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 Degree Discipline: Clinical Psychology
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Development of a Multidimensional Approach to Understanding Youthful Offenders: The Influence of Psychosocial and Personality Risk Factors
This study employed a multivariate, multidimensional approach to understanding psychosocial and personality variables associated with institutional maladjustment and recidivism among youthful offenders. Participants included nine hundred serious and chronic male youthful offenders incarcerated in the Texas Youth Commission (TYC); sample sizes varied by analysis. Empirically-validated psychosocial factors (e.g., intelligence, home approval status), past criminal history variables, and two self-report personality measures of empathy and hostility were entered into hierarchical regression and structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses to predict institutional behavior and recidivism at one- and three-year intervals after release from the TYC. Confirmatory factor analysis of the personality measures revealed one underlying factor indicative of their theoretical constructs of empathy and hostility. Some differences were noted between youth in the specialized treatment programs; however, effect sizes were small to moderate. Overall, regression and SEM results indicated the variables accounted for a meaningful proportion of the variance in the outcomes. Specifically, although length of stay in the TYC was associated with institutional behavior, younger age of onset, higher hostility, and greater home disapproval also contributed significantly. Past criminal behavior was predictive of future reoffending, but lower empathy, greater home disapproval, and younger age of onset accounted for a substantial portion of the variance in recidivism. Institutional maladjustment served as a mediator between the psychosocial and personality variables and the recidivism outcomes. Treatment implications are provided, including a discussion of the tenuous association between length of sentence and recidivism and an emphasis on the importance of evaluating dynamic personality and psychosocial variables beyond static measures of past behavior. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5354/
Developmental Stressors and Associated Coping Skills in the Development of Disordered Eating in College Females
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There is a lack of clarity in the current literature in how potential etiological factors interact and result in disordered eating. The purpose of this study was to examine an expanded model of Personality, Social Support, Appraisal/Coping Processes, Abuse History, Internalization of Sociocultural Standards, Psychological Disturbances, and Body Disparagement in the development of disordered eating. The current model was evaluated using 276 women in their transition to college, a time period highly associated with symptoms believed to increase a woman's risk for the development of disordered eating including perceived difficulty coping, weight gain, and negative affect. Structural equation modeling was used to allow simultaneous examination of the causal relationships between the factors. Structural analyses confirmed that college women with previous stressful experiences appraised the adjustment to college as more stressful and reported feeling less able to cope with the transition. Those women who identified the transition as overwhelming were also aware of increased negative mood and psychological states since beginning the school semester. Further, women with previous traumatic sexual experiences appeared to be at additional risk for increased negative affective symptoms. The resulting model confirmed that those women who experience negative mood states and those that endorse strong internalization of cultural values regarding attractiveness encountered increased dissatisfaction and disapproval of their bodies. Finally, women with higher levels of body concern engaged in more eating behaviors associated with disordered eating. The roles of personality functioning and perceived social support could not be identified in the developmental model. The predictive links between constructs in the resulting model provide meaningful information regarding the transition to college and associated risks for development of disordered eating. Validation of the model in an independent sample would provide confirmation of these relationships and longitudinal research examining females' attitudes across crucial developmental periods might provide important information regarding which individuals are most at risk for development of disordered eating. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3170/
Disclosure and its Perceived Impact as Mediators of the Long-Term Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse
The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate factors associated with childhood sexual abuse which mediate long-term effects. Of particular interest were the mediators of disclosure and its perceived impact, as well as variables related to the severity of the abuse. Also of interest were impact areas related to a history of molestation which have received little attention in the literature. Five hundred and seventy-five female undergraduates completed an extensive questionnaire with measures of family background, childhood and adult sexual experiences, health status, and psychological variables. Of these subjects, 286 reported at least one incident of child sexual abuse. It was hypothesized that those females with histories of sexual abuse who received a positive response to their disclosure of abuse would demonstrate more adaptive adult functioning as compared to those victims receiving a negative response, or those who never disclosed. Significant differences were not detected among the three groups on the outcome measures. A number of reasons were explored for why these differences may not have been detected in the present investigation. Although differences were not detected for disclosure status, significant differences were detected between females reporting a history of child sexual abuse and those reporting no abuse on all of the outcome measures. Specifically, sexual abuse victims were more likely than nonvictims to be sexually revictimized in adulthood. Potential explanations for this finding were explored in a discriminant function analysis predicting revictimization status. Further, abused females had significantly higher levels of depression, dissociation, and perceptual disturbances when compared to their nonabused peers. Sexual abuse victims also reported more health symptoms across various bodily systems and had more negative attributions about their physical health status. Differences between the abused and nonabused groups on levels of perceptual disturbance and perceived physical health status are particularly noteworthy since previous research has detected these symptoms only through clinical samples. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279108/
Dogmatism and Sex Role Differentiation in Adults
This study is an investigation of the general questions Is there a relationship or interaction between a subject's dogmatism score (as measured by the Dogmatism Scale) and his self-rating of the perceived stereotypical masculinity-femininity dimension (as measured by the abridged Mf scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc131623/
Dogmatism in Adults and Correlates of Early Parent-Child Relationships
The results suggest that children's perceptions of parental child-rearing behavior are related to their tendencies to be dogmatic in their beliefs, and apparently perceptions of parents as loving has reinforcing properties for the child that may lead to the uncritical acceptance of the belief system of the parents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc131359/
Early Recognition of Minimal Brain Injury through Use of the Metropolitan Readiness Tests
This study explored the usefulness of the Metropolitan Readiness Tests (MRT) as a screening device for minimal brain injury. It was hypothesized that brain injured (BI) children would score significantly lower on Test Six of the MRT than non-brain injured (NBI) children. Test Six is a visual-motor perceptual task. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc131493/
The Effect of a Program of Operant Conditioning of Autonomically Mediated Behavior on Manifest Anxiety
The purpose of this experiment was to initiate research into the use of operant conditioning of autonomically mediated behavior (OCAM) in the modification of maladaptive behavior. Anxiety was chosen as a target behavior because of its apparent pervasiveness among many different maladaptive behaviors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164056/
The Effect of Ambiguity on Peak Weightlifting Performance : A Study of Experienced Weightlifters
Recent studies in the area of sport and exercise science have suggested that weightlifting performance may be significantly improved under ambiguous conditions—namely, when the amount to be lifted is unknown. In the present study, procedural concerns from previous studies examining the effect of ambiguity were noted and a methodological variation was introduced. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278281/
Effectiveness of Secondary Reinforcement on the Behavior of a Hyperactive Child
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of various secondary reinforcers on the behavior of a hyperactive child. A base rate of appropriate behavior was obtained in a first-grade classroom. The operant techniques employed were secondary reinforcers consisting of monetary reinforcement; monetary paired with peer reinforcement; monetary, peer, and verbal reinforcement combined; and verbal reinforcement only. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164057/
The Effects of an Experimentally-Induced Bodily Focus Experience on a Psychotherapist during a Psychotherapy Session
The purpose of this study is to contribute to the current process research by investigating a psychotherapist's experience during psychotherapy. Massage therapy and relaxation therapy were used to manipulate psychotherapist's bodily focus, physiology, and affective state. Topics discussed include: the bodily focus of the therapist, neurobiological models of experience, mind-body boundary issues, and a present-time focus. Doctoral level Counseling and Clinical graduate students were used as participants. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277712/
The Effects of Assessment Context on State Anxiety and a Neuropsychological Model of Attention
This study investigated the effects of assessment context on state anxiety and attention according to the Mirsky (1996) model of attention. Context varied in the physical testing environment, demeanor of the assessor, and explanation of the purpose of testing. A relaxed condition (RC) and structured medical condition (SMC) distinction was made prior to data collection and the two contexts were designed to reflect contrasting practices of neuropsychologists. Elements of attention evaluated included Encoding (Digit Span), Focusing/Executing (Visual Search and Attention Test), Shifting (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Computerized Version 2), Sustaining, and Stabilizing (Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs). Eighty healthy adult females participated in the study. The findings suggest that the SMC caused higher levels of anxiety and lower valence than the RC, which in turn caused poorer sustained attention and superior shifting attention for this condition. Such interpretations are consistent with several theories on the effects of anxiety on attention. It should be noted, however, that differences observed in attention were limited to select measures. Factor analysis also indicates that the encode, shift, and sustain elements of attention were largely consistent with the factor solution proposed by Mirsky, while findings on the focus/execute and stabilize elements bring into question the construct validity of these aspects of the model. Findings from the study are considered relevant to those interested in attention theory and particularly researchers and clinicians involved in the administration of neuropsychological testing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4326/
Effects of Cautioning and Education in the Detection of Malingered Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
This study examined the effectiveness of cautioning and education on simulating a mild traumatic brain injury on several neuropsychological measures. The measures used included the Word Memory Test (WMT), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales® - Third Edition (WAIS®-III), Wechsler Memory Scales®-3rd Edition instrument (WMS®-III), 16-item version of the Rey Memory Test, and a self-report symptom checklist. Five experimental groups were used including clinical and non-clinical controls, as well as three simulation groups. The design and implementation of this study also attempted to correct several methodological short comings of prior research by increasing the incentives for participants, expanding the generalizability of findings and examining research compliance and participant self-perception through debriefing. Discriminant analysis was utilized to determine if specific functions existed that would correctly classify and distinguish each experimental group. Several discriminant functions had at least moderate canonical correlations and good classification accuracy. Results also include utility estimates given projected varying base rates of malingering. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5247/
The Effects of Continuous Versus Non-Continuous Noise and Level of Intensity on a Serial Learning Task
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of two noise conditions, continuous and noncontinuous noise, and three intensity levels, upon a serial learning task and the interaction effects of these factors on learning. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc131565/
The Effects of Different Confidentiality Conditions on Adolescent Minor Patients' Self-Report of Behavioral and Emotional Problems
The primary purpose of the present study was to determine if information regarding potential parental or legal guardian access to mental health information would deleteriously impact male and female adolescent psychiatric patients' willingness to self-report personal problems and symptoms. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278880/
Effects of Meal Size and Type, and Level of Physical Activity on Perceived Masculinity, Femininity, Likability and Attractiveness
Previous research indicates that women are judged on the amount of food eaten and that both men and women are judged on the type of food eaten. This study is an attempt to determine whether meal size or type predominantly accounts for these findings on the variables of masculinity, femininity, attractiveness, thinness, fitness, and likability. Physical activity was also included to determine its effect on these variable. Subjects used were 313 undergraduate students. Results indicate that meal type is more influential than meal size and that physical activity significantly influences judgements of others. The results are discussed in terms of future research and relatedness to socio-cultural theories of eating disorders. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279273/
The Effects of Mirror Confrontation on Body Image Ratings
There are conflicting data in the literature regarding the effects of mirror exposure on subjective body-image evaluation. Much of the objective self-awareness research by Duval and Wicklund concluded that the presence of a mirror leads people to evaluate themselves negatively, while other studies have reported contrary findings. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mirror confrontation on individuals' body image ratings. Subjects were 88 childless, female university students. Using the Eating Disorders Inventory-Body Dissatisfaction subscale (BDS) as a screener, subjects were assigned to either a High Satisfaction group or a Low Satisfaction group. The subjects then completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ) in either a Mirror or No Mirror condition. Results suggest that the presence of the mirror had no measurable effect on the subjects' ratings of themselves on the MBSRQ. There was a main effect for satisfaction level, and no interaction was found between the satisfaction level and the mirror condition. Possible explanations for these findings are offered. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277965/
The Effects of Reduced Challenge at the Conclusion of Cognitive and Exercise Tasks
Research has suggested that memories for difficult or painful experiences seem related to a combination of the worst and most recent moments. This peak-end theory was tested in relation to an exercise task (eccentric quadriceps using a BIODEX machine) as well as a cognitive task (standardized quantitative test questions). For each type of task there were two trials: short and happy endings. The happy endings trial included the same task as the short trial with an additional 25% duration at a lesser intensity (80% of short task intensity). A 2 (task type) by 2 (trial type) repeated measures design was used. Participants made global ratings of difficulty immediately after each component, thus generating four ratings, and later indicated their preferences for hypothetical future trials. Results indicated support for the theory that the shorter trials are evaluated as more difficult, with the cognitive task being evaluated as more difficult overall than the exercise task. Preference scores, however, revealed a preference only for the happy endings cognitive task, with no preference indicated on the exercise task. Results confirm previous research in suggesting differences between judgements of tasks and future choices. However, confounds complicated interpretations, especially for the cognitive task. The most conservative interpretation of data suggests that in circumstances where "more is better," happy endings will result in more work with no higher level of discomfort. Implications for future research and applications of the theory are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278372/
The Effects of Sedative and Tonic Music on Sterotyped Behaviors in Institutionalized Mental Defectives
Stereotyped behavior in profoundly retarded subjects was observed under sedative and tonic music, with time and movement measures of responding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc163979/
Ego Mechanisms of Defense among Child Victims of Sexual Abuse: a TAT Analysis
Using the Defense Mechanism Manual (Cramer, 1991), Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) stories of 29 sexually abused female subjects and 28 non-abused female clinical control subjects were rated for the frequency of use of denial, projection, and identification. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278379/
Elaboration and Content Analysis of Conceptual Structure in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Three recent studies attempted to substantiate Sewell and Cromwell's (1990) theory of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) based on personal construct theory (Kelly, 1955). One crucial aspect of the model that was tested in each of the studies is "elaboration," which is the process of bringing more of a person's repertoire of understanding (constructions) to a certain experience to give it meaning. Elaboration is representative of whether or not the individual is using an integrated set of constructs to deal with a traumatic event. A two-part study (1) reanalyzed existing data to assist in understanding discrepancies in past findings, and (2) content analyzed constructs given by subjects in all three studies. Findings concerning elaboration remained somewhat discrepant but suggested possible differences when investigating the emergent versus submerged poles of constructs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278345/
Elimination of Stereotyped Behavior, Employing Contingent Withdrawal and Representation of a Positively Reinforcing Stimulus
An attempt was made in this study to eliminate the body rocking behavior of a twenty-three-year-old totally blind male, individual, presently classified as moderately retarded. Consequences were placed upon, rocking behavior in seven experimental phases, employing time-out from a positively reinforcing stimulus as a punisher. More specifically, apparatus were designed in such a manner that rocking would result in elimination of the auditory and visual portion of a television, and in a later phase, the auditory portion of a transistor radio. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc131577/
Evaluating Process Variables in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) was developed to specifically target experiential avoidance (EA) rather than any specific diagnostic category. A functional ACT manual was presented and used to treat diagnostically diverse clients in a large sliding fee-for-service training clinic. A multiple baseline across participants and behaviors research design was used to evaluate session-by-session changes in EA, values identification, valued action, and clinical distress. The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-2 (AAQ2), Valued Living Questionnaire (VLQ), and Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45) were given to measure processes and outcomes given the functional ACT model presented in the introduction to the paper. Baseline included the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I and II Disorders given across 2-5 50- minute sessions. The treatment phase consisted of 7-10 50-minute sessions. Participants were 10 clients. Four participants completed sufficient treatment sessions (4-9) to test the study hypotheses. Participants generally improved across time, but most improvements could not be attributed to the functional application of ACT due to changes during baseline for AAQ, VLQ-Consistency, and OQ-45. VLQ-Importance significantly improved for all participants given ACT. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84296/
Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Parent training Protocol Based on an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Philosophy of Parenting
Thirty-four parents were referred by their CPS caseworkers to participate in one of two ACT for Parenting workshops. These workshops followed a 12 hour treatment protocol based on an acceptance and commitment therapy philosophy of parenting. Briefly, an ACT philosophy of parenting maintains that effective parenting requires awareness and acceptance of thoughts and feelings as they occur in the context of the parent-child relationship. An ACT philosophy of parenting also relies heavily on the identification and commitment to parenting values. Participants were asked to track acceptance and valuing behavior on a daily basis for 25 days prior to the intervention and 25 days post-intervention, as well as to complete a package of self-report instruments designed to measure both ACT specific and general psychological processes, at three different points (pre-, post- and follow-up). Nineteen parents received the treatment, and of those, seventeen provided follow-up data 3-4 months post-intervention. Results indicate statistically significant changes in the expected directions for scores on the BASC-2 Externalizing Composite as well as on the Meta-Valuing Measure. A total of 10 parents also evidenced clinically significant change in the expected directions on a variety of outcome measures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84261/
An Examination of Resnick's Model of Malingering: a Pai Study of Feigned Ptsd
Malingered posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) poses a formidable clinical challenge in personal injury and disability cases because of the apparent ease in feigning PTSD and the supposed link (proximate cause) to the claimed damages. The effective assessment of feigned PTSD is particularly challenging because this diagnosis is both easier to fake than other Axis I disorders and more difficult to detect. As an additional confound, some patients with genuine PTSD produce highly variable, elevated profiles on multiscale inventories that are difficult to distinguish from feigned PTSD. The current study examined whether the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) can effectively differentiate between genuine and feigned PTSD in 109 inpatients from a trauma unit. The two most effective scales were the MAL and the NDS scales. As a primary focus, the current study was the first empirical investigation of Resnick's model of malingered PTSD that is comprised of three subtypes: pure malingering (pure-M), partial malingering (partial-M), and false imputation (false-I). The primary goal was to evaluate whether each feigning group was able to (a) effectively simulate PTSD symptoms and diagnoses and (b) avoid being classified as feigning. The partial-M group proved to be the best feigning group in achieving these two goals. Furthermore, the use of well-defined groups, including an indeterminate band (i.e., unclassified) around each cut score, was explored. Overall, the use of well-defined groups improved accuracy in classification and reduced the number of false-positives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc283796/
An Examination of the Relationships between Personality Adjustment, Social Interaction Abilities, and Marital Adjustment
The problem with which this investigation was concerned, was that of determining the relationships between personality adjustment, social interaction abilities and marital adjustment. The following hypotheses were investigated: 1) there will be a significant relationship between individual personality adjustment and marital adjustment, and 2) there will be a significant relationship between marital harmony and social interaction abilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc131378/
Executive Control of Craving: An Examination of College Students
Previous research has shown that alcohol abuse may cause a deficit in frontal lobe functioning, specifically, areas of the frontal lobe that are related to executive function. Additionally, problems with executive function have been related to increased difficulty in managing cravings to addictive substances. The current study explored the relationship between alcohol use and performance on measures of executive functioning in a sample of 121 traditional college students. Students were given 5 measures of executive function designed to explore mental set shifting, updating, inhibition, sustained attention, and planning. These measures were used to examine the relationship between executive function and craving as measured by the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale. Levels of alcohol use were also examined using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test in relation to executive function performance and family history of alcohol abuse. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc68067/
An exercise in story repair: A guided written disclosure protocol for fostering narrative completeness of traumatic memories.
Flutists have reported musculoskeletal pain from practicing and performing their instrument. This study was a statistical approach to investigate potential causal risk factors for flute related pain among high school and college students. The study focused on the relationship between flute related pain and musical background or anthropometric measurements including size, strength and flexibility. Subjects included thirty high school and college-aged flutists who were assessed using a questionnaire, bi-lateral anthropometric measurements of the upper-extremities, upper-extremity performance tests for range of motion, isometric strength and rotation speed, and instrument specific questions. Four questions regarding pain associated with flute playing were treated as dependent variables and used for correlation and regression analyses with other independent variables. A six-factor regression model was created and each model was statistically significant. Results of this study show that strength, flexibility, pain spots, and exposure are risk factors for flute related pain. Both left and right pinch strength and right isometric pronation strength were significantly correlated to flutists experiencing pain while playing. Knowledge of these factors in relationship to pain is needed in flute pedagogy to help teachers and performers understand why flutists report pain during and after playing. Additional studies are warranted for replication of this study and for determining the clinical and pedagogical relevance of these findings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc6043/
Explanatory Style and College Performance in Students with Physical Disabilities
Seventy students (38 with physical disabilities and 32 without physical disabilities) were matched on age (a criterion of ± 4 years was used) and sex. Members of both groups, Persons With Physical Disabilities (PWPD) and those Persons Not Physically Disabled (PNPD), were asked to complete the University Services Inventory, Academic Goals Questionnaire, Academic Attributional Style Questionnaire (AASQ), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to determine how these variables were related to explanatory style (ES, as determined by AASQ scores). ES has its origins in the reformulated learned helplessness model (Abramson, Seligman, & Teasdale, 1978). According to this model, individuals who made attributions that were internal-stable-global (pessimistic ES) were more likely to experience mood and behavior deficits in the wake of bad events. The present study examined college achievement (GPA), utilization of university services, goal specificity, goal efficacy, and responses to academic setbacks, as these variables were related to ES. Additionally, ES scores were examined with regards to differences in gender and disability status (both between different disability groups and between individuals with and without physical disabilities). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278608/
An Exploratory Investigation of Marital Role Expectations and their Relationships to Perceived Parent-Child Relations and Perceived Family Integration
Fifty-one male and 57 female college undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory psychology course responded to the Roe-Siegelman PCR Questionnaire, a modified form of Tharp's (1963b) Marital Role Expectation Form (MRE), and a Family Integration Scale as fulfillment of research participation requirements. Previous research had indicated that generally children who experienced love and warmth in their childhood home had marital role expectations of friendliness, spontaneity, adaptability, trust, responsibility, and leadership, while those who experienced rejecting and neglecting parental behaviors were more likely to have expectations of being seclusive, guilty, hostile, rigid, mistrustful, and irresponsible. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164046/
Exploring Psychopathic Personality Traits and Moral Development in a Non-criminal Sample
This study explored psychopathic personality traits among a non-criminal, college undergraduate sample. Much research has been done on conceptualizing the construct of psychopathy, but this work has been conducted primarily with incarcerated individuals using a structured interview, The Psychopathy Checklist – Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003). The goal of the current study was to assess psychopathic traits among non-criminal individuals using The Self-Report Psychopathy Scale - Version Four (SRP-IV; Paulhus, Neumann, & Hare, in press), and compare how SRP-IV scores were associated with a well recognized semi-structured interview for psychopathy, The Psychopathy Checklist – Screening Version (PCL: SV; Hart, Cox, & Hare, 1995). The study also examined whether psychopathic personality traits could be predicted using a measure of normal-range personality, based on the five-factor model (FFM; Digman, 1990), and a measure developed by Loevinger (1976) related to ego development. Five-Factor Model Rating Form (FFMRF; Mullins-Sweat, Jamerson, Samuel, Olson, & Widiger, 2006) scores and Total Protocol Ratings (TPR score) on the Washington University Sentence Completion Test (WUSCT; Hy & Loevinger, 1996) were used to predict psychopathy scores. Correlations of SRP-IV scores and PCL: SV scores with FFMRF scores and WUSCT TPR scores were also examined for their uniformity. As predicted, there were significant, negative correlations between FFM domains, Agreeableness and Conscientious, and SRP-IV scores, as well as significant, negative correlations between WUSCT TPR scores and SRP-IV scores. These correlations ranged from small to strong for both SRP-IV overall scores and for SRP-IV factor scores (i.e., Interpersonal Manipulation, Callous Affect, Erratic Lifestyle, and Criminal Tendencies). Additionally, FFM domain scores and WUSCT TPR scores significantly predicted SRP-IV scores. FFM domains, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, and WUSCT TPR scores, were the strongest predictors of SRP-IV scores. Similar results were found when FFM domain scores and WUSCT TPR scores predicted SRP-IV factor scores. Results also indicated Agreeableness and Conscientious explained an additional 24% of the variance in psychopathy scores, after controlling for WUSCT TPR scores. Conversely, WUSCT TPR scores explained an additional 5% of the variance in psychopathy scores after controlling for Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Finally, as predicted, the differences in correlations between psychopathy scores (i.e., PCL: SV, SRP-IV), and Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and WUSCT TPR scores were not statistically significant providing evidence that correlates of psychopathic traits can be measured among non-criminal individuals using a self-report measure, the SRP-IV, and that these findings are concordant with those based on a standardized structured assessment for psychopathy. Limitations of the study, implications, and recommendations for future research are also discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271780/
Extraversion-Introversion and the Sexual Behavior of College Students
The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between extraversion-introversion and the sexual behavior of college students. Five predictions were proposed based on previous research which indicated the possibility of a relationship of the personality types of extraversion and introversion with some aspects of sexual behavior. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164072/
Factors Affecting Revictimization in Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse
Structural equation modeling was used to examine how childhood sexual abuse (and other associated variables, such as family functioning and experiencing multiple forms of abuse) relates to revictimization and psychological distress. Participants were women who participated in Project HOW: Health Outcomes of Women interviews, a longitudinal study that spanned six waves of interviews. Only women with a history of childhood sexual abuse were included in the present study (n=178). Experiencing nonsexual child maltreatment in addition to childhood sexual abuse appears directly related to adult sexual and physical revictimization and indirectly related to psychological distress. Childhood sexual abuse alone was not predictive of revictimization or psychological abuse. This suggests that other mediating factors may explain the relation between CSA and revictimization found in other research. Clinical implications based on the results of the present study emphasize the importance of identifying children who have experienced multiple forms of abuse as particularly at risk for future victimization. In addition, providing interventions with a focus on education and empowerment might decrease risk for future violence and subsequent emotional maladjustment. Potential future research could examine the treatment outcomes and efficacy of these interventions as well as identify those mediating factors that increase the risk for adult revictimization for those individuals who experience only childhood sexual abuse. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc30453/
Family Rituals and Resilience: Relationship Among Measures of Religiosity, Openness to Experience, and Trait Anxiety
Rituals are an integral part of society. The focus of research on rituals has been shifting to highlight the effect rituals may produce on individual resilience and ability to function. This study examined the relationships between participation in family rituals and several conceptually related facets of the human experience, including religiosity, openness to experience, and anxiety. Participants responded to questions on an assessment instrument (Family Ritual Questionnaire) designed to measure participation in a broad variety of identified family rituals; they were grouped according to responses on that questionnaire, and the resulting groups were compared on their responses to questionnaires addressing religiosity (Religious Background and Behavior Questionnaire), openness to experience (Revised NEO Personality Inventory Openness to Experiences scale), and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). The four-group classification system did not produce significant differences on measures of religiosity, openness to experience, or trait anxiety. Nor were there any significant differences noted when the groups were examined on the basis of the demographic characteristics of age, gender, separation time from family of origin, or academic status. The demographic descriptive which was associated with specific group differences related to adult composition of family of origin: participants described the adults present in their families of origin, and the family types were grouped into traditional, mixed, and nontraditional families. A difference was identified between the traditional and nontraditional families on level of ritualization. This finding may be indicative of a useful direction for subsequent research inquiry. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc2645/
Feigning cognitive deficits on neuropsychological evaluations: Multiple detection strategies
Individuals undergoing forensic neuropsychological evaluation frequently stand to gain in some manner if neurocognitive dysfunction is diagnosed. As a result, neuropsychologists are customarily asked to test for neurocognitive feigning during the assessment. The current study employed an analogue design with a clinical comparison group to examine the utility of the TOCA (Rogers, 1996) as a measure of feigned neurocognitive impairment. Two groups of simulators (one cautioned about the presence of detection strategies and one not cautioned) were compared to clinical and normal control groups. Fourteen scales were developed based on five detection strategies: symptom validity testing, performance curve, magnitude of error, response time, and floor effect. Each was employed during both verbal and nonverbal tasks. Significant differences were revealed among groups when subjected to ANOVA. Classification rates from subsequent utility estimates and discriminant function analyses on the scales ranged from 58.8% to 100%. Combining strategies yielded a classification rate of 95.7%. The effect of cautioning simulators was modest; however, a trend was noted on some scales for cautioned simulators to appear less obviously impaired than noncautioned. Although the results require crossvalidation, preliminary data suggest that the TOCA is a sensitive and specific measure of feigned neurocognitive performance. Strengths and weaknesses of the study are discussed and directions for future research are proposed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc2734/
Female Psychopathy Predictors: Cluster B Traits and Alexithymia
Psychopathy has long been lauded as a premier predictor of negative behavioral outcomes because of its demonstrated associations with violence, antisocial conduct, and institutional maladjustment. Traditional conceptualizations of psychopathy highlight the relatively equal importance placed on personality features (i.e., a grandiose, deceitful interpersonal style and deficits in affective experience) and behavioral elements (i.e., an impulsive and irresponsible lifestyle marked by social deviance) of the syndrome. However, little research to date has investigated psychopathy dimensions in female samples, particularly as they relate to maladaptive behaviors beyond forensic settings. The current study comprehensively examined personality (i.e., Axis II Cluster B traits and alexithymia) and behavioral (i.e., suicide-related behavior and aggression) expressions of psychopathy in a sample of female inpatients recruited from trauma and dual-diagnosis units at a psychiatric hospital in Dallas, Texas. Contrary to expectations, the essential components of psychopathy in female psychiatric patients emphasized APD and NPD traits over features of HPD and BPD, which were relatively similar to elements traditionally highlighted in male psychopathy. On this point, two latent dimensions comprehensively addressed female psychopathy in the current sample: impulsive antisociality and narcissistic and histrionic interpersonal style. Interestingly, psychopathy (M r = .01) and Cluster B traits (M r = .05) were virtually unrelated to suicide-related behavior in female patients with trauma and substance use histories, but APD and BPD traits were more discerning for impulsive and premeditated aggression than variants of psychopathy. Aggression's relationship to BPD traits is at least partially mediated by alexithymia. These results are discussed in terms of improving evaluation and intervention efforts aimed at identifying and managing psychopathic females beyond forensic settings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc283811/
Formation of a Receptive Vocabulary and its Effect on the Rate of Acquisition of its Expressive Counterpart in an Autistic Child
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between receptive oral expressive vocabularies. It was hypothesized that receptive discrimination pretraining has a greater influence on the reate of acquisition of its expressive vocal counterpart as compared to the reate of vocal acquisition of words without receptive pretraining. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164036/
Free Time as a Positive Reinforcer in the Management of Study Behavior in an Aversive Educational Environment
The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the use of free time as a positive reinforcer in the management of study behavior in an aversive educational environment. It was hypothesized that the presentation of free time contingent upon completion of the study assignment would result in maintained study behavior and reduced student absenteeism. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164068/
Functions of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors within adolescent inpatients.
The primary interest of this investigation concerned the self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) of inpatient adolescents. Previous researchers have provided descriptive information regarding either automatic (or intrinsic) and social components using the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview (SITBI). However, the presence and trends of these components have not firmly been established, suggesting the need to explore this area further. Eighty-two adolescent inpatients were selected and interviewed using the SITBI to evaluate the predictive ability of self-reported self-injurious behavior with regard to social and automatic, negative and positive functions. Results showed that depending on the type of thought or behavior displayed one could discern the motivation behind their actions. Automatic-Negative was seen to have the strongest relationship across all SITB behaviors while Automatic-Negative was not found to be relatively low compared to other SITB behaviors. Both Social-Positive and Social-Negative were found to be present in moderate relationships compared to Automatic in general. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9731/
Identification of Dissociative Experiences in Children and Adolescents
This study attempts to quantify the dissociative experiences reported by children and adolescents, and to determine whether the variance in degree of dissociation in children has useful diagnostic and treatment implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278812/
Imagery, Psychotherapy, and Directed Relaxation: Physiological Correlates
Thirty outpatients being treated at Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center Department of Behavioral Health Psychology were randomly assigned to either a relaxation/imagery training class (R/I), a short-term psychotherapy group (P/G) or a no treatment control group. Subjects had psychological, physiological and immunological data taken before and after treatment. Results indicated that support for the hypothesis that relaxation/imagery training improves the psychological, physiological, and immunological functioning of participants was found. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278377/
Implementation of a Therapy Group for Wives of Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Development and Preliminary Outcomes
The purpose of this study was to develop a manualized therapy group for wives or significant others of veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and to evaluate its effectiveness in reducing wives' psychological symptoms. A second aim of the study was to determine if women's involvement in the wives group resulted in decreases in their husbands' PTSD symptoms. Women recruited for the study were administered pre-test measures during a screening session. They then participated in a 9-session manualized therapy group designed by the researcher that included psychoeducational, process, and support components. Examples of group topics included psychoeducation regarding PTSD, assertiveness and communication, intimacy, self-care, and stress management. After completing the group sessions, participants were asked to complete post-test measures. Other factors explored in this study included marital satisfaction, perceived social support, general satisfaction with the group, and demographic variables. Results indicated that wives who participated in the group treatment exhibited significant decreases in secondary stress symptoms and increases in marital satisfaction from pre-test to post-test. The majority of participants also reported high levels of satisfaction with the group process. Therefore, it appears that the group protocol presented in this study could be a useful tool in the treatment of wives of veterans with PTSD. The results of this study have potential implications regarding the clinical treatment of families of veterans with PTSD and the development of future programs within the VA system. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc68036/
Individual Differences in Stress-Reactivity and the Influence of Self-Complexity on Coping Behaviour
The influence of self-complexity on coping behaviour and emotional adjustment is explored. The Role Construct Repertory Grid (REPGrid) Community of Selves procedure is used to assess self-complexity. Following a structured interview format, subjects completed a battery of measures including the REPGrid, Self-Rating Depression Scale, Hassles Scale, Major Stress Scale, and Coping Index. Results indicate that complex individuals utilize a wider variety of coping behaviours than less complex individuals, although the perceived severity of stressful events was. no different between groups. Micro-analyses at the individual self level revealed mixed or null results. Finally, more dysphoric individuals reported using more negative coping behaviours (drinking, smoking) than individuals not experiencing dysphoric mood. Findings are discussed a) in terms of the utility of the REPgrid in the assessment and understanding of self-complexity and its' relationship to mental health processes, b) in accordance with a person-event transactional model of health and illness, and c) in terms of the relevance to those psychotherapies that emphasize and encourage people to develop distinctions among their self-aspects, as well as new ways of construing the world, and new behavioural options, e.g. Fixed Role Therapy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278490/
Influence of Specific Training on Graduate School Aptitude Test Performance
The study was undertaken to investigate if a course of instruction, utilizing specific procedures, could be employed to enhance performance on an aptitude test. A punishment procedure involving the removal of a positive reinforcer was instituted within a classroom setting. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc163987/
Insight versus Desensitization: a Comparative Study
The present study was an attempt to show that the behavioral technique of desensitization is superior to insight-oriented psychotherapy in terms of not only behavior change for individuals undergoing desensitization but in terms of case of acquisition to novice therapists who have virtually no clinical experience. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc131425/
Interpersonal Perception and Communication within Marital Dyads
The present study examined the relationships among similarity, interpersonal perception and communicative behaviors in marriage. It was hypothesized that greater understanding, feelings of being understood, and realization of understanding would be associated with greater self-disclosure, use of more direct person control strategies, and use of less attention control strategies. It was further hypothesized that measuring feelings of being understood and realization of understanding, in addition to measuring understanding, would improve prediction of behavior. Finally, it was hypothesized that the contextual measure of understanding would better predict self-disclosure and interpersonal control than would global measures of understanding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278953/
Interpersonal Responsiveness as a Function of Self-Concept
This study considers the relationship between scores on the "Experimental Draw-A-Group Projective Technique for Measuring Interpersonal Responsivenesss" (DAG), and self-concept as indicated by scores on the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS). The study assumes a significantly positive relationship between interpersonal responsiveness and self-concept. The study further seeks to establish sound empirical data to justify the use of the DAG scale in the research of self-concept. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164071/
Interrelationships Between Children's Perceptions of Parents, Teacher Ratings, and Human Figure Drawings
This study investigated the relationship between children's perception of parents as loving or rejecting and the general emotional adjustment of these children. Emotional adjustment was reflected by behavior within a regular classroom as observed by the teacher and by performance on a projective personality test. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc131464/
Intimate Partner Violence Among Female Undergraduates: The Role of Language in the Development of Posttraumatic Stress
Research findings across a variety of samples (e.g., clinical, shelter, hospital) estimate that 31% to 84% of women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) exhibit symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study sought to further investigate the abuse-trauma link by examining the relationship between lifetime trauma exposure, type of abuse (i.e., physical, psychological), and perspective-taking abilities (i.e., here-there, now-then). The role of experiential avoidance in the development of PTSD symptoms was also examined. Results indicated that lifetime trauma exposure (β = .31) and psychological abuse (β = .34) were significant predictors of PTSD symptomatology. Additionally, analyses revealed that experiential avoidance (β = .65) was a significant predictor of PTSD symptoms that partially mediated the relationship between IPV and PTSD symptomatology. Implications of findings are discussed as well as future suggestions for research examining type of IPV and PTSD. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84236/
Investigating patterns among demographics, identification practices, interventions, and educational outcomes for students with serious emotional disturbance.
This study explored potential patterns of association among the demographic characteristics, identification practices, educational interventions, and educational outcomes for students with serious emotional disturbance (SED) as well as specifically investigated the impact of age at identification with SED and the presence of co-occurring disabilities. Data was gathered from the educational records of students with SED in seven rural to semi-rural districts in Texas. Demographic information included gender, ethnicity, age at identification with SED, and identification with co-occurring disabilities. Identification variables that were investigated include the five federal qualifying criteria for SED, IQ score, and BASC and/or CBCL scores. Intervention variables that were explored included placement setting, restrictiveness of placement setting, type of related services provided, parental attendance at multidisciplinary team meetings, number of multidisciplinary team meetings, and total time spent in special education as a student with SED. Outcome variables that were examined included achievement levels in reading and math, attendance, special education status, and grade retention. Results suggested that earlier identification with SED is related to placement in less restrictive settings, achievement within two years of grade level in reading, and lower average number of absences. The presence of co-occurring disabilities in addition to SED is associated with placement in more restrictive settings and with achievement that is two or more years below grade level in reading and math. Additional findings and implications for future research as well as for current practice are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4328/
An Investigation of I.Q. and Achievement Score Increase in Classes for the Emotionally Disturbed and Minimally Brain Injured as a Result of Operant Conditions Using Tangible Reinforcers
This study was an objective investigation of an operant program in behavior modification using tangible reinforoers, which was conducted in two Special Education classes in the Denton Independent School District. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc131636/