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 Degree Discipline: Counseling and Student Services
 Degree Level: Doctoral
Adjustment of Kindergarten Children through Play Sessions Facilitated by Fifth Grade Students Trained in Child-Centered Play Therapy Procedures and Skills

Adjustment of Kindergarten Children through Play Sessions Facilitated by Fifth Grade Students Trained in Child-Centered Play Therapy Procedures and Skills

Date: May 1999
Creator: Baggerly, Jennifer N. (Jennifer Nalini)
Description: This research study investigated the effectiveness of the application of child-centered play therapy procedures and skills by trained fifth grade students in play sessions with kindergarten children who had adjustment difficulties. Specifically, this research determined if play sessions with trained fifth grade students facilitated change in kindergarten children's self concept, internalizing behavior, and externalizing behavior and their parents' stress level.
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Adlerian Counseling and the Early Recollections of Children

Adlerian Counseling and the Early Recollections of Children

Date: May 1990
Creator: Statton, Jane Ellis Porter
Description: This investigation used a descriptive approach to explore and evaluate early recollection changes of children in Adlerian counseling. The study addressed seven research questions regarding early recollection change for children in Adlerian counseling as compared with children not in Adlerian counseling. The treatment group was engaged in Adlerian counseling for 10 weeks. The investigator conducted pre-counseling and post-counseling interviews to collect six total early recollections from 9 subjects. The comparison group was not engaged in treatment for counseling. The investigator conducted interviews at an interval of 10 weeks to collect six total early recollections from 9 subjects. The Manaster-Perryraan Manifest Content Early Recollection Scoring Manual was used for analysis of early recollection content. Following training sesions, raters scored absence or presence of content variables in early recollections. Tables were employed to reveal findings of early recollection content change as addressed by the seven research questions of this study. A descriptive evaluation of' the data indicated that the treatment group manifested greater change in early recollection content as compared to the comparison group in six of seven research questions. On the basis of these findings, this study concluded that early recollections of children are a valid source of potential in measuring ...
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Adlerian Life Style and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Adlerian Life Style and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Date: May 1993
Creator: Doss, Carol Rose
Description: The possibility of a relationship between Adlerian life style, as measured by the Life Style Personality Inventory (LSPI), and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was examined by this research. The goal of this study was to clarify the relationship between these instruments to broaden the applicability of both instruments for both research and clinical endeavors. Life style is a concept which is vital to therapeutic intervention from an Adlerian frame of reference. Assessment of life style typically involves lengthy therapist interviews. Both the LSPI and the MBTI are questionnaires designed to measure personality variables. The 117 subjects for this study were solicited from individuals seeking counseling from an urban community counseling center. The individuals served by this agency are primarily those diagnosed with Adjustment Disorders. The LSPI and the MBTI were administered individually to each subject. Means and standard deviations were computed for the seven LSPI themes and the MBTI total. Due to a lack of research support for Theme 4 by the LSPI author, the data for this theme were disregarded. The same research indicated a strong bipolar relationship for Themes 7 and 8 (Displaying Inadequacy and Social Interest), which prompted the inclusion of Theme 8 in subsequent data ...
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Adult Discouragement: Parents of Children with Craniofacial Anomaly

Adult Discouragement: Parents of Children with Craniofacial Anomaly

Date: August 1996
Creator: Jones, Melissa Taylor Watson
Description: The Discouragement Scale for Adults (DSA) was developed to assess for the Adlerian construct of discouragement in adults age 18 years and over. Data were collected from three samples: norm (n=586), presumed discouraged (n=47), and parents of children with craniofacial anomaly (n=105). Five subscales corresponding to life tasks identified in Adlerian literature as work, love, society, self-significance, and spirituality underlie the 60 item DSA. Item selection was based on ratings by five notable Adlerians and item correlations with scale scores. Gender, age, and ethnicity norms were established for the norm, presumed discouraged, and craniofacial samples. Across three samples, no significant ethnic differences were found. Normative findings indicated females are less discouraged than males on the Total DSA, the society and spirituality subscales. Age findings indicated the 18-34 year old sample is more discouraged than other ages on the Total DSA, the work, society, and spirituality subscales. Presumed discouraged findings indicated females are less discouraged than males on the society subscale. Craniofacial findings indicated females are less discouraged on the society subscale, but more discouraged on the self-significance subscale than males. Age findings indicated the 18-34 year old sample is more discouraged than other ages on the self subscale. Research on ...
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Adult Discouragement: Traditonal College Students

Adult Discouragement: Traditonal College Students

Date: December 1996
Creator: Haggan, Paul S. (Paul Stephen)
Description: This study resulted in the development of the Discouragement Scale for Adults (DSA), an assessment instrument for the Adlerian construct of discouragement in adults more than 18 years of age. The DSA is a 60-item instrument that contains five sub-scales corresponding to five life tasks identified in Adlerian literature as work, love, society, self, and spirituality. Age, gender, and ethnicity norms were established for the DSA using a diverse sample (N=586). Additional normative data was developed with a presumed discouraged sample (N=47), and a special sample of traditional college students aged 18-27 years (N=531). Findings on the norm sample indicated that females are less discouraged than males on the Total DSA and on society and spirituality sub-scales. The 18-34 year old group was more discouraged than other age groups on the Total DSA and on work, society, and spirituality sub-scales. Presumed discouraged sample findings indicated that females were less discouraged than males on the society sub-scale. College student findings indicated that females were less discouraged than males on the Total DSA and sub-scales of love, society, spirituality, and work. A significant difference was found among ethnic groups in self sub-scales. Students with no absences per week were less discouraged than ...
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Aggression and Social Interest in Behavior Disordered Students

Aggression and Social Interest in Behavior Disordered Students

Date: May 1988
Creator: Brown, Deborah D. (Deborah Dairy)
Description: This study investigated whether behavior disordered children would decrease aggressive behavior if their social interest were developed. Three hypotheses that were tested predicted that there would be a significant difference between the control group and the experimental group on adjusted mean scores on aggressive behavior on post test scores. The measuring instruments used were the Child Behavior Checklist Parent Report Form, the Child Behavior Checklist Teacher Report Form, and the Child Behavior Checklist Director Observation Form. It was also predicted that there would be a significant difference between the control group and the experimental group on post test adjusted mean scores as measured on the Social Interest Scale. An analysis of covariance was employed to test the data. Behavior disordered students in the experimental group participated in three activities designed to develop their social interest. They participated in peer tutoring, socialization with nursing home residents, and group discussions. Data were collected from parents, teachers, and observers of behavior disordered students in an elementary school in Northwest Louisiana during the summer term of 1987. Teachers did report a statistically significant difference between the experimental and the control groups in the decrease of aggressive behavior. These results are in accord with predictions ...
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Ann Richards : An Adlerian Psychobiography

Ann Richards : An Adlerian Psychobiography

Date: August 1992
Creator: Pearson, Mary
Description: This psychobiography used the framework of Individual Psychology to examine the life style development of the Honorable Ann Richards in order to provide insight into the creation of a life style by a successful, contemporary female leader. This single case study utilized a qualitative/phenomenological research methodology to examine from Ms. Richards' point of view the manner in which a highly visible and well-known individual created her particular style of life.
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The Beginnings of Pedophilia: Lifestyles of Juvenile Perpetrators

The Beginnings of Pedophilia: Lifestyles of Juvenile Perpetrators

Date: May 1996
Creator: Edmonds, Marilyn S. (Marilyn Sue)
Description: This study utilized a qualitative/phenomenological research methodology to study the development of child molestation. Five volunteer male juvenile perpetrators of child molestation and their consenting family members participated in three one-on-one in-depth interviews. The juveniles were referred by juvenile justice departments in Texas. The investigation was pursued along three paths: (1) what factors in the perpetrators' life experiences may have influenced the formation of molesting thought and behavior patterns? (2) how did the perpetrators construe social relationships? (3) in developing sexual preference, what process did the perpetrators utilize to achieve the degree of sexual arousal needed to motivate the act of molestation? During analysis, 16 categories and 9 subcategories were developed from the data; these were evaluated in order to address the lines of inquiry listed above. Factors contributing toward deviancy were identified: these included general environmental factors and relationship issues with both parents and peers. The data also elucidated the perpetrators' characteristic ways of viewing themselves and other people, as well as the strategies that they relied upon to cope with their lives. These same strategies were subsequently used in their molesting. The results revealed that the answers to the investigational questions posed above were synthesized by the individual ...
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Bulimia: a Phenomenological Approach

Bulimia: a Phenomenological Approach

Date: May 1988
Creator: Schachtel, Bernard, 1943-
Description: This study used a qualitative/phenomenological research methodology to examine the perspective of five bulimic subjects about their lives in order to understand the bulimic individual's point of view and develop a clearer picture of the world of the bulimic. This approach involved three interviews for each of the five subjects totalling 22 1/2 hours. The three interviews dealt with the subjects' past and present experiences and their ideas about the future. The qualitative/phenomenological methodology created an in-depth view of each subject's relationship to the beginning of her bulimia and its subsequent development. During the period when the interviews were being transcribed, patterns and concepts emerged and were examined. Nine categories were developed from this data reflecting some of the characteristics of a bulimic's personality. Six research questions were formulated and then answered by evaluating them in the light of the nine categories as well as data and descriptions from the interviews. No one single category was found to be uniquely dominant, but rather the categories tended to appear in a cluster-like fashion depending on the individual personality of the bulimic. The data of this study revealed a distinction between the personality and the behavior of the bulimic. A form with ...
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The Characteristics of Psychological Safety in Group Counseling

The Characteristics of Psychological Safety in Group Counseling

Date: May 1997
Creator: Fall, Kevin A.
Description: Psychological safety is a concept mentioned throughout the literature as a necessary component in the process of change in group counseling. Despite its frequent mention, no study has examined the characteristics of psychological safety. The purpose of this study was to lay the groundwork for a definition of the concept of psychological safety using self reports of group leaders and group members on a constructed Likert format psychological safety questionnaire of three attributional categories: self, other members, and leader. The study utilized group members (n = 44) and group leaders (n = 4) participating in laboratory groups as a part of a counseling related masters curriculum. The questionnaires were filled out on the first, eighth (middle), and fourteenth (last) sessions. Hierarchies for characteristics and attribution were constructed by using a summing procedure of the Likert responses. Results on the attribution of psychological safety by group members showed a consistent pattern over the three time measures. Group members reported leaders as the most attributed to facilitating psychological safety, other members as second, and self as least attributed to facilitate psychological safety. Group leaders showed no apparent agreement between groups, but each group leader attributed psychological safety consistently over time within one's ...
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Child-Centered Group Play Therapy with Children Experiencing Adjustment Difficulties

Child-Centered Group Play Therapy with Children Experiencing Adjustment Difficulties

Date: August 2000
Creator: McGuire, Donald E.
Description: This research study investigated the effectiveness of child-centered group play therapy with children experiencing adjustment difficulties. Specifically, this study determined the effectiveness of child-centered group play therapy in: (a) improving self-concept, (b) reducing externalizing, internalizing, and overall behavior problems, (c) enhancing emotional and behavioral adjustment to the school environment, and (d) increasing self-control of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties. Also investigated were child-centered group play therapy effects on reducing parenting stress of the parents of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties. The experimental group consisted of 15 kindergarten children who received one 40-minute child-centered group play therapy session per week, for twelve weeks. Group facilitators were play therapists who were doctoral students at the University of North Texas. The control group consisted of the 14 kindergarten students that had been assigned to the control group in Baggerly's (1999) study. Before the group play therapy sessions began and after termination of the sessions: the researchers administered the Joseph Pre-School and Primary Self-Concept Screening Test; parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist-Parent Report, Self-Control Rating Scale, Filial Problem Checklist, and Parenting Stress Index; and teachers completed the Child Behavior Checklist-Teacher Report, Early Childhood Behavior Scale, and Self-Control Rating Scale. Although the general results of ...
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Comparative Analysis of Intensive Filial Therapy with Intensive Individual Play Therapy and Intensive Sibling Group Play Therapy with Child Witnesses of Domestic Violence

Comparative Analysis of Intensive Filial Therapy with Intensive Individual Play Therapy and Intensive Sibling Group Play Therapy with Child Witnesses of Domestic Violence

Date: December 2000
Creator: Smith, Nancy Renfer
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Intensive Filial Therapy in: (a) improving the self-concept of child witnesses of domestic violence; (b) reducing internalizing behavior problems, such as withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety and depression, of child witnesses of domestic violence; (c) reducing externalizing behavior problems, such as aggression and delinquency, of child witnesses of domestic violence; (d) reducing overall behavior problems of child witnesses of domestic violence; and (e) increasing communication of empathy between mothers and child witnesses of domestic violence. A second objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Intensive Filial Therapy with Intensive Individual Play Therapy and Intensive Sibling Group Play Therapy with child witnesses of domestic violence. The experimental group consisted of 11 child witnesses of domestic violence whose mothers received 12 Intensive Filial Therapy training sessions within a three week period and had 12 mother-child play sessions. The Intensive Individual Play Therapy comparison group, consisting of 11 child witnesses, and the non-treatment control group, consisting of 11 child witnesses, were utilized from the Kot (1995) study. The Intensive Sibling Group Play Therapy comparison group was utilized from the Tyndall-Lind (1999) study. Children in all studies completed the Joseph Preschool ...
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A Comparative Analysis of Intensive Individual Play Therapy and Intensive Sibling Group Play Therapy with Child Witnesses of Domestic Violence

A Comparative Analysis of Intensive Individual Play Therapy and Intensive Sibling Group Play Therapy with Child Witnesses of Domestic Violence

Date: May 1999
Creator: Tyndall-Lind, Ashley
Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of intensive sibling group play therapy in: (a) improving the self-concept of child witnesses of domestic violence; (b) reducing internalizing behavior problems, such as withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety and depression, of child witnesses of domestic violence; (c) reducing externalizing behavior problems, such as aggression and delinquency, of child witnesses of domestic violence; and (d) reducing overall behavior problems of child witnesses of domestic violence. A second objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of intensive sibling group play therapy and intensive individual play therapy on the above identified dimensions.
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A Comparison of Focused Feedback Techniques in Individual Counseling

A Comparison of Focused Feedback Techniques in Individual Counseling

Date: August 1972
Creator: Bucur, Raymond Roy
Description: The problem with which this study is concerned is a comparison of the effects of three methods of focused feedback upon selected client behaviors in individual counseling. This study has a twofold purpose. The first is to examine which of three methods of focused feedback (videotape, audiotape, or verbal) is most effective in producing selected behavioral changes in clients seen in individual counseling. The second is to compare the effects of the three methods of focused feedback on individual clients with the effects of a traditional individual counseling approach that did not utilize focused feedback.
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Comparison of Initial Session Play Therapy Behaviors of Maladjusted and Adjusted Children

Comparison of Initial Session Play Therapy Behaviors of Maladjusted and Adjusted Children

Date: August 1989
Creator: Oe, Emily Norene
Description: The initial session play therapy behaviors of maladjusted and adjusted children were compared to investigate the value of children's play for diagnostic purposes. The frequency and the intensity of 13 categories of play behaviors were considered as factors in discriminating maladjusted children from adjusted children. The 15 children in the maladjusted group had been referred by their parents for counseling but had not been in counseling previously, and their teachers had reported that they had exhibited two or more behaviors indicative of emotional disturbance. The 15 children in the adjusted group were rated by their teachers as exhibiting none of the behaviors Indicating emotional disturbance, and their parents recognized no need for counseling. All subjects were 5 to 9 years of age, and the two groups were matched for age and sex. The Play Behaviors Adjustment Rating Scale (PBARS) was used to rate each child's play behaviors in an initial videotaped 36-minute play therapy session. The frequency and the intensity were rated for thirteen play categories: exploratory, incidental, creative or coping, dramatic or role, relationship building, relationship testing, self-accepting, self-rejecting, acceptance of environment, nonacceptance of environment, positive attitudinal, ambivalent attitudinal, and negative attitudinal. The results of the chi-square analysis indicated ...
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A Comparison of Profiles of Success in Two Instructional Methods

A Comparison of Profiles of Success in Two Instructional Methods

Date: August 1987
Creator: Williams, John David, 1948-
Description: The problem of this study was to isolate predictors of academic success in both self-paced classes and lecture classes in Introductory Accounting. The purposes of the study were to determine if learning style, locus of control, reading ability, age, sex, accounting work experience, and prior accounting academic experience are predictors of success in Introductory Accounting classes taught using self-paced methods of instruction and lecture methods of instruction. Another purpose was to determine if there is a difference in the set of predictors of success in the two instructional methods and to provide some direction as to determinants of success which may be addressed by counselors in advising students. The data were collected from 463 students at a suburban community college in the Southwest. Each of the variables was analyzed by a stepwise multiple regression analysis and a backward elimination regression for students grouped according to instructional method. A two-way multivariate analysis of variance was used to examine whether the distribution of scores on the potential predictor variables were equivalent for students in the two teaching methods and for successful completers of the course and noncompleters. Consideration of the data findings of this study permitted the following conclusions: 1. Age and ...
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A Comparison of the Cognitive Style Similarity and Communication Style Adjustment Index Methods to Study Counseling Supervision Performance

A Comparison of the Cognitive Style Similarity and Communication Style Adjustment Index Methods to Study Counseling Supervision Performance

Date: August 2002
Creator: Schanz, Anne
Description: This study was designed to examine two questions. First, does increasing Myers-Briggs Type similarity correlate with improved performance by counselor supervisor/supervisee dyads? Second, is the Communication Style Adjustment Index superior to the cognitive style scale matching procedure as a method of quantifying MBTI similarity in dyads? Sixty-eight supervisor/supervisee dyads were recruited from University of North Texas Counselor Education Master's level practicum classes. Supervisee class rankings and supervisor performance ratings were correlated with the dyads' MBTI similarity as measured by the Communication Style Adjustment Index and the cognitive style matching procedure. While none of the hypotheses were supported it was noted that there was interaction approaching significance between dyadic similarity using the Communication Style Adjustment Index and supervisor performance ratings.
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Comparison of the Effectiveness of Two Interentions for the Treatment of Agoraphobia

Comparison of the Effectiveness of Two Interentions for the Treatment of Agoraphobia

Date: August 1989
Creator: Self, Carolyn
Description: The problem with which this investigation was concerned is that of treating agoraphobia with cognitive-behavioral group therapy and cognitive-behavioral group therapy combined with the drug alprazolam (Xanax). The purpose of the research was twofold. The first goal was to determine the relative effectiveness of the two treatment conditions on phobic behavior, anxiety, and depression. A second goal was to analyze the results and make recommendations concerning each of these modalities available to agoraphobics, their families, and to treatment specialists. The research design of this study was a randomized, pretest-posttest, experimental group design. The sample (N = 15) consisted of Group I (N = 7), who received behavioral-cognitive group therapy combined with the medication alprazolam, and Group II (N = 8), who received behavioral-cognitive group therapy only. The treatment included 15, 2-hour weekly group sessions, with the addition of a brief medication evaluation prior to each group meeting for Group I. During these sessions, the subjects received information about agoraphobia in the form of brief didactic segments, treatment materials, homework assignments, group interaction, and various forms of desensitization. Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusions were drawn: 1. Multidimensional behavioral-cognitive group therapy can significantly reduce phobic avoidance, anxiety, ...
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A Comparison of the Effects of Various Methods of Practicum Experiences upon Subsequent Behavior and Skill of Counselor Trainees

A Comparison of the Effects of Various Methods of Practicum Experiences upon Subsequent Behavior and Skill of Counselor Trainees

Date: May 1973
Creator: Hafner, Bruce William
Description: The present study was undertaker, to examine the effects of various methods of training during the practicum experience upon subsequent counselor trainees' behavior and skill. This study has a two-fold purpose. The first is to examine which of two methods of training was most effective in producing behavioral changes in counselor trainees during a five month practicum situation. The second is to compare the effects of these forms of training with a control group which did not utilize the training procedures.
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A Comparison Study of Individual and Group Play Therapy In Treating Kindergarten Children with Adjustment Problems

A Comparison Study of Individual and Group Play Therapy In Treating Kindergarten Children with Adjustment Problems

Date: May 2000
Creator: Rennie, Robyn Lynette
Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of individual child-centered play therapy in the elementary school in: 1) enhancing the self-concept of kindergarten children who are experiencing adjustment difficulties; 2) decreasing the overall behavioral problems of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties 3) decreasing externalizing behavior problems such as aggression and delinquency of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties; 4) decreasing the internalizing behavior problems such as withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety and depression of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties; 5) increasing parental perception of change in the problematic behaviors of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties; and 6) enhancing self-control in kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties. A secondary objective was to compare the participants involved in individual child-centered play therapy with participants in a previous study who were involved in child-centered group play therapy on the above named dimensions. The experimental group, consisting of 14 kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties, received 10-12, 30-minute individual play therapy sessions in a 12 week period in their elementary school. The comparison group, utilized from the 1999 McGuire study, consisted of 15 children with adjustment problems and received 12-14, 45-minute group play therapy sessions in 14 weeks in their elementary school. The control group, consisting of ...
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Counselor Effectiveness and Correlations With Select Demographic Variables for Masters Level Counseling Students

Counselor Effectiveness and Correlations With Select Demographic Variables for Masters Level Counseling Students

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Date: December 1999
Creator: Calhoun, Kenneth
Description: Counselor education programs are charged with the responsibility to train students to be effective counselors. Despite relative consistency in academic and clinical experiences, some students are less effective than others. It was the intent of this research to investigate possible relationships which may exist between students' background and experiences and their levels of demonstrated counselor effectiveness as measured by the Counselor Rating Form - Short Version (CRF-S) and the Supervisor Rated-Counselor Interaction Analysis (SR-CIA). It was hypothesized that counselor effectiveness would be negatively correlated with prior teaching experience and level of religious participation. Data was collected using a demographic survey from masters level counseling students participating in their practicum semester. Counseling tapes from each of the participants were collected towards the end of the semester. These tapes were then rated by doctoral students using the CRF-S and the SR-CIA. The total sample size was 28. Regression analysis was used to investigate the hypotheses. Three models were constructed. The dependent variables used were scores from the CRF-S, the SR-CIA and a third comprised of a normalized composite of CRF-S and SR-CIA termed COMPOSITE. Each model used, as the independent variables, years of teaching experience, and hours of religious participation. Results from ...
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Current Conservative Religious Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Counseling

Current Conservative Religious Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Counseling

Date: August 1994
Creator: Roberts, Charles T. (Charles Thomas), 1941-
Description: This study was designed to investigate the function of an individual's level of Christian conservatism and one's current attitude toward seeking professional psychotherapeutic help.
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Developing Social Interest in Juvenile Delinquents

Developing Social Interest in Juvenile Delinquents

Date: August 1989
Creator: Eldridge, Connie
Description: Male youths ages 13-18 incarcerated at two minimum security detention facilities participated in a program to determine if Alfred Adler's concept of social interest could be developed through group interactions led by non-professionals. The youths answered a self-report attitudinal scale, the Sulliman Scale of Social Interest and were rated by their classroom teachers on the Behavior Dimensions Rating Scale as pre-test measures. Volunteers from a liberal arts college sociology classes were randomly assigned to work in male-female pairs over a ten week period of time with the experimental population. These pairs led their constant group of incarcerated youths in ninety minute discussion sessions once per week for the duration of the program. Structured human relations exercises specifically designed to encourage elements of social interest; belonging, cooperation, and significance were assigned for each of the sessions. At the end of ten weeks, the youths in the experimental groups and the control population were tested again on the two scales. The results of Pearson Product Moment Correlations Test indicated no relationship between attitude and behavior for either the experimental or control groups on the pre-test and the post-test. A Mann Whitney U t-test indicated a highly significant increase in the social interest ...
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Development of a Discouragement Scale for Adults with Normative Data for Gay Males

Development of a Discouragement Scale for Adults with Normative Data for Gay Males

Date: December 1996
Creator: Chernin, Jeffrey N.
Description: According to Alfred Adler, founder of Individual Psychology, a feeling of inferiority is in some degree common to all people. People who are unable to overcome these inferiority feelings by striving for cooperation may become discouraged. Although there are three scales to measure social interest, no scales measuring discouragement for adults was found. Additionally, Adler held basic assumptions regarding homosexuality, and the findings suggest that the assumptions should be reexamined. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, three University of North Texas candidates developed a discouragement scale for adults 18 years of age and older, known as the Discouragement Scale for Adults (DSA). Discouragement was examined relative to the five life tasks. Second, this candidate normed the instrument for the scores of gay male subjects and compared it to the scores of the other subject groups. Since the emphasis was on developing the instrument and norming it for various subject groups, no hypothesis was developed. Data was collected on three subject groups, known as the general norm subjects, the discouraged subjects, and the gay male subjects. Analyses were performed on the scores. Among the analyses, it was found that gay male subjects were slightly more discouraged than the general ...
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