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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Degree Discipline: Clinical Psychology
 Degree Level: Master's
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Accelerated EMG Biofeedback Relaxation Training and Tension Headache: The Effects of Home Practice and Headache Presence During Training
This study investigated the value of headache presence during elecromyographic (EMG) feedback relaxation training and the contribution made by home relaxation practice in the elimination of tension headache. Eighteen participants, mainly coeds in their twenties, recorded headache and medication data for two baseline weeks, and were assigned to one of three training groups. Group A received EMG feedback training with headache presence during the session and home relaxation practice. Group B received EMG feedback without headache Presence and home practice. Group C received only home relaxation practice. Statistically significant treatment differences were not found, but declining trends of headache activity and medication use tend to support the efficacy of EMG training with headache presence.
Alcoholism Treatment Follow-up Related to Staff Members' Effectiveness
The relationship was investigated between named staff members and four measures of reported alocohol consumption by alcoholics followed up one year after hospitalizstion in state hospitals. The 559 representative subjects were located, interviewed, and matched with 65 staff members named as "most helpful" to determine social, economic, and drinking aspects. Named personnel were administered the A-B Scale by Campbell, Stevens, Uhlenhuth, and Johansson (1968). Subjects naming A-staff members reported significantly lower levels of alcohol consumption on two of four measures as compared to subjects naming A/B- or B-staff members. Additional followup variables tended to support this conclusion.
Allergen Research and Its Implications for Psychology: History, Current Status, and Prospectus
The purpose of this manuscript was to present a brief history, the current status, and a prospectus of allergen and allergic reactions. Research on allergic reactions, particularly as viewed from the psychogenic position, was presented. The review strongly suggests that the psychogenic orientation has been frought with contradictions, unnecessarily complex interpretations, and an over-abundance of subjective, dynamic, and analytic redundancies which have done little more than perpetuate the stagnation of a rather important subdomain of the "mental" health professions.
An Analysis of a Procedure Employing the Mowrer Imitation Paradigm in Relationship to the Generalized Imitation Procedure for Establishing Vocal Imitation
The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of an ancillary procedure, the Mowrer imitation paradigm, in conjunction with an ongoing generalized imitation program. It was hypothesized that the ancillary program would accelerate the acquisition of vocal imitation relative to a situation In which the generalized imitation procedure was employed alone.
Analysis of Perceptions and Demographic Factors of Selected College Students' Vote in the 1972 Presidential Election
"The present investigation was concerned with college students' perceptions of candidates in the 1972 Presidential Election."--[1].
Anxiety and its Correlates: Introversion-Extroversion, Locus of Control, and Reinforcement Expectations
The problem with which this study is concerned is that of considering the relationship between neurotic anxiety and several personality variables. Even though anxiety has been the subject of many studies, it is still poorly defined. The basic model to be considered is Eysenck's three-dimensional model between neuroticism and introversion-extroversion. This model is expanded to include Rotter's locus of control and reinforcement expectancy (optimism and pessimism).
Application of a Non-Speech Response Mode in Teaching Simple Language Functions to Three Autistic Children
A non-speech response mode similar to the one used by Prepack (1971) to teach language to a chimpanzee was utilized to teach two simple language functions to three autistic children. The response mode consisted of picking up a geometric symbol and placing it on a response tray. The geometric symbol was the basic unit in this language system. The symbols were used to represent objects in the environment and relationships between the objects.
An Application of Auditory Stimuli as Fading Prompts in Discrimination Training
An experiment was conducted to examine the functionality of using auditory stimuli in isolation as fading stimuli. A review of the literature revealed very few reports regarding the usage of the auditory modality for fading purposes. The study employed auditory prompts as fading stimuli in the transfer of stimulus control across stimulus modalities, specifically, the transfer of stimulus control from auditory to visual stimulus properties. A single subject was employed for the experiment. The results were that the intensity of the auditory stimulus was an ineffective dimension to use for fading operations in the transfer of stimulus control across stimulus modalities, Further investigation is needed regarding the conditions that limit the transfer of stimulus control when auditory prompts are employed as fading stimuli.
The Application of Group Contingent Reinforcement to Hospitalized Adolescents
Fifteen hospitalized adolescents were used as subjects. An individually consequated token economy was in effect during baseline. Measures were taken of work output, attending behavior, and disruptive behavior. During the treatment phase, reinforcement was contingent upon the performance of a randomly selected subgroup. Following the treatment phase, the individual token system was reinstated for baseline-2 measures. The mean performance of the group during baseline was compared to performance under treatment conditions for work output and attending behaviors. In addition, performance of the contingent subgroup was compared to performance of the non-contingent group. No significant t values were obtained. With failure to obtain significant t values, the null hypothesis was not rejected, i.e., the two conditions were not proven significantly different.
Assertive Training with Retarded Women
Assertive training was investigated to determine its usefulness in teaching mildly retarded women to become more assertive. The 10 subjects (ages 18-35, WAIS VIQ 50-75) were randomly assigned to either the assertive training or the control group. Experimental subjects received 5 weeks of daily assertive training sessions which employed modeling, behavior rehearsal, and focused instructions in a group setting. Specific components of assertive behavior were taught in the following order: (a) assertive refusals, (b) assertive requests, (c) posture, (d) eye contact, and (e) loudness, Results of a behavioral role-playing task administered to both groups before and after treatment revealed that assertaive training subjects made significantly greater improvement than controls in their assertive content, Additionally, these subjects manifested significantly more improvement than control subjects on a global assertiveness measure.
Attainment of Low Levels of Muscle Tension: Biofeedback-Assisted/Cue-Controlled Relaxation and Biofeedback Training Compared
Cue-controlled relaxation appeas to have several advantages over prominent anxiety-reduction treatments. It does not require the formulation of conditioned stimulus hierarchies nor the use of mental imagery as does systematic desensitization nor the application of noxious stimularion (farradic shock) utilized in anxiety relief. However, its efficacy, in quantitative terms, has not been determined. The present study compared the effectiveness in attainment of relaxation of instructional set, biofeedback training, and biofeedback-assisted/cue-controlled relaxation training procedures. Results indicate that cue-controlled relaxation training was more effective in terms of mean level of frontal is EMG and degree of maintenance of low EMG levels than either biofeedback training or instructions.
Attitudes Toward Psychodiagnostic Testing and Doctoral Clinical Psychology Students' Professional Expectations and Training
Responses of 111 doctoral clinical psychology students to Garfield and Kurtz' (1973) Testing Attitude Scale were subjected to a 2 x 2 factorial analysis. Attitudes toward psychodiagnostic testing were found to be related both to academic versus nonacademic professional expectations (academics scoring more negatively, M = 32.69, than nonacademics, M = 37.19), F (1, 107) = 5.994, p < 0.016, and to internship training exposure (non-interns scoring more negatively, M = 34.64, than interns, M = 38.80), F (1, 107) = 10.321, p< 0.002. Results paralleled previous research on academic and nonacademic working psychologists' attitudes. Similarities in students' and role models' attitudes were discussed in terms of Kelman's (1953; 1958), Festinger's (1957), and Bem's (1970) attitude theories. Results seemed to imply continued controversy over both the desirability of producing psychodiagnostically oriented clinicians, and also traditional paradigms of psychodiagnostic training.
Attribution Retraining: Effects on Persistence in Special Education Students' Mathematics Behavior
To investigate the effects of attribution retraining under conditions of intermittent success and failure, 14 helpless subjects were given 15 days of treatment in one of two procedures. Except for the attribution of all failures to lack of effort in the attribution retraining condition, the two procedures were identical in all respects. After training, both groups showed significant and equivalent improvement in reactions to failure, suggesting that intermittent success and failure increase the persistence of helpless children, rather than attribution retraining as suggested by Dweck (1975). Recommendations included follow-up studies and exploration of the attributional patterns of children under conditions of intermittent success and failure.
Back Pain Patients' Compliance with Vocational Rehabilitation: Use of the MMPI and HAT to Predict Outcome
The use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Health Attribution Test (HAT) for predicting referral compliance to a state vocational rehabilitation program was evaluated. Subjects included 53 patients (26 males, 27 females) who were chosen at random three to 18 months following discharge from an inpatient chronic and spinal pain center. Subjects were administered the MMPI and HAT upon hospital admission and seven outcome measures of referral compliance were obtained. A discriminant analysis was performed to test the hypothesis that certain items would best discriminate compliance. Most discriminative of compliance was the MMPI validity scale K (Wilks Lambda = .751, p ≤ .033). A regrouping of data into two groups, active and inactive, yielded ego strength (MMPI, ES) and ability to trust others (PA) as significant differentiating variables.
A Behavioral-Technological Approach to Increasing Attention-to-Task Behavior in "Hyperactive" Children
The present study sought to alleviate the response cost inefficiency of the behavioral approach to controlling classroom hyperactivity by increasing the observer-student ratio via behavioral-electronic technology. A portable, integrated-circuit, counting and timing device was developed to enable immediate time-sequenced data recording and reinforcing of eight target behaviors by a single observer. A multiple-baseline design, across matched individuals was utilized to demonstrate the reinforcing effects. The results indicated a significant increase over mean baseline frequency in attention-to-task behavior for the group of eight students. It was concluded that by utilizing the behavioral-technological intervention strategy applied in this study, one observer could accurately monitor and reinforce eight students simultaneously and subsequently increase task attentiveness.
The Bender Gestalt Test and Prediction of Behavioral Problems in Moderately Mentally Retarded Children
The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of Koppitz's method of scoring the Bender Gestalt (BG) Test for the prediction of behavioral problems in retarded children. The problem behaviors with which this study was concerned were those most often associated with the hyperactive child.
Biochemically Induced Avoidance of Saccharin: a Parametric Study
The purpose of this study was to examine some of the parameters of saccharin avoidance relating to varying dose sizes of the colloidal suspension, Proferrin. Since studies reveal additive effects when irradiation and Proferrin are used together, it was hypothesized that different degrees of avoidance would be obtained by using various dose levels.
Biofeedback and Control of Skin Cell Proliferation in Psoriasis
The present study was designed to determine the effect of skin-temperature-biofeedback training on cellular proliferation in three psoriasis patients. It was hypothesized that (a) psoriasis patients would be able to consciously decrease skin temperature of psoriatic tissue, and (b) there would be a positive correlation between rate of cellular proliferation and temperature change. Results obtained indicated biofeedback training to be effective in decreasing the surface temperature of psoriatic tissue. A 2 X 7 analysis of variance for two repeated measures indicated the change in skin temperatures as a function of sample period to be significant, F (6,26) = 3.29, p < .02. Generalization of temperature-training effects from the biofeedback to the no-feedback condition were observed. Rate of proliferation decreased from pretraining to posttraining biopsies.
Changes in Parent-Child Relationships as a Result of Family Therapy
The problem with which this study is concerned is whether pathogenic parental patterns which precipitate and maintain children's maladjustment can be ameliorated through family therapy. Specifically, this investigation focused on how parental attitudes and sons' perceptions of parental attitudes are altered by therapy.
Characteristics of Subjects Choosing to Participate in Different Types of Research Studies at Various Points in a Semester
The present study was designed to determine if a subject pool, in which all students enrolled in a course must participate, would reveal the same differences as had been found between volunteers and nonvolunteers, as well as the differences found in subjects participating in different types of studies,
The Comparative Effectiveness of Behavior Rehearsal and Systematic Desensitization in the Treatment of Social Anxiety
The present study was concerned with comparing the relative effectiveness of behavior rehearsal and systematic desensitization in the treatment of social anxiety.
Comparing Quality of Life: American and Portuguese Cancer Patients with Hematological Malignancies
The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences and similarities of quality of life (QoL) in American and Portuguese cancer patients with hematological malignancies as well as the robustness of the measures cross-culturally. Portuguese participants were 98 patients and 49 accompanying persons and the American participants were 55 patients and 22 accompanying persons. Fifty (Portuguese sample) to 40% (American sample) of the patients came with an accompanying person who answered the questionnaire concerning the patient's QoL. The two cultural groups were characterized in terms of QoL (measured by the SF-36 and the FLIC), social support (Social Support Scale), socio-demographic and clinical variables. Portuguese patients reported a higher QoL. However, this result could be attributable to the fact that the two cultural samples differ in socio-economic status. The measures seem to be comparable for the Portuguese and American samples, at least in what concerns reliability and concurrent validity.
Comparing Stress Buffering and Main Effects Models of Social Support for Married and Widowed Older Women
Social support has been shown to lessen the negative effects of life stress on psychological and physical health. The stress buffering model and the main effects model of social support were compared using two samples of women over the age of 50 who were either married or recently widowed. These two groups represent low and high uncontrollable major life stress respectively. Other life stress events were also taken into account. Measures assessed current level of life stress, perceived social support, satisfaction with social support, and psychological symptomatology. Results using overall psychological health as the dependent variable support the main effects model.
A Comparison of Anxiety Levels of Partially Sighted and Totally Blind Adults
Anxiety levels of partially sighted were compared with totally blind people. Using the Anxiety Scale for the Blind, the primary hypothesis tested was that the partially sighted would manifest more anxiety than would the totally blind. The study was designed to ascertain whether the primary hypothesis would hold within the structure of this study, and to obtain information useful in future anxiety studies of the visually handicapped. A residential center for the blind furnished subjects, facilities, and biographical data. The primary hypothesis lacked statistical significance at the .05 level as did comparisons of anxiety levels by age, sex, economic need, and age at onset. The use of a different instrument may be indicated for future studies.
A Comparison of Paranoid Schizophrenics and Schizo-Affective, Depressed Type Schizophrenics, Utilizing Gittinger's Personality Assessment System
This study hypothesized that paranoid schizophrenia and schizo-affective, depressed type schizophrenia could be differentiated by the Internalizer-Externalizer, Regulated- Flexible, and Role Uniform-Role Adaptable dimensions of the Personality Assessment System. The Personality Assessment System methodology utilizes the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale to measure these dimensions. All hypotheses were statistically confirmed. The difficulty of applying the Personality Assessment System to psychopathological regressive states is cited. Recommendations include utilizing the Personality Assessment System with other groups in the institutional setting and within diagnostic categories.
A Comparison of Some Characteristics and Attitudes of Self-Described Future Mothers versus Non-Mothers
This study compared women with a highly positive interest in becoming mothers with women having little interest in having children,with respect to biographical data, childrearing attitudes, and personality characteristics. One hundred twenty-one undergraduate college women were administered a biographical questionnaire, the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, the Adjective Check List, and an attitude index designed to assess level of interest in having children. A statistical analysis revealed the remarkable similarity of the two groups of women, as the groups differed significantly in only two areas. Women with little interest in having children scored higher on the subscale Ascendancy of the Mother, and the women also differed in their view of the ideal situation for an adult woman.
A Comparison of the Child-Rearing Attitudes of Disadvantaged Chicano and Black Mothers
Hypothesized in this study are the following: (1) that there are significant general differences between the childrearing attitudes of disadvantaged Chicano and Black mothers, (2) that their respective attitudes significantly vary on particular subtests of maternal attitude, and (3) that demographic variables, such as age, number of marriages, nativemigrant status, and level of education will affect significant differences in response on a number of specified attitudinal subtests.
A Comparison of the Effects of Deep Muscle Relaxation and the Tranquilizing Agent Chlordiazepoxide on Hospitalized Alcoholics
The purpose of this research study was to compare the treatment effects of relaxation therapy and the tranquilizing agent Chlordiazepoxide (Librium). The subjects were 37 hospitalized alcoholics who had been identified as anxious. Elevations of scales two and seven of the MMPI was used as a criterion of anxiety. Thirteen subjects were given Librium, 12 were given a placebo, 12 were given nine sessions of relaxation therapy. Although the results did not indicate significant differences among the three groups, the relaxation group showed the least amount of anxiety at post-testing. It was concluded that relaxation therapy was equal to drug therapy in effectiveness and thus more desirable due to the lack of undesirable side effects. Suggestions for further research were given.
A Comparison of the Validity and Reliability of Kincannon's and Hugo's MMPI Short Forms in a Clinical Population
To meet the need of making clinical evaluations in the most efficient way, many scales and short forms of the MMPI have been developed. A review of the literature indicated that the Mini-Mult devised by Kincannon (1967) and the Short Form by Hugo (1971a) were the best short forms of the MMPI which have been constructed. The purpose of this study was to determine which of these short forms would most accurately predict the standard MMPI in a clinical population.
A Comparison of Two Instruments for Diagnosing Marital Difficulties
An attempt was made to further establish the validity of the Polyfactor Test of Marital Difficulties, a relatively new, yet potentially valuable sentence completion, self-rating marital difficulties test. . Another test, the Marital Adjustment Inventory was also used for comparison purposes.
Conditioned Reinforcement with an Equine Subject
Historically, horse trainers have relied primarily upon repetition, negative reinforcement, and punishment to teach new behaviors. Positive reinforcement has been eschewed, largely on the basis of the wides read belief that positive reinforcement is not effective with horses. Additional difficulties in the timely application of such reinforcement have further inhibited its use. After repeated pairing of an auditory stimulus with an established primary reinforcer, the auditory stimulus was predicted to be a reinforcer. An equine subject was then successfully trained to perform five different, novel tasks using only the auditory stimulus. Subsequently, extinction of behavior was noted in the absence of the conditioned reinforcer. Implications for many phases of horse training were discussed. Some weaknesses of the present study were noted along with suggested issues for future investigations.
Context and Degree of Learning in Cue Selection and Transfer of Training
The present study examined the effect of first-list stimulus context (color versus no color) and two degrees of first-list learning (twenty trials versus five trials) on cue selection and transfer of training. College students learned two paired-associate lists consisting of highly similar trigrams as the stimulus terms and nouns as the response terms. The second list consisted of twelve items presented on homogeneous white backgrounds for eighteen trials. Four secondlist items represented each of three transfer paradigms--A -B,A-B; A-B,A-C; and A-BC-D. It was concluded that color context draws attention to the color-backed items during the early stages of learning but is not selected for encoding until the later stages of learning.
Contingency of Parental Rewards and Punishments as Antecedents of Locus of Control
The study investigated the relationships between perceived contingency of parental rewarding and punishing behaviors and locus. of control. Scores on Levenson's Internal, Powerful Others, and Chance locus of control scales were correlated with scores on Yates, Kennelly, and Cox's (1975) Perceived Contingency of Rewards and Punishments Questionnaire. Few significant correlations were obtained. Maternal non-contingent reward related negatively and significantly to internality for males. Paternal non-contingent reward related positively and significantly to males' perception of control by powerful others. And paternal contingent reward related negatively and significantly to females' perceptions of control by chance. Results are discussed relative to learned helplessness research interpretations.
Control of Heart Rate by Progressive Relaxation Techniques and Cerebral Electrotherapy
This study presents the findings of an investigation of the effects of two different treatments, progressive relaxation and cerebral electrotherapy, on heart rate. With progressive relaxation, the subject relaxes by following instructions. With cerebral electrotherapy, relaxation is due to an external source of stimulation. Decreases in heart rate for subjects receiving progressive relaxation were compared with decreases for subjects receiving cerebral electrotherapy. A placebo group was used to evaluate the effects of both treatments independently. While decreases in heart rate were observed for both treatments, only progressive relaxation produced decreases significantly greater than those of the placebo group. However, decreases in heart rate produced by progressive relaxation were not significantly greater than decreases produced by cerebral electrotherapy.
The Control of Violent Behavior of a Chronic Schizophrenic by Aversive Therapy
The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the modification of behavior of a thirty-five-year-old, hospitalized, chronic schizophrenic male. The hypothesis was that the patient's aggressive and self-injurious behavior could be modified through the use of aversion therapy.
Correlates of Parent-Child Relations as Perceived by the Child, Type of Humor Appreciations, and Neuroticism
Appreciation of humor is generally accepted as being a unique aspect of human personality. Yet, despite its prominence in everyday situations, it remains a relatively unexplored area of scientific investigation. The present study has a twofold purpose: (1) an examination of the relationship of "sense of humor" to neurosis in a relatively normal population and, (2) an exploratory investigation of the type of parent-child relationship which fosters a particular mode of response to humor. As a result of the methods used to explore these areas, a third area for study was available to the investigator. That was the examination of the type of parent-child relationship perceived by the subject and the subsequent development or absence of neurosis.
A Correlational Study of the Weigl-Goldstein-Scheerer Color Form Test and the Proverbs Test
The purpose of this study was to examine (1) whether the Weigl-Goldstein-Scheerer Color Form Test and the Proverbs Test were able to discriminate between a sample of normal patients and a sample of schizophrenic patients, and (2) to determine if there was a significant correlation between these two instruments.
Countercontrol as a Factor in Teaching Vocal Imitation to an Autistic Child and it Relationship to Motivational Parameters
Operant conditioning techniques were used to establish imitation in the manner outlined by Baer. Countercontrol was assessed in motor and vocal imitation across four motivational levels. Three levels of food deprivation, i.e., three hour, fourteen hour, and twenty-one hour, plus a final response contingent shock level, composed the parameters.
The Decrement of Stuttering as a Result of the Application of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
This investigation is an attempt to apply the principles of the experimental analysis of behavior to the stuttering behavior of two clinical subjects. The experimental manipulations were performed in order to bring about a decrement in the stuttering rate of the two subjects.
The Diagnostic Suitability of Goldberg's Rule for the Mini-Mult
This study was undertaken to determine whether the Mini-Mult is able to function as well as the MMPI for a limited clinical purpose, the discrimination of psychosis and neurosis by Goldberg's rule. The smaller size of the Mini-Mult (71 items) allows conservation of time .and energy by subjects and professionals. Thirty male residents of the Austin State Hospital completed two standard MMPIs and one oral Mini-Mult. A fourth set of scores was obtained by extracting Mini-Mult from the first MMPI. Correlations and tests of significance were computed for raw scores and Goldberg's index scores. Results indicate no significant differences in the discrimination of psychosis and neurosis between the MMPI and the Mini-Mult.
Dietary Treatment of Hyperactive Children
This study investigated whether a salicylate-restricted diet (eliminating foods containing artificial additives and natural salicylates) could effectively reduce hyperactivity in children more so than a diet not restricting salicylates (ostensibly restricting foods containing refined sugar). Ten hyperactive children, nine boys and one girl, were matched on their pre-treatment activity rates and assigned to either a salicylate-restricted diet (Group I) or a diet not restricting salicylates (Group II). After approximately nine weeks, post-treatment activity rates were obtained, and a significant difference in favor of the salicylate-restricted diet group was found with this diet group exhibiting a significantly lower mean post-treatment activity rate in comparison to the group placed on a diet not restricting salicylates (p<.05). Implications for diagnosis and treatment of hyperactivity in children were discussed.
Differences between Acknowledged and Unacknowledged Rape: Occurrence of PTSD
This study examined the relation between level of rape acknowledgement and levels of PTSD symptoms reported in female college students. Subjects were administered the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES), the PTSD Interview, and a demographics questionnaire. Subjects were then grouped into the following categories based on their responses to the SES: reported rape victims, acknowledged rape victims, unacknowledged rape victims, and a control group of non-rape subjects. Small sample analyses did not reveal the expected linear relation between the two variables. Only the acknowledged group showed greater PTSD symptoms. The unacknowledged and control groups did not significantly differ on overall PTSD symptom severity, or on any cluster of PTSD symptoms. Naturalistic selection factors are discussed that could have affected the outcome of the study.
Dogmatism and Sex Role Differentiation in Adults
This study is an investigation of the general questions Is there a relationship or interaction between a subject's dogmatism score (as measured by the Dogmatism Scale) and his self-rating of the perceived stereotypical masculinity-femininity dimension (as measured by the abridged Mf scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)?
Dogmatism, Anxiety, and Attitudes Toward the Vietnam War
The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between dogmatism, anxiety, and attitudes toward the Vietnam War, and, in the process of doing so, to test Rokeach's hypothesis of independence of belief structure and content in the contextual atmosphere of recent attitudes toward the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War Scale, Form E of the Dogmatism Scale, and a five-situation version of the S-R Inventory of Anxiousness were administered to 104 male students who were enrolled in introductory psychology classes at North Texas State University. It was hypothesized I. That there would be a significant positive relationship between dogmatism (as measured by the Dogmatism Scale) and anxiety (as measured by a five-situation version of the S-R Inventory of Anxiousness). II. That there would be a significant positive relationship between closed-mindedness (as measured by the Dogmatism Scale) and attitudes toward the Vietnam War (as measured by the Vietnam War Scale). III. That the Hawks would show a significantly higher level of dogmatism than the Doves. IV. That the Hawks would show a significantly higher level of anxiety than the Doves. Hypotheses one, two, and three were supported. Hypothesis number four was in the predicted direction, but was not statistically significant. The conclusion of the study was that a relationship exists between dogmatism, anxiety, and attitudes toward the Vietnam War. It was also concluded that Rokeach's hypothesis of independence of belief structure and content does not apply to the contextual atmosphere of recent attitudes toward the Vietnam War.
Dogmatism in Adults and Correlates of Early Parent-Child Relationships
The results suggest that children's perceptions of parental child-rearing behavior are related to their tendencies to be dogmatic in their beliefs, and apparently perceptions of parents as loving has reinforcing properties for the child that may lead to the uncritical acceptance of the belief system of the parents.
Early Recognition of Minimal Brain Injury through Use of the Metropolitan Readiness Tests
This study explored the usefulness of the Metropolitan Readiness Tests (MRT) as a screening device for minimal brain injury. It was hypothesized that brain injured (BI) children would score significantly lower on Test Six of the MRT than non-brain injured (NBI) children. Test Six is a visual-motor perceptual task.
The Effect of a Free-Time Contingency on Peer Acceptance and Rate of Speed in Working Arithmetic Problems
The primary concern in today's educational system is the rate of progress students achieve in the classroom. Research has shown token reinforcement programs to be an effective method of increasing rate of work in the classroom; however, token economies are time consuming and do not meet the needs of all classroom situations. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the use of free time as a reinforcer in increasing rate of speed in working arithmetic problems and peer acceptance (how well an individual is accepted by his peers). The data indicated that free time as a positive reinforcer did increase the rate of speed in working arithmetic problems correctly; however, it did not affect peer acceptance.
The Effect of a Program of Operant Conditioning of Autonomically Mediated Behavior on Manifest Anxiety
The purpose of this experiment was to initiate research into the use of operant conditioning of autonomically mediated behavior (OCAM) in the modification of maladaptive behavior. Anxiety was chosen as a target behavior because of its apparent pervasiveness among many different maladaptive behaviors.
The Effect of Elimination of Subvocalization with Electromyographic Feedback on Reading Speed and Comprehension
The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of audio feedback from an electromyograph on reading speed and comprehension. The subject reduced as much audio feedback, and thus laryngeal tension, as possible, thus permitting more efficient reading. After baseline, the subject received twelve half-hour practice sessions, six ten-minute testing sessions on easy, or light, material and six ten-minute testing sessions on difficult material. A post-test without feedback was given after training and a follow-up test, without feedback, was given. This method of training permits a higher rate of reading speed, while allowing the subject to process complex information and maintain a constant level of recall.
The Effect of Fundamental Religious Belief Upon Males' and Females' Attitudes Toward Woman's Role in Society
Studying the effect of fundamental religious belief upon attitudes toward woman's role in society, findings were: (1) persons high in fundamental belief have more traditional attitudes than persons low in fundamental belief; (2) atheists, agnostics, Unitarians, Jews, and 'others' hold more liberal attitudes than Protestants or Catholics; (3) persons who frequently attend religious services hold more conservative attitudes than persons who attend infrequently; and (4) females hold more liberal attitudes than males. Also, marital status did not affect attitudes toward woman's role. Subjects were 63 female and 38 male college students. Findings were discussed in light of effects conservative attitudes toward woman's role could have upon fundamentalists, and of the theory supporting the hypotheses.