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 Department: Department of Biological Sciences
Individual, Social, and Seasonal Behavior of the Thirteen-Lined Ground Squirrel (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus)
The purpose of this study is to provide a qualitative, detailed description of individual and social behavior in a free-living population of thirteen-lined ground squirrels. Behavioral differences in relation to various periods of the annual cycle are also evaluated.
A Comparative Study of Passive Transfer Mechanisms of Tuberculin and Chemical Contact Delayed Hypersensitivities in the Guiea Pig
This study is concerned with a critical comparison of the passive transfer mechanisms of tuberculin and chemical contact hypersensitivities in the guinea pig by use of a four phase experimental approach.
A Characterization of Liver Glyoxalase I From Normal Mice and Mice Bearing Lymphosarcoma
The purpose of this investigation was (1) to isolate and purify glyoxalase I from the livers of normal DBA/lJ mice and the livers from mice bearing a lymphosarcoma tumor; and (2) to determine, at least with respect to glyoxalase I, if the tumor has an effect on the chemical properties or structure of macromolecules in an organ removed from tumor locale and not histologically affected by its presence.
Food, Feeding Selectivity, and Ecological Efficiencies of Fundulus notatus (Rafinesque) (Osteichthyes; Cyprinodontidae)
This study was made to further define the trophic dynamics of Fundulus notatus by determining its ration composition under natural conditions, measuring feeding selectivity under various laboratory conditions of prey-species composition and availability, and determining the efficiencies with which F. notatus utilizes ingested chironomid larvae.
Mixed Culture of Chlorella Pyrenoidosa TX71105 and a Variant Strain of Bacillus Megaterium
Very little work has been done on bacteria capable of significantly inhibiting algal growth. This thesis reports the research on mixed cultures of a high-temperature strain of algae, Chlorella pyrenoidosa TX71105, and an organism isolated from the air and tentatively identified as a variant strain of Bacillus megaterium.
Experimental Trichinosis in Birds
This work concerns itself with essentially four experiments: (1) the cecum-injective-infection experiment; (2) the anus-injective-infection experiment; (3) the mouth ingestive-infection with larvae, and (4) the mouth ingestive-infection with the flesh of infected rats.
The Influence of a Return of Native Grasslands upon the Ecology and Distribution of Small Rodents in Big Bend National Park
In the southwestern United States there is a delicate balance between the existing grasslands and the rodent fauna. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of secondary succession of native grasslands upon the ecology and distribution of small rodents. Two methods of determining the rodent species were plot quadrates and trap lines using Sherman live traps.
Obligately Thermophilic Nitrogen-Fixation in Some Soil Bacteria
In the work presented here, it is claimed that bacteria have been isolated which are capable of growth at high temperatures utilizing molecular nitrogen as their sole nitrogen source. Soil bacteria were isolated which grew at 55 C in nitrogen-free media. They were found to be obligatory thermophiles in nitrogen-free media and facultative thermophiles in media containing organically bound nitrogen.
A Taxonomic Study of the Family Bacteroidaceae
This study was performed to clarify the taxonomy of the bacteria in the family Bacteroidaceae.
Effects of Carbaryl (1-Naphthyl-n-methylcarbamate) on Trichocorixa Reticulata (Hemiptera: Corixidae) and Glyptotendipes Barbipes (Diptera: Chironomidae)
My study of the effects of carbaryl in aquatic systems under controlled laboratory conditions emphasized four major objectives: (1) to determine the acute toxicity of carbaryl to the herbivorous adult and immature Trichocorixa reticulata (Guerin)(Hemiptera: Corixidae), and to the omnivorous larvae of Glyptotendipes barbipes (Staeger) (Diptera: Chironomidae) under static bioassay; (2) to adapt a quantitative method of analysis for carbaryl in water and whole insect tissue extract; (3) to measure the accumulation of the insecticide by G. barbipes under static exposure; and (4) to quantify the uptake and loss of carbaryl by G. barbipes under daily-renewed sublethal dosages.
The Larval Lipids of the Chironomid Midge Glyptotendipes Barbipes (Staeger)
This problem was concerned with determining the total lipid content and individual lipid composition of the larvae of a local chironomid, Glyptotendipes barbipes (Staeger).
Some Effects of Electrostatic Fields on Brain Activity in Rats
This study concerned the effects of short-term exposures to continuous (10 kv/meter) and pulsed 20 volts at 640 cps/100 msecs) electrostatic fields on the EEG recorded from external electrodes and hypothalamic activity recorded from implanted electrodes in rats. Each experiment lasted at least 90 minutes. The total energies of the waveforms recorded were integrated and printed out for plotting and analysis. Besides the brain activity, the ECG, respiration, and temperature of the animals were also monitored before, during,and after exposure to the electrostatic fields.
Studies on the Morphology and Biology of Cotton Rats (Sigmodon hispidus) from Northern Mexico to Southern Nebraska
This investigation was designed to evaluate the need for retaining both Sigmodon hispidus texianus and Sigmodon hispidus berlandieri as subspecific designations. An attempt was made to demonstrate bioclimatic variation and reproductive seasonality in cotton rats. The validity of applying the results of isolated studies of cotton rat populations to the species as a whole was examined.
Effect of Indole-3-Acetic Acid on the Nucleic Acids of Synchronous Cultures of Chlorella Pyrenoidosa
It was the purpose of this study to investigate the effect of various concentrations of IAA on the nucleic acids of Chlorella pyrenoidosa TX 7-11-05. The time during the life cycle when the greatest effect occurred was investigated by the use of synchronous cultures.
Effects of a Methylcholanthrene-Induced Lymphosarcoma on the Blood of DBA/1J Mice
This investigation was concerned with characterizing a tumor line induced and maintained in this laboratory. Various chemical assays, cell counts, and electron microscopy were the methods employed to characterize the blood of mice bearing the tumor at days 3, 6, 9, and 12 after injection of the 1.2 x 10^8 tumor cells.
Some Acute Effects of X-Irradiation (LD100) on Plasma and Adrenal Tissue Histamine in Rats
The effects of a lethal dose (1380 r) of X-irradiation on plasma and adrenal tissue histamine levels of rats were studied. The plasma histamine response was triphasic (increase at 1-3 hours, decrease at 5 and 9 hours and return to control at 24 hours post-irradiation). The adrenal tissue histamine response was found to be biphasic (decrease at 1 to 9 hours and a return to control level at 24 hours post-irradiation).
A Carcinogenic Agent Elaborated by Liver Cells from Lymphosarcoma-Bearing Mice
Liver cells from lymphosarcoma-bearing DBA/1J mice were shown, by parabiotic culture with normal liver cells from isologous mice, to elaborate an agent which could pass a 25 mu filter and transform the normal cells to a malignant state.
Lipids and Phospholipase Activity of Vibrio Cholerae
One purpose of this investigation is to determine the fatty acid and lipid content of typical Vibrio cholerae cells. The comparison of cholera lipid constituents with those of closely-related bacteria might be of taxonomic value. Furthermore, chemical characterization of the cholera vibrio could provide useful criteria for identification of these disease-producing microorganisms.
Carbon Flux in Reservoir Sediments
The central objective of the study was to fractionate sedimenting organic materials according to their source (allochthonous or autochthonous) and ultimately to determine the degree of biodegradability of contributions from either source with particular reference to activities at the mud-water interface.
Effects of a Methylcholanthrene-Induced Lymphosarcoma on Various Tissues of DBA/1J and Swiss White Mice
This investigation was concerned with characterizing effects of this tumor line on lipid metabolism in DBA/lJ mice and serum protein levels and cellular changes in DBA/lJ and Swiss white mice. Total lipids, lipid phosphorus, neutral lipids, and changes in fatty acids were determined in liver, spleen, skin, and tumor of DBA/lJ mice bearing the lymphosarcoma at various days after injection of tumor cells.
Influence of Acclimation and Acclimatization to Seasonal Temperatures on Metabolism and Energetics in the Rusty Lizard Sceloporus Olivaceus
Rates and energy equivalents of consumption (C), egestion+ excretion (FU) , assimilation (A), respiration (R) and production (P) were measured in two groups of Sceloporus olivaceus: 1) a laboratory group acclimated at four seasonally encountered temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30°C) ; and 2) four acclimatization groups collected at different seasons when ambient temperatures corresponded to 15, 20, 25 and 30°C.
Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Two Southwestern Reservoirs
This investigation has determined the presence of biological nitrogen fixation in two reservoirs in the southwestern United States: Lake Arlington and Lake Ray Hubbard. Subsequent tests have gathered baseline data on the effects of various biological, chemical, and physical parameters on in situ nitrogen fixation in these reservoirs. Of specific importance is the relationship between nitrogen fixation arid occasional blooms of blue-green algae which produce such problems as testes and odors in these water-supply impoundments.
Effects of 2-Chloroethylphosphonic Acid (Ethephen) on Scenedesmus Quadricauda
The effects of various concentrations of 2-chloroethylphosphcnic acid (Ethephon), an ethylene-releasing compound, on the total protein, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and ribonucleic acid (RNA) levels in Scenedesmus quadricauda IU 614 were investigated.
Physiological Responses of Myriophyllum spicatum to Time Varying Exposures of Diquat, 2,4-D and Copper
The physiological responses of Myriophyllum spicatum to 2,4-D, diquat and copper were quantified using a plant tissue viability assay, and daily measures of dissolved oxygen and pH. Correlations of herbicide tissue residues to physiological response measures were determined and the relationship was used to develop exposure-response models. Diquat and copper had a greater effect on plant tissue viability than was observed for 2,4-D. Diquat produced greater reductions in dissolved oxygen concentrations and pH values than 2,4-D or copper. Copper exposure had the least effect on these parameters. Exposure-response models developed for 2,4-D predicted effective control at plant tissue residues ranging from 4000 to 4700 mg/kg. Aqueous exposure concentrations necessary to produce effective control plant tissue residues ranged from 0.20 to 0.40 mg/L. Exposure-response models developed for diquat predicted effective control at plant tissue residues ranging from 225 to 280 mg/kg. Aqueous exposure concentrations necessary to produce effective control plant tissue residues ranged from 0.113 to 0.169 mg/L. Exposure-response models developed for copper predicted effective control at plant tissue residues ranging from 680 to 790 mg/kg. Aqueous exposure concentrations necessary to produce effective control plant tissue residues ranged from 0.32 to 0.64 mg/L. Model predictions for 2,4-D, diquat and copper were within 0.5 mg/L of the manufacturers' label recommendations for these herbicides. The use of laboratory microcosms in development of exposure-response models for diquat and copper produced results comparable to those using the larger-scale greenhouse systems. Diquat effectively controlled M. spicatum at lower tissue residues than 2,4-D or copper. In addition, initial aqueous exposure concentrations were also lower for diquat. Use of these models in field situations should be coupled with considerations of quantity of biomass present and environmental conditions, such as turbidity, in order to accurately calculate exposure concentrations necessary for effective tissue residues. Thus, the use of these models can be used to optimize the impact on the target species while minimizing exposure for nontarget species.
Pre-Impoundment Estimations of Nutrient Loading to Ray Roberts Lake and Prediction of Post-Inundation Trophic Status
Excessive nutrient loading of natural and artificial lakes has led, in some systems, to plethoric algal and aquatic macrophyte growth which can result in aesthetic degradation and undesirable tastes and odors. It would be advantageous to have some indication of the potential trophic status of a reservoir before it is filled. An objective of this study was to assess the water quality and nutrient loading potential of the tributaries entering Ray Roberts Lake, a large reservoir located in north central Texas. Samples from a maximum of thirteen sites were collected on the Elm Fork, Trinity River, Isle duBois Creek, and five additional tributaries. Data were also collected during six storms, from atmospheric deposition collectors, and from soil-water microcosms. The relationship between watershed landuse and mean water nutrient concentrations was evaluated. Significant differences will exist between the two major arms of Ray Roberts Lake: Elm Fork, Trinity River and Isle duBois Creek. While the majority of the annual phosphorus and nitrogen load entering both tributaries is coming from overland flow, the proportion is higher in Isle duBois Creek. Point sources in the Elm Fork contribute a larger percentage of the bioavailable phosphorus, which is significantly greater than in Isle duBois Creek. The water quality of Isle duBois Creek, especially nitrogen, is affected to a greater degree by the landuses in its watershed. Predictive regression models made accurate estimations of stream nutrient concentrations in Isle duBois Creek. The entire reservoir, upon reaching equilibrium conditions, will be classified as a eutrophic lake. The Trinity arm, with a higher phosphorus load, will display a higher trophic status. The Isle duBois arm has a lower phosphorus load which will give it a lower trophic status. The long hydraulic residence time of the two arms of the reservoir will remove nutrients upstream of the main body, thus contributing to overall better water quality in the main body of the reservoir.
Life Histories Behavior and Space Partitioning in Selected Species of Western North American Plecoptera
Five species of stoneflies (Zapada haysi, Plumiperla diversa, Taenionema pacificum, Isoperla petersoni, Arcynopteryx compacta) from the North Slope and Interior of Alaska were examined for seasonal patterns of emergence of adults and growth of nymphs. Generally growth was retarded during the winter in this region, and all species except I. petersoni completed growth prior to January. The life cycles of six stonefly species (Prostoia besametsa, Triznaka signata, Sweltsa coloradensis. Isoperla fulva, Skwala parallela, Claassenia sabulosa) are described from northern New Mexico. In this region growth was generally less retarded during the winter than in Alaska; P. besametsa completed all nymphal growth during late fall and winter. Drumming behavior of a Colorado population of Pteronarcella badia was described using an evolutionary framework to explain the maintenance of signal variation in this species. Laboratory experiments were used to explore the effect of intraspecific and interspecific interactions on spatial partitioning in P. badia and Claassenia sabulosa. P. badia exhibited clumping and distributed itself as the surface area of substrate in low densities; however, in the presence of C. sabulosa its distribution was random and different from available surface area. A field study was used to examine spatial partitioning by three New Mexico stonefly species (I_. fulva, P. besametsa, T. signata) and to ascertain patterns of microdistribution relating to several abiotic and biotic factors. Generally, there was an interaction of the measured abiotic parameters (current, water temperature, time) with nymphal size. Additionally, void space and sample volume were successfully used to compare biotic densities among leaf and mineral substrates, which were higher in leaf packs than in mineral substrates.
Multivariate Analyses of Amphibian and Reptilian Distribution in Texas
Presence-absence data for amphibians, chelonians, saurians, ophidians, and the terrestrial and aquatic ecological guilds of reptilians were analyzed using multivariate analyses. Geographically consistant distributional patterns were found for all faunal groupings. The correspondence between analyses of the different taxa and guilds was not perfect, but similarities were found. All analyses agreed on the presence of a distinctive region in east Texas. Most analyses also agreed on the presence of distinctive regions in south Texas, the Trans-Pecos, the Edwards Plateau, and north-west Texas. There is strong correspondence between interpretations of the analyses based on the amphibian, saurian, ophidian, and terrestrial reptilian distributions, and the biotic provinces produced by earlier, subjective analyses. The Edwards Plateau and a region on the western periphery of east Texas were found to be transitional between other, more faunally distinctive areas for most fauna! groups. Detailed examination of these regions suggested they are best described as clinal in nature. The environmental variables which were most effective in explaining patterns in the distribution of the various taxa and guilds were related to precipitation. However, variations in temperature and physiography were also important predictors of distribution for several of the groups. The distributions of soil and vegetation associations were also found to be related to amphibian and reptilian distribution.
Interactions between Carotid and Cardiopulmonary Baroreceptor Populations in Men with Varied Levels of Maximal Aerobic Power
Reductions in baroreflex responsiveness have been thought to increase the prevalence of orthostatic hypotension in endurance trained athletes. To test this hypothesis, cardiovascular responses to orthostatic stress, cardiopulmonary and carotid baroreflex responsiveness, and the effect of cardiopulmonary receptor deactivation on carotid baroreflex responses were examined in 24 men categorized by maximal aerobic power (V02max) into one of three groups: high fit (HF, V0-2max=67.0±1.9 ml•kg^-1•min^-1), moderately fit (MF, V0-2max=50.9±1.4 ml•kg^-1•min^-1), and low fit (LF, V0-2max=38.9±1.5 ml•kg^-1•min^-1). Orthostatic stress was induced using lower body negative pressure (LBNP) at -5, -10, -15, -20, -35, and -50 torr. Cardiopulmonary baroreflex responsiveness was assessed as the slope of the relationship between forearm vascular resistance (FVR, strain gauge plethysmography) and central venous pressure (CVP, dependent arm technigue) during LBNP<-35 torr. Carotid baroreflex responsiveness was assessed as the change in heart rate (HR, electrocardiography) or mean arterial pressure (MAP, radial artery catheter) elicited by 600 msec pulses of neck pressure and neck suction (NP/NS) from +40 to -70 torr. Pressures were applied using a lead collar wrapped about the subjects' necks during held expiration. Stimulus response data were fit to a logistic model and the parameters describing the curve were compared using two-factor ANOVA. The reductions CVP, mean (MAP), systolic, and pulse pressures during LBNP were similar between groups (P<0.05). However, diastolic blood pressure increased during LBNP m all but the HF group. (P<0.05). The slope of the FVR/CVP relationship did not differ between groups, nor did the form of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex stimulus response curve change during LBNP. changes in HR elicited with NP/NS were not different between groups (£>0.05). The range of the MAP stimulus response curve, however, was significantly less in the HP group compared to either the MP or LF group (£<0.05). These data imply that carotid baroreflex control of HR is unaltered by endurance exercise training, but carotid baroreflex control of blood pressure is impaired significantly, predisposing athletes to faintness.
Measurement of Feedback Inhibition In Vivo and Selection of ATCase Feedback Altered Mutants in Salmonella typhimurium
Aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase; encoded by pyrBI genes) is one of the most studied regulatory enzymes in bacteria. It is feedback inhibited by cytidine triphosphate (CTP) and activated by adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Much is known about the catalytic site of the enzyme, not nearly as much about the regulatory site, to which CTP binds. Until now a positive selection for feedback-modified mutants was not available. The selection we have developed involves the use of a pyrA deletion in S. typhimurium. This strain lacks carbamoylphosphate and requires both a pyrimidine and arginine for growth. In this strain citrulline is used to satisfy the pyrimidine and arginine requirements. The minimal flow through the pyrimidine pathway from the citrulline-produced carbamoylphosphate is exquisitely sensitive to feedback control of ATCase by CTP. By elevating the CTP pool, via exogenous cytidine, in a strain that also contains a cytidine deaminase mutant (cdd) growth can be stopped completely, indicating 100% inhibition. It was therefore possible to measure in vivo feedback inhibition of ATCase among the citrulline users and to isolate a family of ATCase regulatory mutants with either modified or no response to effectors.
Effects of Water Quality, Instream Toxicity, and Habitat Variability on Fish Assemblages in the Trinity River, Texas
The Trinity River flows through the Dallas-Ft. Worth Metroplex in north central Texas where it receives effluents from numerous point sources including seven large regional wastewater treatment facilities. Historically, the Trinity River has been impacted by massive wastewater loadings which often constitute > 80% of the total river discharge during low flow periods. Normally, high mass loadings correspond to the summer months, compounding the effects of a naturally stressful period, characterized by high temperatures and low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Samples from 12 stations were collected quarterly over an 18 month period from the Trinity River and two tributaries. Water samples were analyzed for a variety of water quality variables, including metals, priority pollutants, pesticides, and general water quality parameters. Water samples were also tested for acute and subchronic effects with several test species. Fish were collected at each station and assemblages were characterized using traditional classification techniques and the Index of Biotic Integrity. In addition, sediment samples were assessed for toxic effects which could have adversely impacted fish recruitment and in situ biomonitoring experiments were performed. Quantitative habitat characterization analyses were performed to gain additional information that could possibly explains differences in fish assemblage structure related to habitat variability. Data were analyzed using regression, univariate, multivariate, and descriptive statistical techniques and new approaches for analyzing impact assessment data were discussed. Results indicated that the most substantial impacts on fish assemblages were confined to a segment of the river where a sequence of point sources, in close proximity to each other, were overloading the river's capacity to sufficiently dilute and/or detoxify the effluent. Data also indicated the presence of episodic toxicity from nonpoint sources. In addition, toxic effects in sediment samples and differences in habitat were detected and may have contributed to measured differences among fish assemblages in the Trinity River.
Pyrimidine Metabolism in Rhizobium: Physiological Aspects of Pyrimidine Salvage
The objective of this research was to study the pyrimidine salvage pathways of Rhizobium. Three approaches were used to define the pyrimidine salvage pathways operative in two species of Rhizobium, R. meliloti and R. leguminosarum . The first approach was to ascertain the pyrimidine bases and nucleosides that could satisfy the pyrimidine requirement of pyrimidine auxotrophs. Uracil, cytosine, uridine or cytidine all satisfied the absolute pyrimidine requirement. The second approach was to select for mutants resistant to 5-fluoropyrimidine analogues which block known steps in the interconversion of the pyrimidine bases and nucleosides. Mutants resistant to 5-fluorouracil lacked the enzyme uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (upp ) and could no longer use uracil to satisfy their pyrimidine requirement. Mutants resistant to 5-fluorocytosine, while remaining sensitive to 5- fluorouracil, lacked cytosine deaminase (cod) and thus could no longer use cytosine to satisfy their pyrimidine auxotrophy. The third approach used a reversed phase HPLC column to identify the products that accumulated when cytidine, uridine or cytosine was incubated with cell extracts of wild type and analogue resistant mutants of Rhizobium. When cytidine was incubated with cell extracts of Rhizobium wild type, uridine, uracil and cytosine were produced. This Indicated that Rhizobium had an active cytidine deaminase (cdd) and either uridine phosphorylase or uridine hydrolase. By dialyzing the extract and reincubating it with cytidine, uridine and uracil still appeared. This proved that it was a hydrolase ( nuh ) rather than a phosphorylase that degraded the nucleoside. Thus, Rhizobium was found to contain an active cytidine deaminase and cytosine deaminase with no uridine phosphorylase present. The nucleoside hydrolase was active with cytidine, uridine and to a far lesser extent with purines, adenosine and inosine. When high concentrations of cytidine were added to mutants devoid of hydrolase, cytosine was produced from cytidine - 5-monophosphate by the sequential action of uridine ( cytidine ) kinase and nucleoside monophosphate glycosylase. Both ft meliloti and ft leguminosarum had identical salvage pathways.
The Stoneflies (Plecoptera) of the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains
Collections of stoneflies (Plecoptera) were made at 603 stream sites from Nov. 1983 - May 1988 in the Ozark-Ouachita Mountain region, in relation to physiographic and vegetational characteristics. Examination of approximately 9000 vials from these collections, supplemented with material from major museums and other collectors, revealed 88 stonefly species in 8 families and 24 genera. Pearson's measure of association (R) showed there was a significant association between species present and each of the tested variables.
Toxicological Characterization of Trinity River Sediments
Sediments in the Trinity River were chemically, physically and biologically characterized and assessed for toxicity. Laboratory bioassays were conducted to identify sediments which induced toxic responses in test organisms and to document these responses through time. Metal and organic contaminant concentrations in bottom sediments were measured. Relationships between these concentrations and biological responses observed in laboratory bioassays were determined. Toxicity identification / reduction methods were used to characterize sediment toxicants. Sediment oxygen demand was also measured in resuspended and undisturbed bottom sediments through time. The Background Sediment Chemistry Approach and the Sediment Bioassay Approach were used to assess sediment quality. Sediment toxicity was observed in whole sediment bioassays using Chironomus tentans as the test species. A relationship between sediment contaminant concentration and toxicity was observed in approximately sixty percent of the sediments. Oxygen demand of resuspended sediments was elevated in sediments at two locations on the river. Oxygen demand of undisturbed sediments was elevated at one location on the river. Characterization of sediment toxicants was conducted using EDTA, pH, and carbon treatments and manipulations of the sediments. Aeration tests were also used to evaluate the contribution of volatile organic contaminants to observed toxicity.
Validation of a Coupled Herbicide Fate and Target Plant Species Effects Model
A series of experiments provided data to parameterize and validate a coupled herbicide fate and target plant species effects model. This simulation model is currently designed to predict responses of water hyacinth populations to treatments of the dimethylamine formulation of 2,4- dichloro-phenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D -DMA). Experiments investigated 1) the response of water hyacinth to varying exposures of 2,4-D (DMA); 2) the role of water hyacinth density and herbicide interception in treatment effectiveness using 2,4-D (DMA); and 3) the importance of root exposure to obtain control of water hyacinth using 2,4- D (DMA). Results demonstrated the importance of leaf or canopy interception of 2,4-D (DMA) sprays in obtaining control of water hyacinth populations. The critical threshold plant tissue concentration of 2,4-D (DMA) required to elicit maximum mortality (98%) was estimated to be approximately 12 mg 2,4-D per kg water hyacinth tissue (wet weight). Root uptake apparently plays little or no role in the effectiveness of this herbicide for controlling water hyacinth growth. Validation trials illustrated the efficacy of the current model. The model was validated with data from a field operation. This research has provided considerable insight into optimal use of this auxin-type herbicide for control of water hyacinth, a monocotyledon.
Isolation, Characterization and Physiological Studies of Cyanide-Utilizing Bacteria
Ten bacteria capable of growth on the metal-cyano complex, tetracyanonickelate (II) {K2 [Ni(CN)J } (TCN), supplied as the sole nitrogen source, were isolated. Seven isolates were identified as pseudomonads while the remaining three were classified as Klebsiella species. In addition to TCN, all isolates were able to utilize KCN although it was significantly more toxic. The degradation of TCN was most complete when supplied at growth-limiting concentrations, did not occur when ammonia was present, and resulted in the formation of nickel cyanide [Ni(CN)2] as a degradation product.
Physiological Ecology, Population Genetic Responses and Assemblage Stability of Fishes in Two Southwestern Intermittent Stream Systems
Six sites within the Denton and Hickory Creek watersheds were sampled over three years to assess the impact of seasonal intermittent stream conditions on the ichthyofauna. An integrated approach using field and laboratory techniques was employed to evaluate the responses of the fishes.
Physiological Effects of Ascaris Suum Intestinal Microflora on 5-Hydroxytryptamine Level and Binding Sites in the Intestinal Epithelial Cells
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) has been shown to activate carbohydrate metabolism in adult female Ascaris suum. Serotonin may be either absorbed directly from the environment or synthesized de novo from the absorbed L-tryptophan in adult female A. suum. The enzymes necessary for the synthesis of 5-HT have been identified in both intestine and muscle tissues. The serotonin absorbed from the environment is obtained either from the host's gastrointestinal contents or from the 5-HT producing bacteria in the intestine of A. suum. Numerous 5-HT producing bacteria were identified in the intestinal microflora. The physiological contributions of 5-HT producing bacteria to the 5-HT level, turnover and binding sites in the intestinal tissue of A. suum were investigated.
Blood Pressure Regulation During Simulated Orthostatism Prior to and Following Endurance Exercise Training
Cardiovascular responses and tolerance to an orthostatic stress were examined in eight men before and after eight months of endurance exercise training. Following training, maximal oxygen consumption and blood volume were increased, and resting heart rate reduced. Orthostatic tolerance was reduced following training in all eight subjects. It was concluded that prolonged endurance training decreased orthostatic tolerance and this decrease in tolerance appeared associated with attenuated baroreflex sensitivity and alterations in autonomic balance secondary to an increased parasympathetic tone noted with training.
Construction of a Cloning Vector Based upon a Rhizobium Plasmid Origin of Replication and its Application to Genetic Engineering of Rhizobium Strains
Rhizobia are Gram-negative, rod-shaped, soil bacteria with the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia as symbiont bacteroids within nodules of leguminous plant roots. Here, resident Rhizobium plasmids were studied as possible sources of components for the construction of a cloning vector for Rhizobium species.
Enzyme Assays Using Earthworms for Assessing Innate and Nonspecific Immunotoxicity of Xenobiotics
Principal objectives of my research were to: (1) report for the first time that coelomocytes are able to reduce NBT dye and confirm the presence of lysozyme-like activity in earthworm; (2) develop a standard methodology for determination of NBT reduction and lysozyme-like activity in earthworms; (3) compare NBT reduction and lysozyme-like activity in earthworms with those of murine and human cells and fluids; and (4) demonstrate the sensitivity of earthworm NBT reduction and lysozyme-like activity as the assays using matrics in refuse-derived fuel fly ash (RDFF) and CuSO4.
Molecular and Kinetic Characterization of the Aspartate Transcarbamoylase Dihydroorotase Complex in Pseudomonas putida
Aerobic Gram negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas putida were reported to possess class A ATCases and to have a M.W. of 360 kD. The nucleotide sequence of the P. putida pyrBC was determined to answer this question once and for all. The expected regulatory gene was not found. It is shown that the P. putida pyrB gene is overlapped by pyrC by 4 bp. The P.putida pyrB is 1005 bp (335 aa) in length and the pyrC is 1275 bp (425 aa) long. Both of these genes complement E. coli mutants with their respective genotypes. Another finding borne out from the sequence is an effector binding site at the N-terminus of pyrB of P. putIda. The binding site shows that effectors compete with carbamoylphosphate for the active site. In this dissertation, it is shown that the ATCase of P.putida is a trimer of M.W. of 109 kD (3 x 36.4 kD) and that the gene encoding pyrB is overlapped by the pyrC gene which encodes DHOase. It is also shown that the pyrBC encoded enzymes copurify as a dodecameric complex with a M.W. of 484 kD.
Stock and Species Identification of Selected Marine Fishes and Shellfishes Using Allozyme Analysis and Isoelectric Focusing: Implications for Texas Fisheries Management
Allozyme frequencies and general protein patterns were surveyed among selected Texas marine fishes and shellfishes to illustrate the application of biochemical genetic techniques to stock and species identification in fisheries management.
Subcloning and Nucleotide Sequence of Two Positive Acting Regulatory Genes, xy1R and xy1S, from the Pseudomonas putida HS1 TOL Plasmid PDK1
TOL plasmids of Pseudomonas putida encode enzymes for the degradation of toluene and related aromatics. These genes are organized into two operons regulated by the Xy1R and Xy1S transcriptional activators. Previous analysis of the TOL pDK1 catechol-2,3-dioxygenase gene (xy1E) and a comparison of this gene to xy1E from the related TOL plasmid pWW0, revealed the existance of a substantial level of sequence homology (82%).
Mechanisms of Cyanide Assimilation in Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764
Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764 was capable of utilizing cyanide as a sole nitrogen source for growth. Cyanate (OCN") and S-cyanoalanine could also serve as nitrogenous substrates, but do not appear to play a role as intermediates in cyanide metabolism. Growth of this strain on cyanate as the sole nitrogen source led to the induction of an enzyme characterized as a cyanase (EC based on its stoichiometric conversion of cyanate to ammonia, and dependence on bicarbonate for maximal activity. However, since cyanase activity was not elevated in cyanide-grown cells it was concluded that it serves no role in cyanide metabolism. Related studies aimed at examining a possible role for S-cyanoalanine as a cyanide-assimilation intermediate showed that while this compound also serves as a nitrogen source, it also is not important in cyanide metabolism. Studies focused on the utilization of free cyanide as a growth substrate led to the development of a fed-batch cultivation procedure greatly facilitating further experimentation aimed at the identification of cyanide metabolites. In addition to CO_2 and NH_3 as described earlier, two additional metabolites including formamide and formate were detected by using nC-NMR, HPLC, radioisotrapping methods and other analytical means. The formation of metabolites was shown to be induced after growth on cyanide with the relative product yields dependent on the availability of oxygen. These findings support earlier work in which an oxygen-dependent mechanism was proposed for the formation of C02 and NH3. However, at least two additional oxygen-independent pathways of cyanide conversion can be elaborated by this organism. One of these involves conversion to formate and ammonia while the other leads to the formation of formamide, which is not further degraded. Thus, growth on cyanide appears to occur by several mechanisms of chemical transformation presumably serving both detoxification and nutritional roles. Since two of these mechanisms generate ammonia, which is readily assimilated, growth is presumed to proceed via ammonia as a provisionary nitrogenous substrate.
Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of the American Woodrats, Genus Neotoma (Muridae)
The evolutionary relationships of woodrats (Neotoma) were elulcidated through phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA restriction site and allozyme data. DNA samples from eleven nominal species from the genus Neotoma and two outgroup taxa, Ototylomys phyttotis and Xenomys nelsoni, were cleaved using a suite of 17 Type II restriction endonucleases. Mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were visualized following electrophoresis of restriction digests via methods of Southern transfer and hybridization with 32P- and digoxigenin-labeled mtDNA probes. Restriction mapping resulted in the identification of 37 unique mtDNA haplotypes among the woodrat taxa examined. Proteins representing 24 presumptive structural gene loci were examined through starch gel electrophoresis. Binary-coded allozyme data and allozyme frequency data were analyzed using PAUP and FREQPARS, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of the mtDNA restriction site data incorporated three different character type assumptions: unordered binary characters, Dollo characters, and differentially weighted unordered characters employing the STEPMATRIX option of PAUP. Proposed phylogenies for Neotoma are based on majority-rule consensus trees produced using bootstrap procedures. Phylogenetic analyses of the woodrat data sets revealed a distinct dichotomy among populations of white-throated woodrats (N. albigula) suggesting the presence of cryptic species within that taxon. MtDNA and allozyme data support the specific status of N. devia as distinct from N. lepida, and additionally reveal the presence of a third cryptic species referable to N. intermedia among the desert woodrats. Phylogenetic analyses of the genetic data also suggest subgeneric status for the desert woodrats, which is in agreement with evidence from morphology. The genetic data revealed a sister group relationship between N. stephensi and samples of N. mexicana, suggesting the placement of N. stephensi into the N. mexicana species-group. Neotoma fuscipes and N. cinerea formed a monophyletic lineage basal to the remaining members of the subgenus Neotoma which supports the assignment of N. fuscipes to the subgenus Teonoma with N. cinerea. Although stringent, Dollo parsimony methods produced the best supported phylogenies among the species of Neotoma. The STEPMATRIX approach was unable to resolve species relationships within species-groups but clearly delineated the higher taxonomic levels between species-groups and subgenera.
Naloxone Potentiation of Epinephrine Induced Vasoconstriction in Canine Skeletal Muscle Arteries
Naloxone (NX) potentiated epinephrine (EPI) induced submaximal vasoconstriction in canine renal and skeletal muscle arterial segments, yet had no vasoconstrictor action alone. Developed tension generated in-vitro by 4 x 1mm. O.D. rings from 1st degree branches of canine femoral arteries was expressed as % of KCI induced maximum response. NX (10^-5 M) potentiated EPI induced submaximal contractions (34.2%) significantly more than contractions induced by norepinephrine, phenylephrine, lofexidine, ADH, KCI and serotonin (13.8,13.4,4.7,13.5,14.4 and 11.4% respectively). The NX response was unaffected by beta-adrenergic blockade and NX did not reverse an isoproterenol mediated vasodilation. Alphaadrenergic blockade with phentolamine completely eliminated EPI plus NX induced vasoconstriction. After washout, vessels exposed to EPI plus NX relaxed by 50% significantly faster than vessels exposed to EPI alone (18.5 and 27.9 min respectively). EPI induced vasoconstrictions were potentiated by 10^-5 M corticosterone (49.0%) which inhibits extraneuronal catecholamine uptake, but not by 10^-7 M desipramine (1.1%) which inhibits neuronal uptake. EPI induced vasoconstrictions were also potentiated by 10^-4 M pyrogallol (33.0%) which inhibits catechol-o-methyl transferase activity, but not by 10^-5 M pargyline (-1.1%) which inhibits monoamine oxidase activity. The NX effect was endothelium independent. The dose-response of various opioid receptor agonists and antagonists were compared to the NX response. A specific opioid receptor subclass could not be identified as the mediator of the NX effect. The ED_50s for NX (3.7x^-6 M) and (+)NX (8.1x^-7M) indicated a significant stereoselectivity for the (+)enantiomer. A variety of sigma receptor ligands, steroids and steroid metabolites were tested for the ability to augment EPI vasoconstrictions. Several of the opioid, sigma and steroid ligands, all with polycyclic structures, induced responses similarto those of NX. NX exerted its effect independent of traditional opiate receptors and may have influenced the cellular uptake or degradation of EPI. Endogenous compounds with sigma or steroid activity may modulate these processes in-vivo.
Cardiorespiratory Responses to Graded Levels of Lower-body Positive Pressure During Dynamic Exercise in Man
Cardiorespiratory responses to incremental dynamic exercise were assessed across four different levels of lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) and, as a separate study, during constant load (i.e constant work rate) exercise below and above each subject's ventilatory threshold (VT), both with and without 45 torr of LBPP.
The Eosinophil Response in Mice Infected with Trichinella spiralis or Trichinella pseudospiralis as Indicated by Phospholipase B Activity
The host eosinophil response was compared in mice infected with either T. spiralis or T. pseudospiralis by determination of levels of splenic and intestinal phospholipase B, a marker enzyme for eosinophils. Primary infection of naive mice and challenge infection of homologously sensitized mice with T. pseudospiralis resulted in significantly lower tissue phospholipase B activities than infection with T. spiralis. Mice homologously challenged with T. pseudospiralis did exhibit an anamnestic eosinophil response compared to mice given a primary T. pseudospiralis infection. This anamnestic response, however, was significantly lower than the eosinophil response seen in sensitized mice given a homologous T. spiralis challenge. Mice sensitized to T. spiralis or T. pseudospiralis and heterologous challenge demonstrated an elevated eosinophil response compared to mice given a primary infection with either parasite. The heterologous challenge response, however, was not as intense as found for sensitized mice given a homologous challenge.
Modifications in Cellular Responses of Mononuclear Cells Exposed to Mycobacterium Avium Serovar-specific Glycopeptidolipid and Its Lipopeptide Fragment
Immunological and ultrastructural changes in mononuclear cells exposed to Mycobacterium avium serovar-specific glycopeptidolipid (GPL) and the chemically derived R-lipid (lipopeptide fragment) were examined.
Nucleotide Sequence Determination, Subcloning, Expression and Characterization of the xy1LT Region of the Pseudomonas putida TOL Plasmid pDK1
The complete nucleotide sequence of the region encoding the DHCDH function of the pDK1 lower operon was determined. DNA analysis has shown the presence of two open reading frames, one gene consisting of 777 nucleotides encoding a polypeptide of 27.85 kDa and another gene of 303 nucleotides encoding a polypeptide of 11.13 kDa. The results of enzymatic expression studies suggest that DHCDH activity is associated only with xy1L. However although the addition of xy1T cell-free extracts to xy1L cell-free extracts does not produce an increase in DHCDH activity, subclones carrying both xy1L and xy1T exhibit 300- 400% more DHCDH activity than subclones carrying only xy1L.