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 Resource Type: Thesis or Dissertation
 Degree Discipline: Analytical Chemistry
FTIR-ATR Characterization of Hydrogel, Polymer Films, Protein Immobilization and Benzotriazole Adsorption on Copper Surface

FTIR-ATR Characterization of Hydrogel, Polymer Films, Protein Immobilization and Benzotriazole Adsorption on Copper Surface

Date: December 2007
Creator: Pillai, Karthikeyan
Description: Plasma polymerization techniques were used to synthesize and deposit hydrogel on silicon (Si) substrate. Hydrogel is a network of polymer chains that are water-insoluble and has a high degree of flexibility. The various fields of applications of hydrogel include drug release, biosensors and tissue engineering etc. Hydrogel synthesized from different monomers possess a common property of moisture absorption. In this work two monomers were used namely 1-amino-2-propanol (1A2P) and 2(ethylamino)ethanol (2EAE) to produce polymer films deposited on Si ATR crystal. Their moisture uptake property was tested using FTIR-ATR technique. This was evident by the decrease in -OH band in increasing N2 purging time of the films. Secondly, two monomer compounds namely vinyl acetic acid and glycidyl methacrylate which have both amine and carboxylic groups are used as solid surface for the immobilization of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Pulsed plasma polymerization was used to polymerize these monomers with different duty cycles. Initial works in this field were all about protein surface adsorption. But more recently, the emphasis is on covalent bonding of protein on to the surface. This immobilization of protein on solid surface has a lot of applications in the field of biochemical studies. The polymerization of vinyl acetic acid ...
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Hydrogen terminated silicon surfaces: Development of sensors to detect metallic contaminants and stability studies under different environments

Hydrogen terminated silicon surfaces: Development of sensors to detect metallic contaminants and stability studies under different environments

Date: August 2002
Creator: Ponnuswamy, Thomas Anand
Description: Hydrogen terminated silicon surfaces have been utilized to develop sensors for semiconductor and environmental applications. The interaction of these surfaces with different environments has also been studied in detail. The sensor assembly relevant to the semiconductor industry utilizes a silicon-based sensor to detect trace levels of metallic contaminants in hydrofluoric acid. The sensor performance with respect to two non-contaminating reference electrode systems was evaluated. In the first case, conductive diamond was used as a reference electrode. In the second case, a dual silicon electrode system was used with one of the silicon-based electrodes protected with an anion permeable membrane behaving as the quasi reference electrode. Though both systems could function well as a suitable reference system, the dual silicon electrode design showed greater compatibility for the on-line detection of metallic impurities in HF etching baths. The silicon-based sensor assembly was able to detect parts- per-trillion to parts-per-billion levels of metal ion impurities in HF. The sensor assembly developed for the environmental application makes use of a novel method for the detection of Ni2+using attenuated total reflection (ATR) technique. The nickel infrared sensor was prepared on a silicon ATR crystal uniformly coated by a 1.5 micron Nafion film embedded with dimethylglyoxime ...
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Interfacial Electrochemistry and Surface Characterization: Hydrogen Terminated Silicon, Electrolessly Deposited Palladium & Platinum on Pyrolyzed Photoresist Films and Electrodeposited Copper on Iridium

Interfacial Electrochemistry and Surface Characterization: Hydrogen Terminated Silicon, Electrolessly Deposited Palladium & Platinum on Pyrolyzed Photoresist Films and Electrodeposited Copper on Iridium

Date: December 2003
Creator: Chan, Raymond
Description: Hydrogen terminated silicon surfaces play an important role in the integrated circuit (IC) industry. Ultra-pure water is extensively used for the cleaning and surface preparation of silicon surfaces. This work studies the effects of ultra-pure water on hydrogen passivated silicon surfaces in a short time frame of 120 minutes using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy – attenuated total reflection techniques. Varying conditions of ultra-pure water are used. This includes dissolved oxygen poor media after nitrogen bubbling and equilibration under nitrogen atmosphere, as well as metal contaminated solutions. Both microscopically rough and ideal monohydride terminated surfaces are examined. Hydrogen terminated silicon is also used as the sensing electrode for a potentiometric sensor for ultra-trace amounts of metal contaminants. Previous studies show the use of this potentiometric electrode sensor in hydrofluoric acid solution. This work is able to shows sensor function in ultra-pure water media without the need for further addition of hydrofluoric acid. This is considered a boon for the sensor due to the hazardous nature of hydrofluoric acid. Thin carbon films can be formed by spin coating photoresist onto silicon substrates and pyrolyzing at 1000 degrees C under reducing conditions. This work also shows that the electroless deposition of palladium and ...
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Interfacial Electrochemistry of Metal Nanoparticles Formation on Diamond and Copper Electroplating on Ruthenium Surface

Interfacial Electrochemistry of Metal Nanoparticles Formation on Diamond and Copper Electroplating on Ruthenium Surface

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Date: May 2003
Creator: Arunagiri, Tiruchirapalli Natarajan
Description: An extremely facile and novel method called spontaneous deposition, to deposit noble metal nanoparticles on a most stable form of carbon (C) i.e. diamond is presented. Nanometer sized particles of such metals as platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), gold (Au), copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) could be deposited on boron-doped (B-doped) polycrystalline diamond films grown on silicon (Si) substrates, by simply immersing the diamond/Si sample in hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution containing ions of the corresponding metal. The electrons for the reduction of metal ions came from the Si back substrate. The diamond/Si interfacial ohmic contact was of paramount importance to the observation of the spontaneous deposition process. The metal/diamond (M/C) surfaces were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffractometry (XRD). The morphology (i.e. size and distribution) of metal nanoparticles deposits could be controlled by adjusting the metal ion concentration, HF concentration and deposition time. XRD data indicate the presence of textured and strained crystal lattices of Pd for different Pd/C morphologies, which seem to influence the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde (HCHO). The sensitivity of electrocatalytic reactions to surface crystal structure implies that M/C could be fabricated for specific electrocatalytic applications. The research also ...
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Interfacial Study of Copper Electrodeposition with the Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance (EQCM)

Interfacial Study of Copper Electrodeposition with the Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance (EQCM)

Date: May 2005
Creator: Ojeda Mota, Oscar Ulises
Description: The electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) has been proven an effective mean of monitoring up to nano-scale mass changes related to electrode potential variations at its surface. The principles of operation are based on the converse piezoelectric response of quartz crystals to mass variations on the crystal surface. In this work, principles and operations of the EQCM and piezo-electrodes are discussed. A conductive oxide, ruthenium oxide (RuO2) is a promising material to be used as a diffusion barrier for metal interconnects. Characterization of copper underpotential deposition (UPD) on ruthenium and RuO2 electrodes by means of electrochemical methods and other spectroscopic methods is presented. Copper electrodeposition in platinum and ruthenium substrates is investigated at pH values higher than zero. In pH=5 solutions, the rise in local pH caused by the reduction of oxygen leads to the formation of a precipitate, characterized as posnjakite or basic copper sulfate by means of X-ray electron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The mechanism of formation is studied by means of the EQCM, presenting this technique as a powerful in-situ sensing device.
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Metal Oxide Reactions in Complex Environments: High Electric Fields and Pressures above Ultrahigh Vacuum

Metal Oxide Reactions in Complex Environments: High Electric Fields and Pressures above Ultrahigh Vacuum

Date: August 2005
Creator: Qin, Feili
Description: Metal oxide reactions at metal oxide surfaces or at metal-metal oxide interfaces are of exceptional significance in areas such as catalysis, micro- and nanoelectronics, chemical sensors, and catalysis. Such reactions are frequently complicated by the presence of high electric fields and/or H2O-containing environments. The focus of this research was to understand (1) the iron oxide growth mechanism on Fe(111) at 300 K and 500 K together with the effect of high electric fields on these iron oxide films, and (2) the growth of alumina films on two faces of Ni3Al single crystal and the interaction of the resulting films with water vapor under non-UHV conditions. These studies were conducted with AES, LEED, and STM. XPS was also employed in the second study. Oxidation of Fe(111) at 300 K resulted in the formation of Fe2O3 and Fe3O4. The substrate is uniformly covered with an oxide film with relatively small oxide islands, i.e. 5-15 nm in width. At 500 K, Fe3O4 is the predominant oxide phase formed, and the growth of oxide is not uniform, but occurs as large islands (100 - 300 nm in width) interspersed with patches of uncovered substrate. Under the stress of STM induced high electric fields, dielectric ...
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Passivation effects of surface iodine layer on tantalum for the electroless copper deposition.

Passivation effects of surface iodine layer on tantalum for the electroless copper deposition.

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Date: May 2004
Creator: Liu, Jian
Description: The ability to passivate metallic surfaces under non-UHV conditions is not only of fundamental interests, but also of growing practical importance in catalysis and microelectronics. In this work, the passivation effect of a surface iodine layer on air-exposed Ta for the copper electroless deposition was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Although the passivation effect was seriously weakened by the prolonged air exposure, iodine passivates the Ta substrate under brief air exposure conditions so that enhanced copper wetting and adhesion are observed on I-passivated Ta relative to the untreated surface.
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Process Evaluation and Characterization of Tungsten Nitride as a Diffusion Barrier for Copper Interconnect Technology

Process Evaluation and Characterization of Tungsten Nitride as a Diffusion Barrier for Copper Interconnect Technology

Date: August 2005
Creator: Ekstrom, Bradley Mitsuharu
Description: The integration of copper (Cu) and dielectric materials has been outlined in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) as a critical goal for future microelectronic devices. A necessity toward achieving this goal is the development of diffusion barriers that resolve the Cu and dielectric incompatibility. The focus of this research examines the potential use of tungsten nitride as a diffusion barrier by characterizing the interfacial properties with Cu and evaluating its process capability for industrial use. Tungsten nitride (β-W2N) development has been carried out using a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique that utilizes tungsten hexafluoride (WF6), nitrogen (N2), hydrogen (H2), and argon (Ar). Two design of experiments (DOE) were performed to optimize the process with respect to film stoichiometry, resistivity and uniformity across a 200 mm diameter Si wafer. Auger depth profiling showed a 2:1 W:N ratio. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed a broad peak centered on the β-W2N phase. Film resistivity was 270 mohm-cm and film uniformity < 3 %. The step coverage (film thickness variance) across a structured etched dielectric (SiO2, 0.35 mm, 3:1 aspect ratio) was > 44 %. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) measurements showed good barrier performance for W2N between Cu and SiO2 ...
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Reactivity of Oxide Surfaces and Metal-Oxide Interfaces: Effects of Water Vapor Pressure on Ultrathin Aluminum Oxide Films, and Studies of Platinum Growth Modes on Ultrathin Oxide Films and Their Effects on Adhesion

Reactivity of Oxide Surfaces and Metal-Oxide Interfaces: Effects of Water Vapor Pressure on Ultrathin Aluminum Oxide Films, and Studies of Platinum Growth Modes on Ultrathin Oxide Films and Their Effects on Adhesion

Date: May 2004
Creator: Garza, Michelle
Description: The reactivity of oxide surfaces and metal-oxide interfaces play an important role in many technological applications such as corrosion, heterogeneous catalysis, and microelectronics. The focus of this research was (1) understanding the effects of water vapor exposure of ultrathin aluminum oxide films under non-ultrahigh vacuum conditions (>10-9 Torr) and (2) characterization of Pt growth modes on ultrathin Ta silicate and silicon dioxide films and the effects of growth modes on adhesion of a Cu overlayer. These studies were conducted with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ni3Al(110) was oxidized (10-6 Torr O2, 800K) followed by annealing (1100K). The data indicate that the annealed oxide film is composed of NiO, Al2O3 and an intermediate phase denoted here as "AlOx". Upon exposure of the oxide film at ambient temperature to increasing water vapor pressure (10-6 - 5 Torr), a shift in both the O(1s) and Al(2p)oxide peak maxima to lower binding energies is observed. In contrast, exposure of Al2O3/Al(polycrystalline) to water vapor under the same conditions results in a high binding energy shoulder in the O(1s) spectra which indicates hydroxylation. Spectral decomposition provides further insight into the difference in reactivity between the two oxide films. The corresponding trends of the O(1s)/Ni0(2p3/2) and Al(2p)/Ni0(2p3/2) spectral ...
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The Revival of Electrochemistry: Electrochemical Deposition of Metals in Semiconductor Related Research

The Revival of Electrochemistry: Electrochemical Deposition of Metals in Semiconductor Related Research

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Date: August 2005
Creator: Wang, Chen
Description: Adherent Cu films were electrodeposited onto polycrystalline W foils from purged solutions of 0.05 M CuSO4 in H2SO4 supporting electrolyte and 0.025 M CuCO3∙Cu(OH)2 in 0.32 M H3BO3 and corresponding HBF4 supporting electrolyte, both at pH = 1. Films were deposited under constant potential conditions at voltages between -0.6 V and -0.2 V versus Ag/AgCl. All films produced by pulses of 10 s duration were visible to the eye, copper colored, and survived a crude test called "the Scotch tape test", which involves sticking the scotch tape on the sample, then peeling off the tape and observing if the copper film peels off or not. Characterization by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the presence of metallic Cu, with apparent dendritic growth. No sulfur impurity was observable by XPS or EDX. Kinetics measurements indicated that the Cu nucleation process in the sulfuric bath is slower than in the borate bath. In both baths, nucleation kinetics does not correspond to either instantaneous or progressive nucleation. Films deposited from 0.05 M CuSO4/H2SO4 solution at pH > 1 at -0.2 V exhibited poor adhesion and decreased Cu reduction current. In both borate and sulfate baths, small ...
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