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 Department: Department of Counseling, Development and Higher Education
 Degree Discipline: Counseling
Adapting Filial Therapy for Families who have a Child with a Life-Threatening Illness

Adapting Filial Therapy for Families who have a Child with a Life-Threatening Illness

Date: August 2004
Creator: Steen, Rheta LeAnne
Description: Utilizing a collective case study design, I examined and described the filial therapy (FT) process and adaptations discovered to be necessary and unnecessary in working with families who have a child with a life-threatening illness in the hospital setting. Data from a total of 7 parents was utilized, including those who terminated early, in order to gain a greater understanding of adapting FT for families who have a child with a life-threatening illness and their participation patterns. The parents attended 10 one- to two-hour FT sessions. The data was analyzed to examine for themes, patterns and relationships intrinsically with each case participant, as well as across cases. Analysis indicated that parents with a child with a life-threatening illness had great difficulty committing to attend FT; and a high rate of attrition occurred for those who did commit. A theme regarding flexibility was found to be of eminent importance in a variety of manifestations including therapeutic methods, session format, location and time of sessions, and intense vs traditional FT. Therapeutic adaptations in flexibility found to be important including openness to cathartic and personal parenting sessions, tolerance of forgetfulness, and lowering typical therapeutic concerns of dependency in the relationship. An inability for ...
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Adult Client Outcomes: Differences Between Counselors with Education in Child Centered Play Therapy Versus Counselors Without Education in Child-Centered Play Therapy

Adult Client Outcomes: Differences Between Counselors with Education in Child Centered Play Therapy Versus Counselors Without Education in Child-Centered Play Therapy

Date: August 2007
Creator: Rees, Brian Christopher
Description: Child-centered play therapists are taught unique relationship building approaches and therapeutic methods to utilize when working with children. The purpose of this study was to determine if adult clients counseled by child-centered play therapists would demonstrate greater positive therapeutic outcomes than adult clients who were counseled by non-educated child-centered play therapists. This study also attempted to determine if the play therapists' clients would show greater, significant improvement in any particular areas of client distress (i.e., depression/anxiety, relationship issues), more so than the clients of the non-play therapists. Archival data from an assessment, The Adult Self-Report Inventory (ASR), was gathered to measure reported pre and post-test client symptomology. This study utilized a 2X2 repeated measure ANOVA design to analyze the impact of counselors who were educated in child-centered play therapy who saw adult clients, versus their non-play therapy counterparts who saw adult clients. Before treatment pre-test and after treatment post-test administration was collected for use in the analysis. The population consisted of 60 adult clients seeking counseling services at a major university in the southwest. All clients were seen by Master's practicum students for ten sessions. The clients were divided into two groups - 30 were seen by play therapists, 30 ...
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Assessing the Adlerian Personality Priorities: A Formal Instrument for Therapeutic Practice

Assessing the Adlerian Personality Priorities: A Formal Instrument for Therapeutic Practice

Date: May 2005
Creator: Allen, Elizabeth Gayle Soules
Description: The purpose of this study was to develop an effective formal instrument to assess the Adlerian personality priorities. The development of the Allen Assessment for Adlerian Personality Priorities, AAAPP, seeks to provide a strong comparability to assessing the Adlerian construct of personality priorities as the counselor interview. One hundred and seven participants were given the 1st administration of the AAAPP, Social Interest Scale and a demographic survey. Sixty-four participants completed a 2nd administration of the AAAPP two weeks later. Twenty participants experienced a counseling interview following the 2nd administration. The methods used to evaluate the validity and effectiveness of the AAAPP included: face validity, predictive validity, construct validity, test-retest reliability, multiple regression, Guttman split-half reliability and the Spearman Brown reliability.
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The Characteristics of Play Therapy Sessions with Children: A Preliminary Investigation

The Characteristics of Play Therapy Sessions with Children: A Preliminary Investigation

Date: August 2003
Creator: Frye, Kristi Dean
Description: This research study investigated various characteristics of children in play therapy and their play behaviors during sessions. Specifically, this research investigated how gender, age, ethnicity, household and presenting problem of children impacted the play therapy process. Thirty-two cases of children who received ten or more sessions of play therapy at the Child and Family Resource Clinic, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas between the years of 1998-2002 and met specified criteria were coded and entered into a computer spreadsheet for analysis. The background information provided by the parent/guardian of each child was analyzed using various measures of central tendency to summarize and describe the data sets. The session summary data completed by play therapists at the CFRC was examined using analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of variance. Analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of variance revealed statistical significance between the following variables: a) males and use of dolls (.01), animals (.007) and weapons (.014), and males and expression of happy (.048), confident (.042) curious (.007) and flat (.029) during play therapy sessions; b) young children and use of vehicles (.050) during play therapy sessions; c) Caucasian children and expression of happy (.011), and confident (.008) during play therapy sessions; ...
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Characteristics of Play Therapy Students in Training.

Characteristics of Play Therapy Students in Training.

Date: August 2003
Creator: Solt, Misty D.
Description: This study examined if there were characteristic differences between play therapy students and non-play therapy students in training. Specifically, this study was designed to explore what, if any, characteristic differences between play therapy students and non-play therapy students in training exist in the following two areas: (a) personality variables, as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R) and (b) attitude toward children, and measured by the Barnett's Liking of Children Scale (BLOCS). Additionally, this study examined whether certain personality traits and the general attitude toward children for the play therapy student group correlated with the play therapy students' effectiveness ratings assigned to them by their play therapy supervisors. This study found statistically significant differences at the .05 alpha level between the play therapy (N=105) and non-play therapy students (N=79) in training in both the Extraversion personality trait on the NEO PI-R assessment and attitude toward children on the BLOCS. Non-play therapy students were in the High range for Extraversion, whereas play therapy students in training were in the Average range. According to this finding, play therapy students are less extraverted than non-play therapy students. Specifically, a statistically significant difference occurred on the Gregariousness scale of the Extraversion domain between ...
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Child-Centered Group Play Therapy with Children with Speech Difficulties

Child-Centered Group Play Therapy with Children with Speech Difficulties

Date: August 2003
Creator: Danger, Suzan
Description: The problem with which this investigation was concerned was that of determining the efficacy of child-centered group play therapy with pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children with speech difficulties as an intervention strategy for improving specific speech problems in the areas of articulation, receptive language, and expressive language. A second purpose was that of determining the efficacy of child-centered group play therapy in improving self-esteem, positive social interaction, and in decreasing anxiety and withdrawal behaviors among pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children with speech difficulties. The experimental group consisted of 11 children who received 25 group play therapy sessions one time a week in addition to their directive speech therapy sessions. The comparison group consisted of 10 children who received only their directive speech therapy sessions. The Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised, and the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals - 3 were used to measure receptive and expressive language skills. The Burks' Behavior Rating Scale was used to measure symptoms of anxiety, withdrawal, poor self-esteem, and poor social skills as observed by parents and teachers. Twelve hypotheses were tested using ANCOVA and Eta Squared. Child-centered group play therapy was shown to have a large practical significance in ...
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Clinical and Educational Efficacy of a University-Based Biofeedback Therapy Clinic.

Clinical and Educational Efficacy of a University-Based Biofeedback Therapy Clinic.

Date: December 2003
Creator: Shiau, Shwu-Huey
Description: This study is a qualitative analysis and a quantitative analysis of all peripheral biofeedback client data files of the University of North Texas Biofeedback Research and Training Laboratory since its establishment in 1991 and through the year of 2002. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical and educational efficacy of the BRTL. Clients' electromyography and temperature measures, self-report of homework relaxation exercises and progress, and the pre- and post-Stress Signal Checklist were reviewed and analyzed. In regard to clinical efficacy, results indicate statistically significant changes in both temperature training and muscle tension training as a whole group. When divided into subtypes based on the clients' primary presenting problem, findings indicate statistical significance in chronic pain, tension headache, and temporomandibular jaw pain on temperature training, and show statistical significance in chronic pain, tension headache, hypertension, migraine headache, stress, and temporomandibular jaw pain on muscle tension training. When analyzing the Stress Signal Checklist, only 25% of clients had complete information on both pre- and post-Stress Signal Checklist. For these 25%, 87.5% reported symptoms decreased. When reviewing the clients' self-reported progress in therapist's session notes, there is no procedure for computing a treatment success to failure ratio due to the ...
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A comparison of individual supervision and triadic supervision.

A comparison of individual supervision and triadic supervision.

Date: August 2003
Creator: Nguyen, Thuy Vy
Description: This study was designed to measure and compare individual supervision to triadic supervision in promoting counselor effectiveness and counselor development. During individual supervision, one counselor met with one supervisor for an hour. Two models of triadic supervision were created for this study: Split Focus and Single Focus. Triadic consists of two supervisees and one supervisor meeting for one hour. During the Split Focus, 30 minutes was allocated to each counselor for supervision. During the Single Focus, the whole hour was spent supervising only one of the counselors. The next week, the whole hour was spent supervising the other counselor. Three comparison groups were employed to determine the effectiveness of the three supervision models. An instrument was used to evaluate counselor effectiveness and another instrument was used to evaluate counselor development. 47 masters-level counseling students enrolled in practicum participated in this study. The practicum met for 16 weeks. Each counselor filled out a Supervisee Levels Questionnaire-Revised at the beginning (pre-test) and at the end (post-test) of the semester. This instrument determined the counselor's developmental growth. Each counselor submitted a tape of a counseling session at the beginning (pre-tape) and at the end (post-tape) of the semester. The tape was rated on-site ...
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A Comparison of Skill Level of Parents Trained in the Landreth Filial Therapy Model and Graduate Students Trained in Play Therapy

A Comparison of Skill Level of Parents Trained in the Landreth Filial Therapy Model and Graduate Students Trained in Play Therapy

Date: May 2003
Creator: Elling, Roseanne Paul
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine if parents trained in the Landreth Filial Therapy Model could demonstrate child-centered play therapy skills as effectively as graduate play therapy students who completed an Introduction to Play Therapy course. The participants in both the parent group and the graduate student group were videotaped in play sessions with children pre- and post-training in order to measure change in adult empathic behavior as defined on the Measurement of Empathy in Adult-Child Interaction (MEACI). The specific skills measured in this study were (a) communicating acceptance to the child, (b) allowing the child to direct his or her own play during the play sessions, (c) demonstrating appropriate levels of involvement in the child's play, and (d) demonstrating empathic behavior toward the child. The Landreth Filial Therapy Model is a training system that utilizes both didactic and dynamic means to train parents and other paraprofessionals to be therapeutic agents of change with children. Parents are taught child-centered play therapy skills to use in weekly home play sessions with their children in order to strengthen the emotional bond between parent and child. The Introduction to Play Therapy course is a graduate-level counseling course at the University of ...
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Counseling Students' Technological Competence

Counseling Students' Technological Competence

Date: August 2003
Creator: Bullock, Melanie M.
Description: Technology has a profound influence on how business, education, entertainment, and interpersonal communications are conducted. Mental health professionals have been exploring how technology can support and enhance client care since the 1960s. In the last decade the influence of technology in the practice of counseling has increased dramatically. As the use of technology increased, so did the expectations for counselor preparation programs to include technology instruction. In 1999, the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) developed the Technical Competencies for Counselor Education Students: Recommended Guidelines for Program Development. This study examines the technological competence of counseling students at one southwestern university based on the ACES recommendations.
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Development of a Trauma Play Scale: An Observation-Based Assessment of the Impact of Trauma on the Play Therapy Behaviors of Young Children

Development of a Trauma Play Scale: An Observation-Based Assessment of the Impact of Trauma on the Play Therapy Behaviors of Young Children

Date: August 2004
Creator: Findling, Jennifer Hudson
Description: children
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An Early Mental Health Intervention for Disadvantaged Preschool Children with Behavior Problems: The Effectiveness of Training Head Start Teachers in Child Teacher Relationship Training (CTRT)

An Early Mental Health Intervention for Disadvantaged Preschool Children with Behavior Problems: The Effectiveness of Training Head Start Teachers in Child Teacher Relationship Training (CTRT)

Date: August 2006
Creator: Morrison, Mary
Description: This study examined the effectiveness of training Head Start teachers and aides in child teacher relationship training (CTRT). CTRT is based on child parent relationship therapy (CPRT) (Landreth & Bratton, 2006), a filial therapy model based on the principles of child-centered play therapy, and was adapted for the classroom. In this quasi-experimental design, 12 teacher/aide pairs (n = 24) were assigned to the experimental (n = 12) or active control group (n = 12). Children who scored in the Borderline or Clinical range on at least one scale of the Child Behavior Checklist-Caregiver/Teacher Report Form (C-TRF) at pretest qualified for the study (n = 54). Nine hypotheses were analyzed using a two factor repeated measures multivariate analysis to determine if the CTRT group and the active control group performed differently across time according to pre-, mid-, and posttest results of the C-TRF. Additionally, effect sizes were calculated to determine practical significance. Five hypotheses were retained at the .05 level of significance. Post hoc analysis was conducted to analyze the effects of the two phases of treatment. Results indicated that children in the experimental group made statistically significant improvements in externalizing problems (p = .003). Children of focus made statistically significant ...
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Effectiveness of Child-centered Play Therapy and Person-centered Teacher Consultation on ADHD Behavioral Problems of Elementary School Children: a Single Case Design.

Effectiveness of Child-centered Play Therapy and Person-centered Teacher Consultation on ADHD Behavioral Problems of Elementary School Children: a Single Case Design.

Date: December 2007
Creator: Schottelkorb, April A.
Description: I examined the effectiveness of child-centered play therapy (CCPT) and person-centered teacher consultation (PCTC) for elementary school children identified with clinical or borderline levels of ADHD behaviors on the Teacher Report Form and the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale Revised - Short Form. Additionally, I examined the impact of CCPT and PCTC on the levels of parenting and teaching stress. Due to the current trend to determine interventions that are evidence-based through between-group or single case designs, for this study, I utilized a single case design experiment for which the behaviors of five children were examined. Trained observers utilized the Direct Observation Form in observations of all five students three times per week. Additionally, parents and teachers completed behavioral rating scales and stress inventories at pre-, mid-, and post-intervention. To prevent biased observational ratings, observers were blind to the assignment of the five children. Three students participated in 24 sessions of twice-weekly 30-minute sessions of CCPT, and these students' teachers participated in six sessions of once-weekly 10-minute PCTC. Two students participated in twice-weekly 30-minute sessions of reading mentoring, after which they participated in 14 sessions of CCPT. Visual analysis of the data indicated mixed results. Three students demonstrated substantial improvement in ...
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Effectiveness of Child-Centered Play Therapy with Japanese Children in the United States

Effectiveness of Child-Centered Play Therapy with Japanese Children in the United States

Date: December 2006
Creator: Ogawa, Yumiko
Description: This study explored the use of child-centered play therapy (CCPT) as a culturally responsive intervention and a prevention treatment method for the psychosocial well-being of Japanese children in the United States. In light of the demand for the evidence-based therapeutic treatment for children as well as the need to conduct multicultural research without ignoring within-group differences, this study was composed of two research methodologies; quantitative research design and individual analysis. Single-group repeated measures ANOVA was utilized for the group analysis and linear regression was employed for individual analysis in addition to qualitative data obtained through parent feedback and the researcher's observation of play therapy sessions. The participating children received a total of eight CCPT sessions. The impact of CCPT was measured by a decrease in a child's behavioral problems perceived by a parent measured by scores of the Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems and Total Problems on the Child Behavioral Checklist and a reduction of parent-child relationship stress manifested in the Child Domain, Parent Domain and Total Stress Score of the Parenting Stress Index. Data from a total of the four assessment points; the baseline, pretest, second assessment, and third assessment, was gathered for use in the analysis. A total of ...
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Effects of a Trained Therapy Dog in Child-Centered Play Therapy on Children's Biobehavioral Measures of Anxiety

Effects of a Trained Therapy Dog in Child-Centered Play Therapy on Children's Biobehavioral Measures of Anxiety

Date: May 2005
Creator: Athy, Annette L.
Description: This study was concerned with reducing children's anticipatory anxiety when entering mental health services for the first time. The purpose of this study was to determine whether combining two effective modalities, play therapy and animal-assisted therapy, would be effective in decreasing children's biobehavioral measurements of anxiety. Specifically, this study examined the effects of the presence of a trained therapy dog during one individual 30-minute play therapy session. The experimental group consisted of 26 children who received one individual 30-minute play therapy session with the presence of a trained therapy dog. The comparison group consisted of 25 children who received one individual 30-minute play therapy session without the presence of a trained therapy dog. The SenseWear® PRO 2 armband monitor measured children's biobehavioral measurements such as galvanic skin response, temperature, and activity level (BodyMedia, Inc., Pittsburgh , PA , www.bodymedia.com). The Tanita 6102 Cardio® digital heart rate monitor measured children's pre-treatment and post-treatment heart rates (Tanita Corporation of America, Inc., Arlington Heights , IL , www.tanita.com). Five hypotheses were tested using repeated measures ANOVA with mixed factors and eta squared. All five hypotheses in this study were retained based on statistical significance at the .05 level. The combination of child-centered play ...
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The Effects of an Oral History Interview on Counselor Trainees' Confidence and Couples' Intimacy

The Effects of an Oral History Interview on Counselor Trainees' Confidence and Couples' Intimacy

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Date: May 2003
Creator: Toler, Jane K.
Description: A major concern many counselor trainees face when preparing to see their first couple-client is that of confidence because they have had little to no experience in interacting in a professional capacity with couples. Many beginning counselors experience anxiety, which can inhibit their effectiveness with clients (Scanlon & Baille, 1994). Introducing counselor trainees to a relatively non-threatening interaction with couples might reduce the initial anxiety that characterizes the neophyte counselor venturing into new clinical territory. The interaction may also enhance feelings of warmth and closeness of the couples. John Gottman's Oral History Interview (Gottman, 1999) was the protocol used in the interaction between trainee and couple. An instrument developed for this study to measure couple counseling confidence, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, 1983), and the Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships (Schaefer & Olson, 1981) were used to assess levels of counselor confidence, counselor anxiety, and couple intimacy, respectively. The confidence instrument and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered to 37 students who were enrolled in four graduate level introductory couple counseling classes and who interviewed couples, as well as to 34 counselor-trainees who were enrolled in five graduate level counseling courses other than couple counseling and who did not ...
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Effects of Child-Centered Play Therapy and Curriculum-Based Small-Group Guidance on the Behaviors of Children Referred for Aggression in an Elementary School Setting

Effects of Child-Centered Play Therapy and Curriculum-Based Small-Group Guidance on the Behaviors of Children Referred for Aggression in an Elementary School Setting

Date: December 2004
Creator: Schumann, Brandy R.
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of child-centered play therapy and curriculum-based small-group guidance on the behaviors of aggressive children in an elementary school as determined by (a) the reduction of aggressive behaviors, (b) the decrease in internalizing problems, and (c) the decrease in externalizing problems of aggressive children. Two types of behavioral instruments, the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-Teacher Rating Scale/Parent Rating Scale and the Child Behavior Checklist-Caregiver/Teacher Report Form, were used to provide multiple measures of the same construct in this matched pretest-posttest comparison group experimental designed study. Qualitative data was also collected. The population studied was comprised of 37 volunteer children identified as aggressive in kindergarten through fourth grade, ages 5-12, who qualified for counseling services at a Title I public elementary school in North Texas . Children who were referred by teachers and parents, and met the required criteria, were matched in pairs on grade level and randomly assigned to one of the two real-world setting interventions; play therapy treatment group (n=20), which received 12-15 individual child-centered play therapy sessions, or the curriculum-based small-group guidance group (n=17), consisting of 12-19 lessons. Major strengths of the study included utilizing students referred for counseling ...
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Effects of Culturally Responsive Child-centered Play Therapy Compared to Curriculum-based Small Group Counseling with Elementary-age Hispanic Children Experiencing Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems: a Preliminary Study.

Effects of Culturally Responsive Child-centered Play Therapy Compared to Curriculum-based Small Group Counseling with Elementary-age Hispanic Children Experiencing Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems: a Preliminary Study.

Date: December 2004
Creator: Garza, Yvonne
Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of culturally responsive child-centered play therapy when compared to a curriculum-based small group counseling intervention as a school-based intervention for Hispanic children experiencing behavioral problems that place them at risk for academic failure. Specifically, this study measured the effects of the experimental play therapy treatment, compared to Kids' Connection, on reducing Externalizing and Internalizing behavior problems of elementary school-age Hispanic children. Twenty-nine volunteer Hispanic children were randomized to the experimental group (n=15) or the comparison group (n=14). Subjects participated in a weekly 30 minute intervention for a period of 15 weeks. Pre- and posttest data were collected from parent and teachers using the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children (BASC). A two factor mixed repeated measures analysis of variance was computed for each hypothesis, to determine the statistical and practical significance of the difference in the pretest to posttest behavior scores of children in the two groups. According to parents' reports, the children receiving play therapy showed statistically significant decreases in externalizing behaviors problems, specifically conduct problems, and moderate improvements in their internalizing behavior problems, specifically anxiety. Teacher BASC results showed no statistical significance and negligible-to- small practical significance between the two groups ...
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Effects of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback-assisted Stress Management Training on Pregnant Women and Fetal Heart Rate Measures.

Effects of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback-assisted Stress Management Training on Pregnant Women and Fetal Heart Rate Measures.

Date: August 2008
Creator: Keeney, Janice E.
Description: This study examined effectiveness of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback-assisted stress management training in reducing anxiety and stress in pregnant women and the effect of maternal stress management skills practice on fetal heart rate measures in real time. Participants were seven working pregnant women who volunteered in response to recruitment announcements and invitations from cooperating midwives. Reported state and trait anxiety and pregnancy specific stress were measured during five 45- to 50-minute training sessions. Training included bibliotherapy, instruction in the use of emotion-focused stress management techniques, and HRV biofeedback. Subjects used portable biofeedback units for home practice and were encouraged to practice the skills for 20 minutes a day and for short periods of time during stressful life events. At the end of training, fetal heart rate was monitored and concurrent maternal HRV measures were recorded. Repeated measures ANOVA and paired samples t-test analysis of study data revealed no statistically significant reductions in state or trait anxiety measures or in pregnancy specific stress measures. Partial eta squared (n²) and Cohen's d calculations found small to medium effect sizes on the various test scales. Friedman's analysis of variance of biofeedback measures showed a statistically significant decrease in low HRV coherence scores ...
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Effects of Heart-Rate Variability Biofeedback Training and Emotional Regulation on Music Performance Anxiety in University Students

Effects of Heart-Rate Variability Biofeedback Training and Emotional Regulation on Music Performance Anxiety in University Students

Date: December 2006
Creator: Thurber, Myron Ross
Description: Student musicians were recruited to participate in an experimental repeated measures research design study to identify effects of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback training and emotional self-regulation techniques, as recommended by HeartMath® Institute, on music performance anxiety (MPA) and music performance. Fourteen students were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group following a 5 minute unaccompanied baseline performance. Treatment group participants received 4-5 HRV training sessions of 30-50 minutes each. Training included bibliotherapy, using the computerized Freeze-Framer® 2.0 interactive training software, instruction in the Freeze-Frame® and Quick Coherence® techniques of emotional regulation, and also use of an emWave® portable heart rate variability training device for home training. Measures included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Performance Anxiety Inventory (PAI), Flow State Scale (FSS), average heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Quade's rank transformed ANCOVA was used to evaluate treatment and no-treatment group comparisons. Combined MPA scores showed statistical significance at p=.05 level with large effect size of eta2=.320. Individual measurements of trait anxiety showed a small effect size of eta2=.001. State anxiety measurement showed statistical significance at the p=.10 level with a large effect size eta2=.291. FSS showed no statistical or effect size difference. PAI showed no statistical ...
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Effects of Three Interventions with International College Students Referred for Adjustment and Language Difficulties: A Preliminary Study

Effects of Three Interventions with International College Students Referred for Adjustment and Language Difficulties: A Preliminary Study

Date: May 2007
Creator: Lee, Eunah Kim
Description: This quasi-experimental study examined the effects of three interventions with international college students referred for adjustment and language difficulties. Fifty-four international students were assigned to treatment groups including expressive group counseling (n = 14), group speech therapy (n = 14), interdisciplinary counseling/speech intervention (n = 13), and the no treatment control (n = 13). Three null hypotheses were analyzed using a two factor repeated measures analysis of variance to determine whether the four treatment groups behaved differently across time according to pre- and posttest results of the ASR Total and Internalizing Problems scales and the CCSR total scores. Two null hypotheses were rejected at the alpha .05 level of statistical significance with large treatment effects. Post hoc analyses were conducted when a statistically significant interaction effect was found. The no treatment control group was established as a baseline to examine how each intervention group performed over time when compared to the no treatment control group. Results of the post hoc analysis for Total Problems indicated that international students in all three treatment groups demonstrated statistically significant improvements in total behavior problems at the alpha .025 level (Expressive counseling: p = .002, Speech: p = .01, and Interdisciplinary: p = .003) ...
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The Efficacy of Equine Assisted Group Counseling with At-Risk Children and Adolescents

The Efficacy of Equine Assisted Group Counseling with At-Risk Children and Adolescents

Date: December 2006
Creator: Trotter, Kay Sudekum
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of equine assisted group counseling as compared to in-school curriculum group guidance/counseling. Research examined externalizing, internalizing, maladaptive, and adaptive behaviors of elementary and middle school students who were considered at-risk of academic or social failure. Two types of behavior instruments, the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC)-Self-Rating, Parent-Rating, and Teacher-Rating Scales; and the Animal Assisted Therapy-Psychosocial Session Form (AAT-PSF), were used in a pretest-posttest comparison group quasi experimental design. Results of the paired sample t-test analysis of the BASC Self-Report indicated that the equine assisted counseling group showed statistically significant improvement in five behavior areas, and the in-school curriculum group guidance/counseling group showed statistically significant improvement in four areas, with only one behavior area the same as the equine assisted counseling group. Results of the paired sample t-test analysis of the BASC Parent-Report indicated that the equine assisted counseling group showed statistically significant improvement in twelve behavior areas, whereas the in-school curriculum group guidance/counseling showed statistically significant improvement in only one behavior area. Results of the paired sample t-test analysis of the BASC Teacher-Report indicated that the equine assisted counseling group showed no statistically significant improvement; however the in-school curriculum ...
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An Examination of the Relationships Between Affective Traits and Existential Life Positions

An Examination of the Relationships Between Affective Traits and Existential Life Positions

Access: Use of this item is restricted to the UNT Community.
Date: August 2004
Creator: Wiesner, Van
Description: There were two major goals of this study - to examine validity of scores for the Boholst Life Position Scale and to examine potential associations between life positions and affective traits. Two hundred seventy-seven students enrolled in undergraduate psychology classes at a large university volunteered for the study. Concurrent validity of scores for the life position scale was supported based on two compared instruments. Pearson product-moment correlations for the comparisons were -.765 and .617, both statistically significant at the p < .001 level. Factor analysis demonstrated that the scale could accurately be conceptualized as consisting of two factors - an "I" factor and a "You" factor. MANOVA, ANOVA, multiple linear regression, and canonical correlation analysis were used to examine associations between life positions and the affective traits of angry, sad, glad, social anxiety, loneliness, and satisfaction with life. Subjects were catagorized into four groups representing their life position: "I'm OK, you're OK," "I'm OK, you're not OK," "I'm not OK, you're OK," and "I'm not OK, you're not OK." A MANOVA employing life position as the independent variable with four levels and the six affective traits as the dependent variables demonstrated statistical significance (p < .001 level) and h2 was ...
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Expressive Arts Therapy with Bereaved Families

Expressive Arts Therapy with Bereaved Families

Date: August 2001
Creator: Webb-Ferebee, Kelly
Description: Most current grief programs support the children and/or parents of bereaved families rather than the family as a whole. This exploratory study was a quantitative and qualitative investigation of the use of expressive arts therapy with bereaved families during a weekend camp experience and a series of followup sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of using expressive arts activities in improving the functioning of the bereaved family as a whole as well as individual family members. Participants included eight families who lost a child to a chronic illness between 2 to 36 months months prior to the onset of the study. Children ranged in age from 3 to15, and parents ranged in age from 26 to 66, for a total of 27 participants. The Child Life Department at Children's Medical Center of Dallas, a division of The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, Texas recruited the families. Participants received flyers and invitational letters and registered through the mail. Families attended a weekend camp where they experienced a wide variety of expressive arts activities in a combination of group formats: multi-family groups, parents' group, developmental age groups for children, total childrens' group, individual family ...
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