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 Department: College of Music
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Andrejs Jurjāns as Symbol of Latvian Identity: Native Folk Songs in his Large-Scale Symphonic Works

Andrejs Jurjāns as Symbol of Latvian Identity: Native Folk Songs in his Large-Scale Symphonic Works

Date: December 1997
Creator: Švalbe, Erika Lynn
Description: This thesis presents a study of Andrejs Jurjāns' significant symphonic works as informed by a native musicologist, Professor Jānis Torgāns, and illuminates Jurjāns' role within the cosmopolitan framework of nationalism in music.
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An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Chamber Music For Saxophone, Winds and Percussion with Analyses Of  Danses Exotiques by Jean Françaix, and  Nonet by Fisher Tull

An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Chamber Music For Saxophone, Winds and Percussion with Analyses Of Danses Exotiques by Jean Françaix, and Nonet by Fisher Tull

Date: December 2003
Creator: Fryer, Cheryl A.
Description: An expansive repertoire of original chamber works is available for ensembles comprised of saxophone, wind and percussion instruments. Many musicians, including saxophonists and conductors, are unaware of this enormous body of literature. This produces a compelling need for sources of identification available to conductors, performers and teachers. This study begins to provide such a source through the presentation of selected works and the accompanying annotated bibliography. The lack of awareness of available scores for chamber music with saxophone, winds and percussion among conductors and many performers often contributes to the absence of these works in concert halls. The objective of this lecture-recital document is to make available a tool that includes only original works for the saxophone in a variety of chamber ensemble settings. The nature of this study will be descriptive. The literature chosen for this project reveals varying levels of performance difficulty, compositional techniques, form, and instrumentation. Chosen works employ an ensemble size that requires a conductor or are more successfully performed with a conductor. Selected compositions are illustrated in which the saxophone is identified as a vital ingredient in an already existing repertoire of serious chamber literature. Works in this study include original compositions using from seven ...
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An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Music for Saxophone by Charles Ruggiero with an Analysis of Interplay for Soprano Saxophone and Piano

An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Music for Saxophone by Charles Ruggiero with an Analysis of Interplay for Soprano Saxophone and Piano

Date: May 2010
Creator: Bradfield, Ann
Description: Ruggiero's contributions to contemporary music are noteworthy. They include 27 works written for solo instruments, voice, as well as chamber groups and large ensembles. This study serves as an annotated bibliography of selected works written for saxophone by Charles Ruggiero. They include a piece for large chamber ensemble, Dig: From Tunes My Grandmother Heard (2009), a trio for flute, clarinet, and alto saxophone titled Echoes of "Piano Red" (2006), two saxophone quartets, Dig: JSB 1 (2003), and Three Blues for Saxophone Quartet (1981), two works for alto saxophone and piano, Night Songs and Flights of Fancy (2005), and Strayhorn (1999-2000), one piece for soprano saxophone and piano, Interplay for Soprano Saxophone and Piano (1988), a single movement work for alto saxophone, piano, winds, and percussion, Dance Complusions (2004), one duo for tenor saxophone and percussion, Sizzlesax II (2001), one concerto for soprano saxophone and piano, Concerto for Soprano Saxophone and Orchestra (1995, rev. 1999), and a trio for violin, alto saxophone, and piano, Dances and Other Movements (1983, rev. 1984). In addition, an analysis of Ruggiero's composition Interplay for Soprano Saxophone and Piano offers an insight into the compositional style of the composer.
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An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Repertoire for Alto Saxophone and Piano for Developing College-Level Alto Saxophonists, with an Analysis of Yvon Bourrel's  Sonate Pour Alto Saxophone Et Piano

An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Repertoire for Alto Saxophone and Piano for Developing College-Level Alto Saxophonists, with an Analysis of Yvon Bourrel's Sonate Pour Alto Saxophone Et Piano

Date: December 2005
Creator: Kallestad, Scott D.
Description: In this study the author addresses the problem of finding quality repertoire for young college-level saxophonists. By examining graded repertoire lists from a variety of college and university saxophone instructors, the author has compiled a list of 180 works for alto saxophone and piano. Twenty-four well-known works of a difficulty-level appropriate for freshman and sophomore players are identified and annotated. Each annotation consists of bibliographical information, a biographical sketch of the composer, a difficulty rating of eight elements of performance, a discussion of performance considerations, and a bibliography of available recordings. The eight elements of performance included in the difficulty rating are: Meter, key signatures, tempo, note-values, rhythm, articulation, range, and dynamic levels. Each of these facets is graded using a six-point difficulty scale. One work from the select list, Yvon Bourrel's Sonate Pour Saxophone Alto et Piano, has been analyzed in greater detail with regard to thematic material and key areas to provide in-depth information that, hopefully, will help the student gain a deeper understanding of that work and as a result perform the piece with greater artistry.
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Anthoni van Noordt: Historical and Analytical Analysis of His Tabulatuurboeck van Psalmen en Fantasyen of 1659

Anthoni van Noordt: Historical and Analytical Analysis of His Tabulatuurboeck van Psalmen en Fantasyen of 1659

Date: May 2008
Creator: Javadova, Jamila
Description: This dissertation presents a historical and analytical study of the organ works of Anthoni van Noordt. Van Noordt's Tabulatuurboeck is one of the most important music publications in mid-seventeenth-century Netherlands. It gives unique, valuable information on organ playing of its time. The process of discrete analysis has led to the identification and exploration of many details, such as extensive use of pedal, the reliance of the composer on rhetorical principals of composition, and his integration of the Italian and German principals of ensemble techniques. The dissertation is divided into three major parts. The first part contains chapters on van Noordt's biography based on available archival documents as well as a chapter on the organ and its role in seventeenth -century Amsterdam. The second part is solely dedicated to the Tabulatuurboeck examining the physical and technical features of the publication including the style of the publication, the letter and staff notation, hand positions, and rhetorical components. Finally, the third part studies the music and its peculiar characteristics with separate chapters on the variations and fantasias.
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Antonín Dvořák’s Piano Concerto in G Minor, Opus 33: A Discussion of Musical Intent and Pianistic Effectiveness in Vilém Kurz's Version of the Solo Piano Part

Antonín Dvořák’s Piano Concerto in G Minor, Opus 33: A Discussion of Musical Intent and Pianistic Effectiveness in Vilém Kurz's Version of the Solo Piano Part

Date: August 2010
Creator: Tang, Wen-Chien
Description: Since its premiere in 1878, Antonín Dvořák’s Piano Concerto in G Minor has been underrated and held in low regard by musicologists, critics, performers and audiences alike. Vilém Kurz (1872-1945), a Czech pianist and pedagogue, revised and reworked the piano solo part to incorporate what he considered to be added brilliance and pianistic effectiveness. However, the revised version has not increased the popularity of the work. In recent decades, this concerto has begun to appear more often in the programs and recordings are currently available, utilizing either the original piano part or Kurz's revision or a combination of both. In order to gain a broader analytical perspective and achieve a more authentic interpretation of the piece, a thorough understanding of the relation between Dvořák’s work and Kurz's revisions is indispensable. This study examines these adaptations and compares them with Dvořák’s scoring in order to gain further insight to Kurz's musical intent and pianistic aims. Examples from all movements are evaluated vis-à-vis the original to determine their purpose and musical validity.
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Aphorismen, Capriccio, and Heptameron for Piano Solo By Jürg Baur: a Performer's Guide

Aphorismen, Capriccio, and Heptameron for Piano Solo By Jürg Baur: a Performer's Guide

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Date: December 2012
Creator: Park, Esther
Description: The purpose of this dissertation is to give instruction regarding the performance of three important piano works by Jürg Baur (1918-2010). Aphorismen, Capriccio, and Heptameron stand out as his most significant piano works both because of their length and because of their pianistic complexity. Since Baur had a successful career as both teacher and composer during his lifetime, his acclaimed works received many honors in Germany. His works can be performed by intermediate to advanced students. Intermediate students can easily offer simpler pieces like Aphorismen in competitions, while pieces like Capriccio and Heptameron better are suited to a more advanced level. Although some of his compositions are difficult to perform compared with other modern German works, Baur's music is more accessible. In the article, "Auf der Spuren der alten Zeit" Baur is quoted to state that Paul Hindemith and Bela Bartok's music influenced his own compositional ideas. However, although Baur is a modern composer, he didn't write in a totally atonal style, but rather attempted to broaden tonality. While Heptameron is atonal, Aphorismen and Capriccio give the impression of tonality, thus they are more accessible to the audience. I was fortunate enough to study Aphorismen with Baur as well as ...
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An Application of Grundgestalt Theory in the Late Chromatic Music of Chopin: a Study of his Last Three Polonaises

An Application of Grundgestalt Theory in the Late Chromatic Music of Chopin: a Study of his Last Three Polonaises

Date: December 1994
Creator: Spicer, Mark Joseph
Description: The late chromatic music of Chopin is often difficult to analyze, particularly with a system of Roman numerals. The study examines Schoenberg's Grundgestalt concept as a strategy for explaining Chopin's chromatic musical style. Two short Chopin works, Nocturne in E-flat major. Op. 9, No. 2, and Etude in E major, Op. 10, No. 3, serve as models in which the analytic method is formulated. Root analysis, in the manner of eighteenth-century theorist Simon Sechter, is utilized to facilitate harmonic analysis of chromatic passages. Based upon the analytic method developed, the study analyzes the last three polonaises of Chopin: Polonaise in F-sharp minor, Op. 44, Polonaise in A-flat major, Op. 53, and Polonaise-Fantasie in A-flat major, Op. 61. The Grundgestalt-based analysis shows harmonic, melodic and rhythmic connections in order to view Chopin's chromaticism and formal structure from a new perspective. With this approach, the chromaticism is viewed as essential to the larger form.
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The Application of Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristic Model to Perceptions Community Music School Faculty Have Towards Their Job

The Application of Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristic Model to Perceptions Community Music School Faculty Have Towards Their Job

Date: August 2001
Creator: Lawrence, Robert M.
Description: Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristic Model was applied to study of perceptions community music school faculty hold towards their job. The research questions addressed core job characteristics of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback, critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility, and knowledge of results); personal and work outcomes of satisfaction and motivation; need for professional growth. The results were compared to the national norms for nine different job families provided by Oldham, Hackman, and Stepina. Thirty-three schools, all members of the National Guild of Community Schools of the Arts, located in every geographical region of the United States, yielded 437 faculty responses (64% return rate). Of the core job characteristics, dealing with others and autonomy received the highest ratings; feedback and task significance received the lowest ratings. Of the psychological states, experienced responsibility yielded the highest rating and experienced meaningfulness yielded the lowest ratings. Of the personal/work outcomes, personal development and colleague relations received the highest ratings; pay satisfaction and overall general satisfaction received the lowest ratings. A comparison to the professional job family norms, using a one-sample ttest, found significant differences in 16 out of the 18 variables measured by the Job Characteristic Model. Strong ...
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Applications of Reductive Analytical Techniques in the Phrygian Settings of the Orgelbüchlein by J.S. Bach

Applications of Reductive Analytical Techniques in the Phrygian Settings of the Orgelbüchlein by J.S. Bach

Date: May 1995
Creator: Leite, Zilei de Oliveira
Description: This study aims to two problematic aspects of the Phrygian mode: a. the development of a harmonic pattern at the cadence that differs from that of the other modes and of the major and minor modes as well; b. the observation that the Phrygian scale inverts all of the intervallic properties of the Major scale. The result of these two observations is that when the reductive techniques of Heinrich Schenker are applied in the Phrygian repertory, melodic and harmonic properties are brought into conflict with each other. However, application of alternative models of the Ursatz developed by Lori Burns has certain benefits for demonstrating musical properties in the Phrygian repertory.
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An Approach to the Analytical Study of Jung-Sun Park's Choral Work: Arirang Mass

An Approach to the Analytical Study of Jung-Sun Park's Choral Work: Arirang Mass

Date: August 2006
Creator: Im, Changeun
Description: The significance in Jung-Sun Park's Arirang Mass is the discovery of artistic value in folk song and its applicability to art music. By using fragments of the Arirang folk songs, or by imitating its musical character, composer could create and develop musical characteristics that are recognizably Korean. The work exhibits his remarkable compositional style, which shows a relationship between Korean traditional style and Western style. This analysis demonstrates specific examples of the elements of Korean traditional folksong, such as Sikimsae, Jangdan, Han, and pentatonic scales which are permeated into this mass setting, and how composer uses fragments of the Arirang tune.
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An Approach to the Critical Evaluation of Settings of the Poetry of Walt Whitman: Lowell Liebermann's  Symphony No. 2

An Approach to the Critical Evaluation of Settings of the Poetry of Walt Whitman: Lowell Liebermann's Symphony No. 2

Date: May 2003
Creator: Kenaston, Karen S.
Description: Walt Whitman's poetry continues to inspire composers of choral music, and the growing collection of musical settings necessitates development of a standard evaluative tool. Critical evaluation of the musical settings of Whitman's work is difficult because the extensive body of verse is complex and of uneven quality, and lack of common text among compositions makes comparison problematical. The diversity of musical styles involved further complicates the issue. Previous studies have focused on either ideology or style, but none have united the two critical approaches, thus restricting potential for deeper understanding of the music. This study proposes an approach to critical evaluation of Whitman settings that applies hermeneutics, or a blend of analysis and criticism, to the process. The hermeneutic approach includes an examination of the interrelationship between musical form and style and the composer's ideology, which is revealed through his/her treatment of Whitman's poetry and analyzed in light of cultural influences. Lowell Liebermann (b. 1961) has composed a large scale choral/orchestral setting of Whitman texts in his Symphony No. 2, opus 67 (1999). The selection, placement, and treatment of poetry in Symphony No. 2 provide a window into the composer's mind and his place in the current musical climate. Liebermann's ...
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An Argument for the Reassessment of Stravinsky's Early Serial Compositions

An Argument for the Reassessment of Stravinsky's Early Serial Compositions

Date: December 1995
Creator: Hughes, Timothy Stephen
Description: Between 1952 and 1957, Igor Stravinsky surprised the world of music by gradually incorporating serialism into his style of composition. Although Stravinsky still used the neo-classical trait of making strong references to the music of earlier periods, musical analyses of this transitional period have focused on serial aspects to the exclusion of anachronistic elements. Evidence of Stravinsky's possible use of musical structures adapted from earlier times is found in his consistent use of musical figures that are closely related to the cadences of the late Medieval and Renaissance eras. By fully addressing these neo-classical traits in future analyses, music theorists will gain an additional perspective, which is helpful in understanding the music of Stravinsky's transitional period.
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The Art of Recording the American Wind Band

The Art of Recording the American Wind Band

Date: May 2006
Creator: Genevro, Bradley James
Description: Wind bands have been recording for over one hundred years. Through advancements in both technology and process, recordings have made a monumental impact on the wind band and its repertoire. These advancements have created clarity regarding the performance practice of pieces and helped to preserve the wind band repertoire. Many early works have gained masterwork status due, in large part, to the fact that recordings have preserved them. The increase in popularity of recording and, in particular, the wind band, warrants an investigation into the various aspects of the process. Additionally, gaining insight from wind band professionals who record will help to evaluate the contributions that recording has made to the education of performers and listeners, the preservation of repertoire and the artistic enhancement of the wind band. Each chapter explores aspects of the recording process and how those aspects have shaped the wind band, its repertoire and performance practice. Information from conductors, composers and engineers provide valuable insight pertaining to the educational, historical and artistic components of the recording process. The goal of all involved in the recording process should be the pursuit of technical perfection, which does not eclipse the ultimate musical goals of the project and the ...
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Art Song by Turn-of-the-Century Female Composers

Art Song by Turn-of-the-Century Female Composers

Date: December 1993
Creator: Click, Sarah, D.
Description: Whereas conditions have existed for many centuries which served to exclude or marginalize female participation in music, many women have written compositions of musical worth sufficient to justify their contemporary performance. Although most women composers wrote works more fitting for the "salon" than for the concert hall at the turn of the century, Boulanger and Mahler are representative of the few women composers whose complex approach to art song fell within the mainstream of the genre. Many of their accompaniments attain a level of technical difficulty not previously found in women composers' writing. They offer an interesting comparison between nationalities and styles in that they both favored Symbolist texts. However, each represents a different side of the coin in her musical interpretation of Symbolism: Boulanger, Impressionism, and Mahler, Expressionism. In addition, even though their styles involve opposite musical expressions, they both show a strong influence of Wagner in their writing. This study includes background on turn-of-the-century music and musicians encompassing the role of art song among women composers. Symbolism is addressed as it applies to the poets selected by the composers, followed by information regarding the specific musical representation of Symbolist texts in the composers' art songs. The chapter of ...
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Artistic Expression in Music and Poetry

Artistic Expression in Music and Poetry

Date: May 2007
Creator: Wertz, Charles Bradley
Description: This paper delineates meaningful relationships of passions, emotions, feelings, affections, nuances and aural perceptions of expressions and utterances, for understanding human artistic possibilities historically and contemporarily in the fraternal arts of music and poetry, with reference to sounds, silences, sequences, rhythms, rhymes, repetitions, retards, accelerations, tempos, harmonies, melodies, forms, etc., in four poetic and three musical compositions uniquely created by its author.
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Arvo Pärt and Three Types of His Tintinnabuli Technique

Arvo Pärt and Three Types of His Tintinnabuli Technique

Date: May 2013
Creator: Kongwattananon, Oranit
Description: Arvo Pärt, an Estonian composer, was born in 1935. Most of the works at the beginning of his career were for piano in the neo-classical style. After that, he turned his interest to serial music and continued creating works with serial techniques throughout the 1960s. After his "self-imposed silence" period (during the years 1968-1976), Pärt emerged with a new musical style, which he called tintinnabuli. Although, this technique was influenced by music from the medieval period, the texture and function of its musical style cannot be described easily in terms of any single musical technique of the past. This study explores the evolution of Arvo Pärt's tintinnabuli technique in its first decade 1976-1985, which is divided into three different types. It provides musical examples from the scores of selected works, Für Alina, Cantus in Memory of Benjamin Britten, Cantate Domino canticum novum, Missa Sillabica, Stabat Mater and Es sang vor langen Jahren, and their analyses with supporting interpretative sketches. The goal of this thesis is to provide the reader a basis for understanding and recognizing the different types of Pärt's tintinnabuli technique.
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Aspects of Performance in Three Works for Piano and Tape : Larry Austin's Sonata Concertante, Thomas Clark's Peninsula, and Phil Winsor's Passages

Aspects of Performance in Three Works for Piano and Tape : Larry Austin's Sonata Concertante, Thomas Clark's Peninsula, and Phil Winsor's Passages

Date: May 1993
Creator: Brandenburg, Octavia
Description: This dissertation primarily concerns performance aspects in compositions for piano and tape, using three specific works as the basis for discussion: Larry Austin's Sonata Concertante, Thomas Clark's Peninsula, and Phil Winsor's Passages. These compositions are representative of the medium as a whole, yet each offers its own unique set of performance problems.
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Asserting Identity in Wagner's Shadow: The Case of Engelbert Humperdinck's  Königskinder (1897)

Asserting Identity in Wagner's Shadow: The Case of Engelbert Humperdinck's Königskinder (1897)

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Date: August 2004
Creator: Kinnett, Forest Randolph
Description: Engelbert Humperdinck (1854-1921), who was considered a Wagnerian due to to his past work in Bayreuth and the Wagnerian traits of his Hänsel und Gretel, seems to have believed that to define himself as a composer, he had to engage somehow with that designation, whether through orthodox Wagner imitation or an assertion of his independence from Wagner's musical legacy. The latter kind of engagement can be seen in Humperdinck's Königskinder (1897), in which he developed a new kind of declamatory notation within the context of melodrama, thus fulfilling Wagnerian ideals as well as progressing beyond them. The effectiveness of Humperdinck's effort is seen in the ensuing critical reception, in which the realities of being heard as a Wagnerian composer are clarified.
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Assimilation of Baroque and Classical Essence with Romantic Sentiment: a Structural Analysis of Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy's Sonata in C Minor for Organ, Opus 62, No. 2

Assimilation of Baroque and Classical Essence with Romantic Sentiment: a Structural Analysis of Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy's Sonata in C Minor for Organ, Opus 62, No. 2

Date: December 1994
Creator: Chou, Kwong-Yan Godwin
Description: The purpose of this study is to examine Sonata No. 2 in detail from many analytical perspectives including melodies, rhythms, harmonic progressions, tonal plans, voice leading, and cadential patterns on macro- and micro-levels. It is believed that a more in-depth discussion of the composition from the perspective of harmony and voice leading may provide answer for the questions raised, and correct some misinterpretations in the works of certain writers. Furthermore, through analysis of Sonata No. 2. this study will show the relationship of the use of formal, stylistic, harmonic features between Mendelssohn and other composers of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
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The Assimilation of Baroque Elements in Ferruccio Busoni's Compositions as Exemplified by the Fantasia nach Bach and the Toccata

The Assimilation of Baroque Elements in Ferruccio Busoni's Compositions as Exemplified by the Fantasia nach Bach and the Toccata

Date: August 2009
Creator: Van Schalkwyk, Willem Andreas Stefanus
Description: Ferruccio Busoni (1866-1924) has a firmly established reputation as one of the giant pianists of his age, yet his compositions are largely neglected both in musicological circles and on the concert stage. A better understanding of his thought processes might lead to a greater appreciation of his art, and the acknowledgement of his reverence for the music of Bach is an important key to such an understanding. Busoni's Fantasia nach Bach and Toccata, although two decidedly dissimilar compositions in terms of purpose and conception, represent two manifestations of Busoni's respect for Bach, whether it be in the form of assimilating Bach's compositions into one of his own, or by creating an original work to the same mold as some of Bach's works.
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Attitudes of International Music Students from East Asia toward U.S. Higher Education Institutions

Attitudes of International Music Students from East Asia toward U.S. Higher Education Institutions

Date: May 2009
Creator: Choi, Jin Ho
Description: Nine universities in the United States with the greatest number of international students and having an accredited music program through the National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) were selected. Survey research methodologies were used to identify the status of the international music students from East Asia in U.S. higher education institutions and to determine their attitudes toward their schools. Among East Asian international music students at US higher education institutions, the results indicated that the professor's reputation, scholarships, and the program's reputation were perceived as the most influential factors impacting the program choice; a good relationship with professors, good feedback from professors, and emotional stability were perceived as the most influential factors impacting academic success; and the professor's teaching, the professor's expertise, and the improvement of musical skills were perceived as the most influential factors impacting students' satisfaction level. The most problematic issues reported were the language barrier and the cultural differences between their host and own countries. In addition, many of the East international music students in this study noted financial difficulties.
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Augeries, for Flute, Clarinet, Percussion and Tape: Aesthetic Discussion and Theoretical Analysis

Augeries, for Flute, Clarinet, Percussion and Tape: Aesthetic Discussion and Theoretical Analysis

Date: May 2009
Creator: Gedosh, David
Description: Augeries is a multi-channel electro-acoustic composition for flute, clarinet, percussion, and tape. It is intended to be diffused through an 8-channnel playback system. Inspired by the first four lines of William Blake's Augeries of Innocence, Augeries captures the qualitative aspects of Blake's poetry by presenting the listener with an equally aperspectival aesthetic experience. The small-scale structure reflected on the large-scale form - the infusion of vastness and expansiveness into the fragile and minute. Augeries incorporates techniques of expansion and contraction, metonymic relationships, dilation and infolding of time, and structured improvisation to create an experience that is designed to explore the notion of musical time, and to bring to the listener the sense of time freedom. The critical analysis suggests that the increase in the notions of musical time, the aesthetics with which they conform, and the new time forms created, encapsulate communicative significance. This significance exists within a horizon of meaning. Semiotics illuminates an understanding of the structuring techniques used to render time as an area of artistic play. Understanding the aesthetics and mechanisms through which these techniques can be used constitutes a shared horizon of meaning. The concepts of cultural phenomenologist Jean Gebser, as explicated in The Ever-Present Origin, ...
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Autographs 1928 : Four Songs for Soprano and Chamber Ensemble

Autographs 1928 : Four Songs for Soprano and Chamber Ensemble

Date: August 1995
Creator: Walls, Jay Alan
Description: Autographs 1928: Four Songs for Soprano and Chamber Ensemble is a composition of approximately 16 minutes' duration and is scored for mezzo-soprano, flute, oboe, clarinet, horn in F, viola, violoncello, one keyboardist (piano and celesta), and two percussionists (marimba, xylophone, chimes, timpani, bass drum, temple blocks, triangle, and slapstick). The work consists of four songs and four readings with texts from Walls's maternal grandmother's autograph book. The composition opens with a reading and alternates between readings and songs. The music is intended to reflect the playful, tender and humorous nature of the lyrics.
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