Crime Legislation

The Integral Role of Training in the Implementation of Hate Crime Legislation

Date: May 2001
Creator: Broadhurst, Monica DeAnn
Description: This research focuses on the association between law enforcement training and implementation of hate crime legislation. The Anti-Defamation League's state hate crime statutory provisions and the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hate Crime Reporting by States data are examined. Section one includes the following: What Constitutes Hate?, The History of Hate Crime Legislation, and Issues Facing Hate Crime Legislation. Section two surveys literature on both Hate Crime Legislation and the training of law enforcement officers. Section three discusses the Anti-Defamation League and FBI data in detail and explains the methods used to test the association between law enforcement training and reporting of hate crime legislation. Findings yield a statistically significant association between law enforcement training and reporting of hate crime legislation.
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Media Influence on Executive Police Decision-Making: A Case Study of Police and Media Interaction During the Oklahoma City Bombing Investigation and Trials

Media Influence on Executive Police Decision-Making: A Case Study of Police and Media Interaction During the Oklahoma City Bombing Investigation and Trials

Date: May 2001
Creator: Bellew, Steven S.
Description: Because media influence public opinion, it is often surmised that media also influence the decisions of police executives. This exploratory case study examined the relationship between police and media during the Oklahoma City bombing investigation and subsequent trials of Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols. Findings indicate that media influence police executive decisions when police and media interact closely. It was found that during the Oklahoma City bombing investigation and trials, police on the outer perimeter were influenced most and police conducting the investigation or who were tasked to court room security were influenced the least. It was concluded, based on the consensus of respondents interviewed, that media do influence police executive decisions.
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A survey of the Greater Dallas Crime Commission and its effect on the

A survey of the Greater Dallas Crime Commission and its effect on the

Date: May 2001
Creator: Latham, H. Lee
Description: This thesis examines the history of the Greater Dallas Crime Commission and its effectiveness within the criminal justice system. It is a private agency established fifty (50) years ago to monitor and investigate the criminal justice system. Today, it serves as a source of funding for criminal justice agencies, provides awards and recognition forums for law enforcement and lobbies for legal revisions of the criminal code. The research is designed to examine their role within the criminal justice system. Whether current crime theories are supported by the commission is central to the thesis. There are no prior studies available of crime commissions perhaps because they are privately funded and operated by civilians. Crime commissions do exert influence, politically and financially, upon law enforcement. It is reflected often in their history. The extent of this effect is the subject of the paper. To this end, the commission's role in changing state laws, providing funds for police training, recognizing prosecutors and paying awards to informants lends credibility to their role in the criminal justice system. Their function has often changed during the fifty-year history. If there is a deficit, it may be that the commission has the capability, through its sphere of ...
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An Analysis of Major American Riots: Issues in Riots and Riot Control

An Analysis of Major American Riots: Issues in Riots and Riot Control

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Date: August 2001
Creator: Cinoglu, Huseyin
Description: By conducting sound research to understand the concepts surrounding rioting and efficient riot response tactics, professionals, especially whose main job is to ensure the tranquility in the society, will be better prepared to deal with all kinds of civil movements. The purpose of this study, consequently, is to meet the growing need for educational materials in this area and to provide riot response case studies, which demonstrate the numerous administrative challenges faced by law enforcement decision makers. In this study, seven major riots from throughout the United States are discussed including the Hay Market Riot of 1886, the Watts Riot of 1965, and Los Angeles Riots of 1992. Each riot case is studied in five different and independent stages: the setting and pre-disturbance situation, basic causes of the event, the disturbance situation, the response to the riot, and the aftermath of the incident. The study of all of these stages is intended to help police administrators acquire a general perspective on collective violence, and help them prevent future occurrences in their jurisdictions. In this thesis a special reference is given to the deficiencies of American riot policing and some recommendations were formed accordingly. Therefore, the study concludes with a list ...
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Case studies in terrorism-drug connection: the Kurdistan Workers' Party, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, and the Shining Path

Case studies in terrorism-drug connection: the Kurdistan Workers' Party, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, and the Shining Path

Date: August 2001
Creator: Sahin, Fuat Salih
Description: This study scrutinizes the drug-terrorism nexus critically with intent to conceive possible remedies for the problem. The vast turnover of the global illicit drug industry constitutes the largest portion of organized crime enterprises' income. Different circles have argued that these enterprises are not the sole actors of the drug business, but terrorist groups, whose ultimate aim is a political change rather than financial strength, also profit from the “business.” The controversial nature of the problem fuelled heated debates and requires an in depth and impartial analysis, which was the main subject of the current study. At the first stage, three different cases, the PKK, the LTTE, and the SL, were studied either to prove or deny the alleged phenomenon. The sampled groups' ideology, structure, and operations helped understand the motives pushing the organizations into the ‘business.' Subsequently, several recommendations capturing vital issues both in countering terrorism and breaking terrorism-drugs link were spelled out.
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A Case Study of Leftist Terrorism in Turkey

A Case Study of Leftist Terrorism in Turkey

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Date: August 2001
Creator: Yayla, Ahmet
Description: Change in government has characterized the development of most nations. Sometimes this change has been marked by continued evolution, in a peaceful attempt to move forward. Other times, change has been fraught with violent revolution and terrorism. This process has been the subject of much debate by political scientists and economic philosophers. Today, Turkey suffers from continued threats to its government through violent acts of terrorism conducted by various groups, expressing ideologies of leftist and rightist organizations, as well as ethnic and religious extremists. This thesis examines DHKP/C as the primary leftist revolutionary group effecting Turkey, exploring its historical background in Europe and the Middle East, as well as its philosophical link to Marxism. Further, this treatise discusses the implication of revolution and terrorism expressed by DHKP/C; and explores innovative and peaceful solutions, strategies, and techniques to be used by the police forces of Turkey in combating this group
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Communication Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 1994: A Case Study

Communication Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 1994: A Case Study

Date: August 2001
Creator: Ozdogan, Ali
Description: The purpose of this study is: to explore and analyze the Communication Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 1994 (CALEA), to identify problems related to CALEA, to identify solutions devised by other countries to overcome problems similar to CALEA's, and to propose feasible solutions to CALEA problems.
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The Correctional Orientation of Juvenile Facility Directors

The Correctional Orientation of Juvenile Facility Directors

Date: August 2001
Creator: Sifuentes-Hammer, Amy
Description: Over the last 30 years, the juvenile justice system and juvenile correctional ideology shifted to become more punitive in nature. However, studies examining this shift are lacking in the literature. The present study will attempt to assess what correctional ideology, rehabilitative or punitive, is dominant within juvenile corrections by conducting a national survey to juvenile facility directors. This study will be based on prior literature, most of which has focused upon line staff in an adult correctional setting. From this prior literature, more specifically from the work of Cullen et al. (1989), scales will be created to determine the correctional orientation of the key administrators in juvenile facilities. This will allow us to assess whether the correctional ideology driving the juvenile system has in fact become punitive. The findings from this study have the opportunity to alter the current status quo in juvenile corrections.
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Criminal Justice Responses to Emerging Computer Crime Problems

Criminal Justice Responses to Emerging Computer Crime Problems

Date: August 2001
Creator: Sen, Osman N.
Description: This study discussed the issue of computer crime as it relates to the criminal justice system, specifically law enforcement. The information was gathered through several books, academic journals, governmental documents, and the Internet. First, the nature and forms of computer crime, Internet crime, and cyber terrorism were analyzed. Next, law enforcement responses were discussed. International aspects of the problem were separately pointed out. Further, detection and investigation of computer crime were examined. Problems related to the each component of the criminal justice system (law enforcement, investigators, prosecutors, and judges) were described. Specific solutions to these problems were offered. In addition, computer crime handling procedures were presented. Results indicate that computer crime will increase in the 21st century, and this problem cannot be controlled by traditional methods alone. Using new technology as preventive measures, and increasing awareness and security conscious culture will prevent the problem in the long run.
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The Impact Of Community Policing On The Structure And Administration of Police Agencies

The Impact Of Community Policing On The Structure And Administration of Police Agencies

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Date: August 2001
Creator: Erdem, Mehmet
Description: The last decade has witnessed the rise of a new movement called “community policing.” Basic philosophical principles, which focus on improved services to the public through decentralization, better communication and decision-making processes, and more police discretion highlight the community policing movement. Essentially, community policing is the quality movement in American policing. This thesis will explore the impact of community policing on the structure and administration of police agencies. Since this movement is centered in local police agencies, the focus will also be at that level. Considerable effort will be devoted to providing an accurate description of law enforcement in the United States; however, the crux of this treatise will be on the discussion of organizational problems developed at the local level as a result of implementing community policing concepts.
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Job Satisfaction of Juvenile Facility Directors: Results from a National Survey

Job Satisfaction of Juvenile Facility Directors: Results from a National Survey

Date: August 2001
Creator: Flanigan, Amy Renee
Description: This study utilizes a national survey to measure the job satisfaction of juvenile facility directors. The prior literature has focused on the experiences of line personnel within the adult correctional system, and this research serves to provide new information regarding this specific population. The current study will address the predictors and correlates of a director's job satisfaction. It is hypothesized that specific characteristics within the organization will predict job satisfaction. Issues regarding staff within an institution and their effect on a director's job satisfaction are the focus. Results indicate that staff issues significantly contribute to the job satisfaction of a director. Specifically, this research can be used to understand facility director retention, staff and juvenile related issues, and the effect of job satisfaction on criminal justice policy issues.
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New Organized Crime: Problems and Issues for Information Analysis

New Organized Crime: Problems and Issues for Information Analysis

Date: August 2001
Creator: Demirci, Suleyman
Description: This study illustrates the changing nature of organized crime at both national and international levels. Organized crime groups have changed in that they have entered the realm of high technology. In response this change, the use of new or modified analytical tools is suggested to enhance law enforcement efforts. This study highlights the problems of, and offers particular solutions for information analysis in its use in the fight against organized crime. Ultimately, it is argued that combined crime and intelligence analysis can be an effective and efficient method for the detection and prevention of modern organized crime.
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Problem-oriented approach to criminal investigation: implementation issues and challenges

Problem-oriented approach to criminal investigation: implementation issues and challenges

Date: August 2001
Creator: Ozeren, Suleyman
Description: As a proactive, information-based policing approach, problem-oriented policing emphasizes the use of crime analysis techniques in the analysis of the underlying causes of the problems that police deal with. In particular, analysis applications can be powerful tools for criminal investigation, such as crime reconstruction, profiling, IAFIS, VICAP, and CODIS. The SARA Model represents a problem-solving strategy of problemoriented policing. It aims to address the underlying causes of the problems and create substantial solutions. However, implementing problem-oriented policing requires a significant change in both the philosophy and structure of police agencies. Not only American policing but also the Turkish National Police should consider problem-oriented policing as an alternative approach for solving criminal activities.
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Problems Encountered in Money Laundering Investigations

Problems Encountered in Money Laundering Investigations

Date: August 2001
Creator: Akyay, Ilkay
Description: The purpose of this study is to identify how the U.S. is responding to money laundering and what kind of problems arise while countering it, beginning with a detailed description of money laundering, its stages, typologies, impacts, and complications. Due to the broad nature of this subject only three main issues form the focal point of this study: problems concerning the banking industry and other financial organizations, problems resulting from the limitations of law enforcement agencies, and problems arising from the lack of cooperation between and within financial institutions and law enforcement agencies. Several probable solutions to the above problems are identified: Considering the financial industry, there are loopholes in the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) and in other regulations that apply to the industry. Thus, there is a comparison of the Subjective Model vs. Objective Model in terms of reporting systems for financial organizations. On the law enforcement side, the priority is the need to update and upgrade their technology and investigation mechanisms in order not to fall behind the criminals. Finally, cooperation is something that can be achieved through mutual respect and understanding of the priorities of each side, which can be achieved by the creation of an upper ...
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Structuralist and interactionist perspectives of collective behavior and control of crowds.

Structuralist and interactionist perspectives of collective behavior and control of crowds.

Date: August 2001
Creator: Gunes, Ismail Dincer
Description: The purpose of this thesis is to understand the concept of collective behavior from different theoretical perspectives and the policy implications they imply for the Turkish Riot Police Units. The civil disturbances in the 1960s have clearly illustrated range of problems in the domain of crowd control. This work will start with the general characteristics and the classification of collective behavior. Second, two main perspectives on collective behavior, which are the structuralist and the interactionist perspectives, will be examined respectively. The question will be asked whether these two perspectives efficiently and effectively explain the crowds and the crowd control. Finally, the other factors in crowd control will be explored, and recommendations concerning the handling of crowds in a more peaceful manner will be made.
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Transnational Organized Crime and Destabilization in Democracies, Russian Organized Crime as Case Study

Transnational Organized Crime and Destabilization in Democracies, Russian Organized Crime as Case Study

Date: August 2001
Creator: Yasar, Muhammet Murat
Description: Transnational organized crime has been prevalent during the last century, but it recently has been recognized as a threat to the world order. Governments throughout the world, along with the intergovernmental organizations identified this phenomenon as a new threat to domestic and international security. This paper attempts to explain the impacts of transnational organized crime on the functioning of democratic societies by adopting the Russian Organized Crime as case study. The descriptive research with regard to definition, scope and organization of transnational organized crime, along with the objectives, limitations and methodology of this research will be included in the first chapter. Recent trends observed in organized crime`s character and the impact of organized crime on the political economies of democratic regimes will be contained in the following chapters. Pre-conditions for a broader response to transnational organized crime and conclusive remarks will be the context of the last chapter.
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An Etiology of Juvenile Homicide in Dallas, Texas: 1988-1997

An Etiology of Juvenile Homicide in Dallas, Texas: 1988-1997

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Date: December 2001
Creator: Haynes, Joseph
Description: This research analyzed all juveniles involved in a homicide, both victims and offenders, in the city of Dallas, Texas from the years 1988 through 1997. This study addressed several research questions including the identification of risk factors common to both victims and offenders. Data for this study was obtained from the homicide files of the Dallas Police Department. The findings in part identify specific profiles of the victims and offenders, as well as identifying comparisons of risk factors between the two groups. Also identified are the relationships between the offenders and victims. Conclusions from this research present implications for law enforcement agencies, as well as furthering the etiology of juvenile homicide.
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A Case Study on Police Misconduct in the United States of America and an Applicable Model for the Turkish National Police.

A Case Study on Police Misconduct in the United States of America and an Applicable Model for the Turkish National Police.

Date: August 2002
Creator: Lofca, Izzet
Description: This study explores the underlying causes and deterrent control mechanisms of police misconduct in the United States. Outcomes of causes and control mechanisms constitute the basis for an applicable model for the Turkish National Police (TNP). Why is some police behavior deviate? What are the main determinants of police misconduct? Is police misconduct a result of sociological behavior and subcultural development within police organizations or a psychological behavior as an outcome of officers' personal traits? What are the control mechanisms for police misconduct? What are their strengths and weaknesses? Do they deter or not? Is there a control mechanism that deters better than others? What is the best deterrence model for the TNP?
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Changing Privacy Concerns in the Internet Era.

Changing Privacy Concerns in the Internet Era.

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Date: August 2002
Creator: Demir, Irfan
Description: Privacy has always been a respected value regardless of national borders, cultural differences, and time in every society throughout history. This study focuses on the unprecedented changes in the traditional forms of privacy and consequent concerns with regard to invasion of privacy along with the recent emergence and wide use of the Internet. Government intrusion into private domains through the Internet is examined as a major concern. Privacy invasions by Web marketers, hacker threats against privacy, and employer invasion of employee privacy at the workplace are discussed respectively. Then a set of possible solutions to solve the current problems and alleviate the concerns in this field is offered. Legal remedies that need to be performed by the government are presented as the initial solution. Then encryption is introduced as a strong technical method that may be helpful. Finally, a set of individual measures emphasized as complementary practical necessities. Nevertheless, this study indicates that technology will keep making further changes in the form and concerns of privacy that possibly may outdate these findings in the near future, however, privacy itself will always remain as a cherished social value as it has always been so far.
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Characteristics of Community Service Programs and Probationers in Texas

Characteristics of Community Service Programs and Probationers in Texas

Date: August 2002
Creator: Roberts, Darrin D.
Description: As a criminal sanction, community service involves unpaid labor on the part of convicted criminal offenders. Community service was created as an alternative to incarceration for low-level offenders. It now appears, however, that community service is rarely used as a true alternative to prison, but rather as an added condition of probation. The body of research on community service in the United States is modest, so relatively little is known about its characteristics and administration. Data were attained from 88 Texas probation professionals via self-administered written surveys in an effort to gather information about the use of community service as a criminal sanction in Texas. Frequency distribution analyses identified characteristics of both community service programs and offender participants in Texas.
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Civil Asset Forfeiture in the Fight Against Drugs (Policy Analysis)

Civil Asset Forfeiture in the Fight Against Drugs (Policy Analysis)

Date: August 2002
Creator: Tuncer, Hakki
Description: Even if the main criminals of an organization are incarcerated, they will be replaced by others who would continue illegal activities, unless their financial assets are removed. Thus, civil forfeiture intends to dismantle the economic infrastructure of drug trafficking networks. Civil forfeiture considers the property as guilty, rather than the owner, and it may exist even if there is not a criminal action. Therefore, it is claimed that police agencies have chosen easy targets, such as wealthy drug users rather than major drug traffickers. Consequently, it has been particularly challenged on the basis of the Excessive Fines, Double Jeopardy, and Due Process Clauses. The use of criminal forfeiture instead of civil forfeiture and the elimination of the equitable sharing provision are considered to be the primary solutions.
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Community Policing Training Programs and Their Roles in Implementation of Community Policing

Community Policing Training Programs and Their Roles in Implementation of Community Policing

Date: August 2002
Creator: Demir, Cuneyt
Description: The main goal of this study is to indicate the importance of community policing training programs for implementation of community policing. Community policing requires a transition from traditional policing methods to proactive and problem-oriented policing which is constructed upon police-citizen partnership. For the successful implementation of community policing, the change process needs to be fully realized throughout the organization. Suitably appropriate methods of training will help both officers and citizens to fully understand the goals of community policing. This study focuses on the types of existing community training methods as well as the obstacles that complicate training efforts. Consequently, this study provides some recommendations on community policing training programs to make them more helpful for police departments.
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Comparative Analysis of Interrelations Between Democracy and Democratic Policing Practices

Comparative Analysis of Interrelations Between Democracy and Democratic Policing Practices

Date: August 2002
Creator: Can, Salih Hakan
Description: It is assumed that democratic policing will help to improve the respect of human rights and democracy in a given country. Using secondary data, this study explores cross-nationally the interrelation between democratic policing practices (e.g., community policing) and democracy and human rights.The results show significant positive correlation between the practice of democratic policing and indicators of democracy and respect for human rights. The analysis strongly implies that scholars have underestimated the power of policing institutions in democratic societies.
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Computer Crime as a Barrier to Electronic Commerce: New Solutions for Public Law Enforcement.

Computer Crime as a Barrier to Electronic Commerce: New Solutions for Public Law Enforcement.

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Date: August 2002
Creator: Temur, Nuri
Description: Electronic commerce was expected to grow exponentially, but the actual rate of growth in recent years has been disappointing. Recent surveys of perceptions of the development of electronic commerce clearly focus our attention on the perception and fear of computer crime as the major cause of this disappointing growth pattern. The thesis critiques existing private law solutions to this problem and argues from a normative theory on “the commons” for the application of new public law enforcement solutions in the public trust, sanctions, and public coproduction of order. The thesis argues that given the failures of existing private law solutions to the problem, these public law enforcement solutions should be more effective, efficient, and more satisfactory.
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