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 Degree Discipline: Clinical Psychology
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Conditioned Reinforcement with an Equine Subject

Conditioned Reinforcement with an Equine Subject

Date: May 1980
Creator: Flynn, Karen Kolb
Description: Historically, horse trainers have relied primarily upon repetition, negative reinforcement, and punishment to teach new behaviors. Positive reinforcement has been eschewed, largely on the basis of the wides read belief that positive reinforcement is not effective with horses. Additional difficulties in the timely application of such reinforcement have further inhibited its use. After repeated pairing of an auditory stimulus with an established primary reinforcer, the auditory stimulus was predicted to be a reinforcer. An equine subject was then successfully trained to perform five different, novel tasks using only the auditory stimulus. Subsequently, extinction of behavior was noted in the absence of the conditioned reinforcer. Implications for many phases of horse training were discussed. Some weaknesses of the present study were noted along with suggested issues for future investigations.
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Context and Degree of Learning in Cue Selection and Transfer of Training

Context and Degree of Learning in Cue Selection and Transfer of Training

Date: August 1974
Creator: LaBarge, Deborah Donahue
Description: The present study examined the effect of first-list stimulus context (color versus no color) and two degrees of first-list learning (twenty trials versus five trials) on cue selection and transfer of training. College students learned two paired-associate lists consisting of highly similar trigrams as the stimulus terms and nouns as the response terms. The second list consisted of twelve items presented on homogeneous white backgrounds for eighteen trials. Four secondlist items represented each of three transfer paradigms--A -B,A-B; A-B,A-C; and A-BC-D. It was concluded that color context draws attention to the color-backed items during the early stages of learning but is not selected for encoding until the later stages of learning.
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Contextualized Risk Assessment in Clinical Practice: Utility of Actuarial, Clinical, and Structured Clinical Approaches to Predictions of Violence.

Contextualized Risk Assessment in Clinical Practice: Utility of Actuarial, Clinical, and Structured Clinical Approaches to Predictions of Violence.

Date: August 2004
Creator: Jackson, Rebecca L.
Description: Assessing offenders' risk of future violent behavior continues to be an important yet controversial role of forensic psychologists. A key debate is the relative effectiveness of assessment methods. Specifically, actuarial methods (see Quinsey et al., 1998 for a review) have been compared and contrasted to clinical and structured clinical methods (see e.g. Hart, 1998; Webster et al., 1997). Proponents of each approach argue for its superiority, yet validity studies have made few formal comparisons. In advancing the available research, the present study examines systematically the type of forensic case (i.e., sexual violence versus nonsexual violence) and type of assessment method (i.e., actuarial, structured clinical, and unstructured clinical). As observed by Borum, Otto, and Golding (1993), forensic decision making can also be influenced by the presence of certain extraneous clinical data. To address these issues, psychologists and doctoral students attending the American Psychology Law Society conference were asked to make several ratings regarding the likelihood of future sexual and nonsexual violence based on data derived from actual defendants with known outcomes. Using a mixed factorial design, each of these assessment methods were investigated for its influence on decision-makers regarding likelihood of future violence and sexually violent predator commitments. Finally, the potentially ...
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Contingency of Parental Rewards and Punishments as Antecedents of Locus of Control

Contingency of Parental Rewards and Punishments as Antecedents of Locus of Control

Date: August 1976
Creator: Patterson, David Roy
Description: The study investigated the relationships between perceived contingency of parental rewarding and punishing behaviors and locus. of control. Scores on Levenson's Internal, Powerful Others, and Chance locus of control scales were correlated with scores on Yates, Kennelly, and Cox's (1975) Perceived Contingency of Rewards and Punishments Questionnaire. Few significant correlations were obtained. Maternal non-contingent reward related negatively and significantly to internality for males. Paternal non-contingent reward related positively and significantly to males' perception of control by powerful others. And paternal contingent reward related negatively and significantly to females' perceptions of control by chance. Results are discussed relative to learned helplessness research interpretations.
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Control of Heart Rate by Progressive Relaxation Techniques and Cerebral Electrotherapy

Control of Heart Rate by Progressive Relaxation Techniques and Cerebral Electrotherapy

Date: December 1974
Creator: Chambers, Jim A.
Description: This study presents the findings of an investigation of the effects of two different treatments, progressive relaxation and cerebral electrotherapy, on heart rate. With progressive relaxation, the subject relaxes by following instructions. With cerebral electrotherapy, relaxation is due to an external source of stimulation. Decreases in heart rate for subjects receiving progressive relaxation were compared with decreases for subjects receiving cerebral electrotherapy. A placebo group was used to evaluate the effects of both treatments independently. While decreases in heart rate were observed for both treatments, only progressive relaxation produced decreases significantly greater than those of the placebo group. However, decreases in heart rate produced by progressive relaxation were not significantly greater than decreases produced by cerebral electrotherapy.
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The Control of Violent Behavior of a Chronic Schizophrenic by Aversive Therapy

The Control of Violent Behavior of a Chronic Schizophrenic by Aversive Therapy

Date: August 1972
Creator: Reams, Beth D.
Description: The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the modification of behavior of a thirty-five-year-old, hospitalized, chronic schizophrenic male. The hypothesis was that the patient's aggressive and self-injurious behavior could be modified through the use of aversion therapy.
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Correlates and Predictors of Medication Noncompliance in Patients with Schizophrenia

Correlates and Predictors of Medication Noncompliance in Patients with Schizophrenia

Date: August 1995
Creator: Duncan, Julianne Christine
Description: The treatment of schizophrenia today consists of a multi-component system of services. Mental health professionals generally agree that anti-psychotic medications are an essential treatment for schizophrenia. However, adherence to medication regimens by patients with schizophrenia is notoriously poor. To identify correlates and predictors of medication compliance, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS), a semi-structured diagnostic interview, was administered to 90 outpatients with schizophrenia. The results suggest that there are specific variables (i.e., mood symptoms, psychotic symptoms, and socio-demographic variables) that predict medication compliance. In addition, the confirmation of these variables was effective (90.0%) at identifying non-compliant patients. The results suggest that schizophrenia is a complex disorder composed of heterogeneous symptoms. However, a specific group of symptoms is proposed which may provide a screening measure for predicting patients who are likely to be non-compliant with their medications.
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Correlates Between Adult Romantic Attachment Patterns and Dimensional Personality Pathology

Correlates Between Adult Romantic Attachment Patterns and Dimensional Personality Pathology

Date: August 2013
Creator: Ernest, Kimberly Dawn
Description: Previous research has suggested that adult attachment disturbance is related to maladaptic interaction patterns and personality disorder constructs. Specifically, research indicates that those with attachment disturbance are significantly more likely to meet criteria for a number of personality disorders, including borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between adult attachment and the new dimensional model of personality disorders scheduled to be released in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Health Diosrders (5th ed.) in spring 2013. Participants completed the Schedule for Adaptive and Nonadaptive Personality (SNAP) to measure dimensional personality functioning and the Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR-R) and the Attachment Prototypes to measure adult attachment patterns. Additionally, select scales from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and the Five Factor Model (FFM) will be utilized as secondary measures of personality patterns. The results suggest strong associations between adult attachment orientations and specific maladaptive personality characteristics.
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Correlates of Parent-Child Relations as Perceived by the Child, Type of Humor Appreciations, and Neuroticism

Correlates of Parent-Child Relations as Perceived by the Child, Type of Humor Appreciations, and Neuroticism

Date: August 1971
Creator: Lloyd, Sidney W.
Description: Appreciation of humor is generally accepted as being a unique aspect of human personality. Yet, despite its prominence in everyday situations, it remains a relatively unexplored area of scientific investigation. The present study has a twofold purpose: (1) an examination of the relationship of "sense of humor" to neurosis in a relatively normal population and, (2) an exploratory investigation of the type of parent-child relationship which fosters a particular mode of response to humor. As a result of the methods used to explore these areas, a third area for study was available to the investigator. That was the examination of the type of parent-child relationship perceived by the subject and the subsequent development or absence of neurosis.
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A Correlational Study of the Weigl-Goldstein-Scheerer Color Form Test and the Proverbs Test

A Correlational Study of the Weigl-Goldstein-Scheerer Color Form Test and the Proverbs Test

Date: December 1972
Creator: Murray, Charles B.
Description: The purpose of this study was to examine (1) whether the Weigl-Goldstein-Scheerer Color Form Test and the Proverbs Test were able to discriminate between a sample of normal patients and a sample of schizophrenic patients, and (2) to determine if there was a significant correlation between these two instruments.
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Countercontrol as a Factor in Teaching Vocal Imitation to an Autistic Child and it Relationship to Motivational Parameters

Countercontrol as a Factor in Teaching Vocal Imitation to an Autistic Child and it Relationship to Motivational Parameters

Date: August 1971
Creator: Hughes, Lois V.
Description: Operant conditioning techniques were used to establish imitation in the manner outlined by Baer. Countercontrol was assessed in motor and vocal imitation across four motivational levels. Three levels of food deprivation, i.e., three hour, fourteen hour, and twenty-one hour, plus a final response contingent shock level, composed the parameters.
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Criterion Validity of the MMPI-2 in a State Hospital Setting

Criterion Validity of the MMPI-2 in a State Hospital Setting

Date: August 1996
Creator: Connell, Richard (Richard Nicholas), 1965-
Description: The current study investigated the criterion validity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - 2 (MMPI-2) by comparing participants' profiles with other variables, including diagnosis, length of hospitalization, and chronicity. The specific diagnostic groups investigated were depressed (major depressive disorder; dysthymic disorder; and bipolar disorder, depressed), schizophrenic (schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, and schizoaffective disorder), and borderline personality disorder (BPD). Statistical analyses included use of univariate analyses of variance (ANOVAs), multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs), regression analyses, and measures of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive power (PPP), and negative predictive power (NPP). MANOVA results indicated significant differences between diagnostic groups on Scales F, 2, 3, 4, 7, ANX. FRS. DEP. BIZ. M f i , LSE, and FAM. There were considerable differences between males and females when separate MANOVAs were performed for gender groups. Cutoff see ires for classification by diagnosis resulted in significant specificity rates and negative predictive power, but sensitivity rates and positive predictive power were not significant.
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A Criterion Validity Study of the MMPI-2 and PAI Spanish Versions with DIS Diagnosis: Implications for Clinical Practice

A Criterion Validity Study of the MMPI-2 and PAI Spanish Versions with DIS Diagnosis: Implications for Clinical Practice

Date: May 1995
Creator: Fantoni, Patricia (Patricia Maria Angelica)
Description: New Spanish versions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) were assessed with the Spanish translation of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) as the gold standard. Findings from categorical and dimensional analyses suggest that, although the degree of diagnostic concordance of both measures with the DIS was found to be moderately high, the MMPI-2 clinical scales yielded greater specificity but lower sensitivity than the PAI scales on two of four diagnostic categories (i.e., Major Depression, and Schizophrenia). Both measures failed to correctly diagnose Anxiety Disorders, while the MMPI-2 also showed poor diagnostic accuracy with Alcohol Dependence.
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A Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Study of Adolescents and Religion: Views of Risk and Resiliency

A Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Study of Adolescents and Religion: Views of Risk and Resiliency

Date: August 2009
Creator: Miesse, Colette Ann
Description: The research literature within the past decade has documented the importance of religiosity and spirituality in helping many adults around the world cope with major life stressors and events. Still, the role of religiosity and spirituality in adolescence is not well-known as research during this developmental period has been limited by sample size, homogeneity of samples, ethnic restrictions, and use of scales with few items. The goal of the current study is to identify and understand adolescent levels of religiousness and spirituality, as well as their roles on later social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. The current study relied upon data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and utilized confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling in order to generate models of the relationships between the various latent variables. The religiosity and spirituality factors in the current study adequately measure religious perceptions and practices of adolescents over time. These constructs also play a role in later emotional well-being and self-esteem. Analyses also found adequate predictive abilities in the other model factors of delinquency, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and the social support. It is concluded from this study that religiosity and spirituality are not interchangeable constructs, and that more robust measures ...
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A Cross-Sectional Study of Custodial Grandparenting: Stresses, Coping Skills, and Relationships with Grandchildren

A Cross-Sectional Study of Custodial Grandparenting: Stresses, Coping Skills, and Relationships with Grandchildren

Date: December 1995
Creator: Emick, Michelle Adrianna
Description: This cross-sectional study compared three groups of grandparents, two custodial and one noncustodial, to identify and delineate the unique challenges and expectations faced by custodial grandparents due to their nontraditional roles while attempting to disentangle grandparental role demands from child-specific problems as sources of distress. Those grandparents raising grandchildren demonstrating neurological, physical, emotional, or behavioral problems exhibited the most distress, the most disruption of roles, and the most deteriorated grandparent-grandchild relationships. Although the custodial grandparents raising apparently normal grandchildren demonstrated less distress, less disruption of roles, and less deterioration of the grandparent-grandchild relationship than those grandparents raising grandchildren displaying problems, they still demonstrated higher levels than did traditional grandparents. Those grandparents who reported fewer resources, demonstrated poor attitudes regarding seeking mental health services, and reported raising grandchildren displaying problems had the lowest levels of adjustment.
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Cue-Controlled Relaxation: Saving Time Versus Efficacy

Cue-Controlled Relaxation: Saving Time Versus Efficacy

Date: August 1983
Creator: Todd, John Bruce
Description: Cue-controlled relaxation is looked at to determine whether a component is efficacious as the entire procedure. Subjects were 40 male and 40 female undergraduates. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: cue-controlled relaxation, progressive muscle relaxation, breathing exercises with a paired. cue word, on a presentation of the cue word without being paired. It was hypothesized that cue-controlled relaxation would be superior to a component of cue-controlled relaxation. It was determined that cue-controlled relaxation is not more efficacious than a particular component. Data suggests the majority of anxiety reduction takes place when the treatment focuses on the same modality from which the subject receives the most information about their anxiety. Implications and suggestions for further research are presented.
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Decentering and the Theory of Social Development

Decentering and the Theory of Social Development

Date: August 2012
Creator: Fincher, Jennie
Description: The concept of decentering originated with Piaget, who defined decentering as a feature of operational thought, the ability to conceptualize multiple perspectives simultaneously. Feffer applied Piaget’s concept of decentering to the cognitive maturity of social content. This study used Feffer’s Interpersonal Decentering scoring system for stories told about TAT pictures to investigate the developmental hierarchy of decentering for children and adolescents. The participants originated from the Berkeley Guidance Study, a longitudinal sample of more than 200 individuals followed for more than 60 years by the Institute of Human Development at the University of California, Berkeley. The hypotheses tested were: (1) chronological age will be positively related to Decentering as reflected in Feffer’s Interpersonal Decentering scores obtained annually between ages 10 and 13 and at 18; (2) children born into higher class homes would have higher Age 12 Decentering scores; (3) children born later in birth order will have higher Age 12 Decentering scores; (4) children whose parents were observed to have closer bonds with their children at age 21 months will have higher Age 12 Decentering scores; (5) adolescents with higher scores from the Decentering Q-sort Scale (derived from adolescent Q-sorts) will have higher Age 12 Decentering scores; and (6) ...
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The Decrement of Stuttering as a Result of the Application of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

The Decrement of Stuttering as a Result of the Application of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

Date: May 1973
Creator: Glenn, Sigrid S., 1939-
Description: This investigation is an attempt to apply the principles of the experimental analysis of behavior to the stuttering behavior of two clinical subjects. The experimental manipulations were performed in order to bring about a decrement in the stuttering rate of the two subjects.
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Deficits in Miranda Comprehension and Reasoning: The Effects of Substance Use and Attention Deficits.

Deficits in Miranda Comprehension and Reasoning: The Effects of Substance Use and Attention Deficits.

Date: August 2009
Creator: Hazelwood, Lisa L.
Description: Each year, an estimated 318,000 defendants who do not comprehend the Miranda warnings waive their rights and provide incriminating evidence without the protection of counsel (Rogers, 2008), which make Miranda-related competencies one of the most pervasive pretrial issues. A wide range of issues could potentially affect an individual's capacity to provide a knowing and intelligent waiver. Previous Miranda research has focused narrowly on the effects of cognitive and developmental factors. The current study added to the Miranda literature by examining the impact of two highly prevalent conditions found in correctional populations, attention deficits and substance abuse. Adult defendants in custody (N = 118) were evaluated within 36 hours of arrest in order to assess both chronic psychological disorders and situational variables. Results indicate that attention deficits have a significant impact on defendants' ability to provide a knowing Miranda waiver, whereas substance use profoundly affected their reasoning about Miranda waiver decisions. This study represents the first systematic investigation of the effect of transient mental states on Miranda-related abilities with criminal defendants. Important implications for forensic practice are addressed.
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Dementia, Diabetes, and Depression: Relationship to Cognitive Functioning

Dementia, Diabetes, and Depression: Relationship to Cognitive Functioning

Date: August 2009
Creator: Jackson, Lauren Innes
Description: The number of adults in the United States who are age 65 or older is rapidly increasing. With longer lifespan comes an increase in chronic diseases such as dementia, diabetes, and depression. This study used archival data from a larger study conducted at the Memory Clinic at John Peter Smith County Hospital in Ft. Worth, Texas to examine several hypotheses and research questions related to the influence of type of dementia, presence of Type II diabetes, and presence of depression on neuropsychological test performance. First, this study attempted to identify specific patterns of performance on neuropsychological measures for those with Alzheimer's dementia (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The results indicated that those with MCI perform better than those with AD or VaD on all neuropsychological measures, and that those with VaD perform better than those with AD on a measure of verbal memory. Another purpose of the study was to determine how the presence of Type II diabetes affects this pattern of functioning; the overall finding in this study was that the presence or absence of diabetes did not affect performance on measures of cognitive functioning. Additionally, the study attempted to add to literature examining the ...
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Denial of Risk: the Effects of Intentional Minimization on Risk Assessments for Psychopathic and Nonpsychopathic Offenders

Denial of Risk: the Effects of Intentional Minimization on Risk Assessments for Psychopathic and Nonpsychopathic Offenders

Date: August 2013
Creator: Gillard, Nathan D.
Description: Risk assessments for offenders often combine past records with current clinical findings from observations, interviews, and test data. Conclusions based on these risk assessments are highly consequential, sometimes resulting in increased criminal sentences or prolonged hospitalization. Offenders are therefore motivated to intentionally minimize their risk scores. Intentional minimization is especially likely to occur in offenders with high psychopathic traits because goal-directed deception is reflected in many of the core traits of the disorder, such as manipulativeness, glibness, and superficial charm. However, this connection appears to be based on the conceptual understanding of psychopathy, and it has rarely been examined empirically for either frequency or success. The current study examined the connection between psychopathic traits and the intentional minimization of risk factors using a sentenced jail sample. In general, offenders were able to effectively minimize risk on the HCR-20 and SAQ, while the PICTS, as a measure of cognitive styles, was more resistant to such minimization. Psychopathic traits, especially high interpersonal facet scores, led to greater minimization using a repeated measure, simulation design. Important differences in the willingness and ability to use deception were found based on (a) the content of subscales, and (b) the mode of administration (i.e., interview vs. ...
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Depressed and Nondepressed Students: Judgment of Control, Defensiveness, and Cognitive Functioning

Depressed and Nondepressed Students: Judgment of Control, Defensiveness, and Cognitive Functioning

Date: August 1987
Creator: Tang, So-kum Catherine
Description: Ninety-six undergraduates were given four tasks under either reward or punishment conditions. Each task consisted of 20 trials of pressing or not pressing a button to make a light come on. Monetary reinforcement was contingent on light onset for all tasks and on accuracy of judgment of control for the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th tasks. Cognitive processing was comprehensively assessed for each task by measuring expectancy, judgment of control, perception of environmental stimuli, evaluation of performance, attribution, and reinforcement value. Results showed that subjects were more accurate in moderate than in low control and in low than moderate frequency. Females were more accurate in perceiving environmental stimuli and had lower self-esteem, lower efficacy expectancies, and higher self-rated reinforcement values for monetary incentives than males. Low defensives were accurate in expectancy of control, judgment of control in punishment, and estimation of environmental stimuli. Subjects in reward were more accurate in perceiving reinforcing events and they gave themselves more credit for task performance than subjects in punishment gave themselves blame for comparable performance. Those in punishment had more stable and external attributions and were more anxious, depressed, and hostile. Depressives and nondepressives reacted differently to the monetary contingency on accuracy of judgment ...
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Depression and Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Depression and Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Date: December 1994
Creator: Saunders, Roger D. (Roger Dean)
Description: Depression is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Altered autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, a common feature of depression, is also a risk factor for cardiac events in patients with CAD. Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects ANS activity, and reduced HRV predicts morbidity in cardiac populations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences in HRV exist between depressed and nondepressed patients with CAD. Twenty-one depressed inpatients, with angiographically documented CAD were retrospectively matched to 21 nondepressed CAD patients by sex, age, and smoking status. Demographic, medical, psychological interview data, and 24-hour ECG recordings were obtained. Depressed subjects had significantly lower HRV, or trends toward lower HRV, than nondepressed subjects, even after controlling for severity of CAD. Subject groups did not differ on left ventricular ejection fraction, history of myocardial infarction, or any other relevant medical variable assessed. These results suggest that depression is associated with decreased HRV in patients with CAD, and may help to explain the increased rates of cardiac events observed in CAD patients with depression.
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Detection of Malingering on Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices and the Booklet Category Test

Detection of Malingering on Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices and the Booklet Category Test

Date: December 1997
Creator: Isler, William C. (William Charles)
Description: The capacity of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and the Booklet Category Test (BCT) to discriminate between groups of brain-injured, simulated malingering, and normal participants was investigated in this study. Exploratory analyses were also conducted to examine the differences between groups categorized as sophisticated and naive fakers. Clinical decision rules and discriminant function analyses were utilized to identify malingerers. Clinical decision rules ranged in hit rates from 41% to 78%, in sensitivity from 2% to 100%, and in specificity from 86% to 100%. Discriminant functions ranged in hit rates from 81% to 86%, in sensitivity from 68% to 73% and in specificity from 82% to 87%. Overall, the least helpful detection method examined was below chance responding on either measure, while the most efficient was gross errors for SPM.
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