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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Department: Department of Biological Sciences
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Cigarette Residues Affect Steroidogenesis in Cultured Y-1 Mouse Adrenal Tumor Cells

Cigarette Residues Affect Steroidogenesis in Cultured Y-1 Mouse Adrenal Tumor Cells

Date: December 1979
Creator: Morris, Paula D.
Description: This study (1) quantitatively compared steroid production in cultured Y-l mouse adrenal tumor cells exposed to Camel and Carlton-smoke derived residues, and (2) localized the effects in the cell. Basal steroid production was increased by Camel residues but not by Carlton, while ACTH stimulation was interfered with by both residues. Camel basal stimulation was comparable to that of cAMP, and was abolished by Cytochalasin D. The stimulation was also comparable to that of cholera toxin, which activates adenyl cyclase. Results indicate that residue components dissolve in the membrane stimulating adenyl cyclase at a point similar to or before that utilized by cholera toxin for its stimulating effect.
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Genic Differentiation Between Two Chromosomal Races of Pocket Gophers, Geomys bursarius

Genic Differentiation Between Two Chromosomal Races of Pocket Gophers, Geomys bursarius

Date: May 1980
Creator: Bohlin, Raymond G.
Description: Genic data from two chromosomal races of Geomys bursarius from a contact zone in central Texas indicated that the two races possessed distinct gene pools which would define them as separate species. Data from proteins encoded from 21 loci in this study substantiated this hypothesis. A pattern of alternately fixed alleles at the ADH-l, MDH-2, LDH-l, and IDH-1 loci with no apparent gene flow in zones of contact strongly suggested that these two races should be designated as separate species. Levels of heterozygosity and high FST values indicate that genomic structuring within Geomys is most heavily influenced by high levels of inbreeding and low migration rates. Fossorial rodents were suggested to undergo speciation primarily through parapatric means.
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The Eosinophil and Lysophospholipase Responses in Mice Infected with Trichinella spiralis: A Role for the Lymphocyte and Macrophage

The Eosinophil and Lysophospholipase Responses in Mice Infected with Trichinella spiralis: A Role for the Lymphocyte and Macrophage

Date: August 1986
Creator: Adewusi, Iyabode Olukemi, 1958-
Description: The relationship among eosinophils, lysophospholipase activity and the immune response in animals infected with Trichinella spiralis was studied using in vivo and in vitro techniques. In an in vivo experiment, anti-thymocyte serum (ATS) was administered to mice infected with T. spiralis and its effects on intestinal lysophospholipase (EC 3.1.1.5.) activity, peripheral blood, bone marrow and intestinal eosinophilia were measured in the same experimental animal. The ATS caused a significant temporally related suppression of both the tissue lysophospholipase response and eosinophilia, in all three compartments. These findings support the hypothesis that parasite-induced eosinophilia is the cause of the increased lysophospholipase activity of parasitized tissue and that the responses are thymus cell-dependent. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the eosinophil was the primary inflammatory cell source of lysophospholipase among eosinophils, neutrophils macrophages and lymphocytes. The role of other cells and antigen in the production of the enzyme by the eosinophil was also investigated in vitro• Results demonstrated that eosinophils cultured with both T. spiralis antigen and other leukocytes yielded enzyme activities significantly greater than eosinophils cultured alone or with only antigen. More specific experiments showed that T-lymphocytes were the cells responsible for influencing the eosinophils' lysophospholipase activity in the presence of antigen, and ...
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The Genetics of Pigmentation in Corynebacterium poinsettiae ATCC 9682

The Genetics of Pigmentation in Corynebacterium poinsettiae ATCC 9682

Date: August 1986
Creator: Campbell, Alan L. (Alan Lee)
Description: Corynebacterium poinsettiae mutant strains blocked in carotenoid biosynthesis were obtained by treatment with the mutagen N-methyl-N1-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Additional carotenoid (Crt) mutant strains were obtained from a previous study conducted in our laboratory. Fifty-nine Crt mutants affected in carotenoid biosynthesis were examined by a normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. Pigment extracts of Crt mutants and C. poinsettiae wild type strains were resolved by an isocratic system with hexane:acetone:dicholoromethane, 11.35:1.73:1.00 (by vol.) as the eluting solvent. In addition to the five major peaks, twelve minor peaks were observed in the wild type C. poinsettiae strain used in this study. Crt mutant and wild type strain peak heights were measured from the individual chromatograms and the peak height data set created was analyzed using the Statistical Analysis System program to perform a cluster analysis. The cluster analysis revealed five carotenoid mutant groups. Carotenoid pigments which accumulated or were absent in each of the cluster groups are reported. Cluster group 1 mutants (CrtA) are blocked in the dehydrogenase(s) which is(are) responsible for the dehydrogenations between phytoene and lycopene. Cluster group 2 mutants (CrtB) appear to be blocked at a second dehydrogenase specific for the dehydrogenation from C.p. 470 to C.p. 496. Cluster ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Radial Compression High Performance Liquid Chromatography as a Tool for The Measurement of Endogenous Nucleotides in Bacteria

Radial Compression High Performance Liquid Chromatography as a Tool for The Measurement of Endogenous Nucleotides in Bacteria

Date: August 1986
Creator: Dutta, Probir Kumar
Description: High performance liquid chromatography was used to measure ribonucleoside triphosphates in microbial samples. Anion exchange columns in a radial compression module were used to separate and quantify purine and pyrimidine ribonucleotides. Endogenous ribonucleoside triphosphates were extracted from Escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa using three different solvents, namely trifluorocetic acid (TFA; 0.5M), trichloroacetic acid (TCA; 6 per cent w/v) and formic acid (1.0M) Extracts were assayed for uridine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), and guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) by using anion exchange radial compression high performance (pressure) liquid chromatography. The three extraction produres were compared for yield of triphosphates. E. coli, the TFA extraction procedure was more sensitive and reliable than TCA and formic acid extraction procedures, but , in P. aeruginosa, the best yields of ATP and GTP were obrained following extraction with TFA. Yields of UTP and CTP increased when extraction was performed in TCA. These data illustrate that different extraction produres produce different measures for different triphosphates, a point often overlooked.
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An Analysis of Respiratory Mechanisms Controlling Exercise Hyperpnea During Cycle Ergometry Conducted at Selected Workloads and Pedal Frequencies

An Analysis of Respiratory Mechanisms Controlling Exercise Hyperpnea During Cycle Ergometry Conducted at Selected Workloads and Pedal Frequencies

Date: December 1986
Creator: Wise, Charles Hamilton
Description: Respiratory and metabolic patterns in response to variations in exercise workload (WL) and pedal frequency (RPM) were examined in 10 healthy males. Each subject performed WLs of low (L), moderate (M) and high (H) intensity, equivalent to 25%, 50% and 75% V02 m a x at 7 pedal frequencies (40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 RPM). ANOVA ( 3 X 7 design) indicated that WL and RPM had independent and significant effects on all respiratory and metabolic measures; i.e., the greater the WL and RPM, the higher the HR, V02, VC02, Ve, Fb, Vt, Vt/Ti, Vt/Te and Ti/TtQt and the lower the Ti and Te. However, analysis of the interaction effect revealed different response patterns for Fb, Vt, Ti, Vt/Ti, Vt/Te and Ve among the WLs. During L-WL, increases in RPM produced increases in Ve which were due to progressive increases in both Fb and Vt. However, during M-WL and H-WL, increases in RPM produced increases in Ve which were accomplished by a constant Vt and a progressive increase in Fb. My findings suggest that during low WLs, the signal for Vt is dependent on rate of contraction, while during M-WL and H-WL, the signal for Vt appears ...
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Fitness-Related Alterations in Blood Pressure Control: The Role of the Autonomic Nervous System

Fitness-Related Alterations in Blood Pressure Control: The Role of the Autonomic Nervous System

Date: December 1986
Creator: Smith, Michael Lamar, 1957-
Description: Baroreflex function and cardiovascular responses to lower body negative pressure during selective autonomic blockade were evaluated in endurance exercise trained (ET) and untrained (UT) men. Baroreflex function was evaluated using a progressive intravenous infusion of phenylephrine HCL (PE) to a maximum of 0.12 mg/min. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, cardiac output and forearm blood flow were measured at each infusion rate of PE. The reduction in forearm blood flow and concomitant rise in forearm vascular resistance was the same for each subject group. However, the heart rate decreases per unit increase of systolic or mean blood pressure were significantly (P<.05) less in the ET subjects (0.91 ± 0.30 versus 1.62 ± 0.28 for UT). During progressive lower body negative pressure with no drug intervention, the ET subjects had a significantly (P<.05) greater fall in systolic blood pressure (33.8 ± 4.8 torr versus 16.7 ± 3.9 torr). However, the change in forearm blood flow or resistance was not significantly different between groups. Blockade of parasympathetic receptors with atropine (0.04 mg/kg) eliminated the differences in response to lower body negative pressure. Blockade of cardiac sympathetic receptors with metoprolol (0.02 mg/kg) did not affect the differences observed during the control test. It was ...
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New Descriptions, Intraspecific Variation and Systematic Importance of Drumming Behavior in Selected North American Plecoptera

New Descriptions, Intraspecific Variation and Systematic Importance of Drumming Behavior in Selected North American Plecoptera

Date: December 1986
Creator: Maketon, Monchan
Description: Drumming behavior is described for the first time in 33 North American Plecoptera species, and signals of an additional five species, Pteronarcys pictetii, Acroneuria abnormis, Paragnetina media, Clioperla clio and Isogenoides zionensis, are further detailed. An out-group comparison of behavioral characters in all 104 world species whose drumming is known showed that the behavior is more advanced in the Arctoperlaria Group Systellognatha than in the Group Euholognatha. In general, tapping, monophasy, touching, sequenced exchange and less than 50 taps/answer are ancestral states, and rubbing, grouping, phasing, tremulation, interspersed exchange and equal or more than 50 taps/answer are derived states. There has been some co-evolution between abdominal structure and drumming behavior. Scanning Electron Micrographs of 30 species showed that the primitive state of tapping is ascociated with three classes of abdominal structure: (1) absence of derived structures, (2) lobes or vesicles, and (3) hammers. The derived behavior of rubbing, however, occurs only in species with derived structures, and is predominant in species having vesicles and hammers. Drumming can be used as a line of evidence to aid in defining genera and species, since the behavior has a variable degree of specificity or exclusiveness in all species, particularly in groups of species ...
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Roles of Calcium Ions and Cyclic AMP in Olfactory Transduction

Roles of Calcium Ions and Cyclic AMP in Olfactory Transduction

Date: December 1986
Creator: Winegar, Bruce D. (Bruce David)
Description: The roles of Ca2 + and cAMP in olfactory transduction were explored using agents which affect calcium channels and second messenger systems. These agents were applied at certain calculated final concentrations onto olfactory epithelia of urethane-anesthetized frogs (Sana PiPlens) by two-sec aerosol spray. During extracellular recording, saturated vapors of isoamyl acetate were delivered every 100 sec in 0.3 sec pulses to produce an electroolfactogram (EOG). Inorganic cations that block inward calcium currents inhibit EOG responses with the following rank order: (La3+) > (Zn2+, Cd2+) > (Al3+, Ca2+, Sr2+) > (Co2+). Application of 7.5 mM La3+ eradicates £0G's, while Ba2+ (which can carry more current that Ca2+) initially produces significant enhancement (F=43.04, p<0.001, df=19). Magnesium ion has no effect on EOG's at 7.5 mM, while 1.5 X 10"4M Ca2+ is significantly inhibitory (F=5.74; p=0.0355; df=12). Control aerosol sprays of distilled water depress EOG's by an average of 5%. The organic calcium channel antagonists diltiazem and verapamil inhibit EOG's by 17% and 36X, respectively, at a concentration of 1.5 X 10~*M. Verapamil produces significant inhibition (F=17.17; p=0.002; df=ll) at 1.5 X 10" 5 M, while the 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists, nicardipine and nifedipine, do not inhibit beyond 1% DMSO controls. Several calmodulin ...
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Interaction of Microwaves and Germinating Seeds

Interaction of Microwaves and Germinating Seeds

Date: August 1987
Creator: Shafer, Floyd L. (Floyd Lorenz)
Description: This investigation was concerned with determining the interaction of microwaves with germinating seeds. This study covers two different approaches. The preliminary efforts covered the response of germinating seeds to treatment by microwaves and heat. The second phase of the investigation used microwaves as a probe to determine some of the processes of early seed germination. The preliminary investigation measured the internal metabolic process by ATP production. Leakage of ions and organic material from germinating seeds indicated that membranes are a target of microwaves and heat. Electron photo-micrographs showed an increase in damage to membranes as heat and microwave treatments were increased. The second phase of this investigation was concerned with determining some of the biological activity at the initiation of germination of wheat seeds, Triticum aestivum L., using a resonating microwave cavity oscillating at 9.3 GHz as a probe. Direct current conductivity measurements were also made on the seeds as a means of confirming the observations made with the microwave cavity. There was no observable difference between treatment by UHF or heat in the ultrastructure of germinating seeds. A dielectric response far above that of free water was found as live seeds of wheat began to imbibe water. This effect ...
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