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 Department: College of Music
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
“Before I Die…”: Original Composition with a Critical Essay Exploring the Techniques of Six Crossover Composers

“Before I Die…”: Original Composition with a Critical Essay Exploring the Techniques of Six Crossover Composers

Date: August 2014
Creator: Trusko, Robert
Description: Candy Chang developed a public art installation where people are given the opportunity to write their answers to "Before I Die I want to ________." in a public space. I created one of these walls in Denton, TX and set it to music in a 12 minutes and 42 second piece titled Before I Die..., which combines elements of South Indian carnatic music, gospel, R&B, jazz fusion, and minimalism. The composition was influenced by the music of several crossover artists Becca Stevens, Michael League (Snarky Puppy), Nico Muhly, Poovalur Sriji, Tigran Hamasyan, and James Blake. Crossover music, fusion, and third-stream are all synonymous terms used to describe music where multiple genres or styles are authentically combined. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the balance of musical elements in crossover works as well as how specific works composed by the artists mentioned have influenced the creation of the Before I Die... piece.
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Carlos Guastavino’s Sonata Para Trombón O Trompa Y Piano: Analysis of Argentine Song and Formal Western Music Tradition Applied to Trombone Repertoire

Carlos Guastavino’s Sonata Para Trombón O Trompa Y Piano: Analysis of Argentine Song and Formal Western Music Tradition Applied to Trombone Repertoire

Date: August 2014
Creator: Rego Borges, Lucas
Description: Very few Latin American pieces for trombone as a solo instrument have entered the canon of trombone repertoire worldwide, despite the large number of compositions in this medium. Therefore, when a major composer writes a full sonata for trombone efforts need to be made to bring these compositions to light. The Argentine composer Carlos Guastavino wrote a sonata for trombone and piano that is virtually unknown outside of Argentina, despite the composer’s importance. He is known for his artistic choice of cultivating a traditional romantic style of composition apart from the new tendencies and influences of the artistic novelties of the twentieth century. Guastavino’s artistic position is very clear in the sonata’s highly strict formal organization and Guastavino’s unique treatment of tonality and modality. He was also loyal to his own style as composer, which is ultimately an Argentine song style. He utilized the lyrical qualities of the trombone to convey the type of melodic approach that he used in his vocal works. This paper investigates the Argentine song and Western sonata conventions featured on Carlos Guastavino’s Sonata para Trombón o Trompa y Piano. The paper argues that these features represent his unique approach to musical composition in the twentieth ...
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The Combination of Eastern and Western Musical Worlds: Korean Performance Techniques Applied to Western Symphony Orchestra in Relation to Isang Yun’s Tänzerische Fantasie Für Großes Orchester, Muak (1987)

The Combination of Eastern and Western Musical Worlds: Korean Performance Techniques Applied to Western Symphony Orchestra in Relation to Isang Yun’s Tänzerische Fantasie Für Großes Orchester, Muak (1987)

Date: August 2014
Creator: Lo, MeeAh
Description: Isang Yun employed several contrasting methods to achieve the combination of two different musical worlds, Eastern and Western, in his Tänzerische Fantasie für Großes Orchester, Muak. In presenting Eastern elements, he adopts Taoism as his musical philosophy, describes the Korean traditional dance motion Chun-Aeng-Mu (Dance of the Oriole), and applies Korean traditional performance practice in the use of Western instruments. Showing the influence of aspects of Western music, he employs a musical form similar to that of the Baroque Concerto Grosso, evokes Igor Stravinsky’s rhythmic mood and tension from Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rite of Spring), and even uses his own compositional technique Hauptklangtechnik within the format of Western orchestration. In its analysis of Muak, this research project addresses how Korean performance practice can be applied to the modern Western symphony orchestra. This research project also provides insights regarding the sounds of instruments in the Korean tradition and explains how it is possible to create those sounds with modern instruments in order to make Yun’s dream sounds possible. This study provides several examples and describes various performance techniques that appear in Korean traditional music. It provides indications to orchestras and conductors, assisting them to arrive at effective basic performance ...
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A Comparative Examination of Six American Master Trumpet Teachers and the Regional Schools of Playing That They Represent

A Comparative Examination of Six American Master Trumpet Teachers and the Regional Schools of Playing That They Represent

Date: August 2014
Creator: Bloss, Laura L.
Description: Jet travel and the widespread availability of recordings are factors that have led to an increasingly homogenous sound concept in American trumpet playing; this is a stark contrast to the unique regional sounds that existed in the United States in the middle of the twentieth century. Despite the growing dissipation of these regional sound concepts from the mid-century, it is important to understand the styles and pedagogy associated with these schools. In this paper, six player/teachers are associated with specific regional playing styles: Vincent Cichowicz in Chicago, Louis Davidson in Cleveland, Armando Ghitalla in Boston, John Haynie in the Southwest, James Stamp on the West Coast, and William Vacchiano in New York City. Each of these players made a notable impact on the trumpet world through their performances, recordings, and unprecedented legacy of students. It would be difficult for many modern American trumpet players to trace their “trumpet lineage” without one of these individuals in the picture. Not only are these players an important part of the modern trumpeter’s heritage, but the vast success of their students warrants that their pedagogical methods are still relevant today. This study is unique due to this comprehensive and categorical comparison of pedagogical techniques, ...
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A Comparison of Rhythm, Articulation, and Harmony in Jean-michel Defaye’s À La Manière De Stravinsky Pour Trombone Et Piano to Common Compositional Strategies of Igor Stravinsky

A Comparison of Rhythm, Articulation, and Harmony in Jean-michel Defaye’s À La Manière De Stravinsky Pour Trombone Et Piano to Common Compositional Strategies of Igor Stravinsky

Date: August 2014
Creator: Mullins, Dustin Kyle
Description: À la Manière de Stravinsky is one piece in a series of works composed by Jean-Michel Defaye that written emulating the compositional styles of significant composers of the past. This dissertation compares Defaye’s work to common compositional practices of Igor Stravinsky (1882 – 1971). There is currently limited study of Defaye’s set of À la Manière pieces and their imitative characteristics. The first section of this dissertation presents the significance of the project, current literature, and methods of examination. The next section provides critical information on Jean-Michel Defaye and Igor Stravinsky. The following three chapters contain a compositional comparison of À la Manière de Stravinsky to Stravinsky’s use of rhythm, articulation, and harmony. The final section draws a conclusion of the piece’s significance in the solo trombone repertoire. This study will add to the published material on Jean-Michel Defaye and this influential series of pieces and is intended to further the interest of research into the works of this important composer.
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An Examination of Text Reflection and Imagery in Zoltán Gárdonyi’s Fünf Lieder Nach Gedichten Von Rainer Maria Rilke

An Examination of Text Reflection and Imagery in Zoltán Gárdonyi’s Fünf Lieder Nach Gedichten Von Rainer Maria Rilke

Date: August 2014
Creator: Beloncik Schantz, Anne
Description: Zoltán Gárdonyi is described as having exemplified “the continuation of the Liszt tradition” in his music; however, since for so much of his compositional life he was forbidden to publish by the Communist government in Hungary due to his connection to the Christian church, he has been largely forgotten. Shortly after the composer’s death in 1986, Gárdonyi’s son, Zsolt (b.1946) began publishing his father’s music in addition to his own. However, the elder Gárdonyi’s works are still not widely known outside Hungary and Germany. Gárdonyi’s ability to support and reflect text musically makes his songs excellent teaching tools and recital repertoire. A characteristic example of this may be found in his Fünf Lieder nach Gedichten von Rainer Maria Rilke. According to his son, Zoltán wrote these songs “in the German romantic tradition (e.g. Brahms) like a mirror for the romantic influenced lyrics.” Examination of the Rilke-Lieder, and of the poems which make up the cycle, demonstrates the composer’s ability to “mirror” text in both general tone and specific idea. Discussion of imagery, textures and sonorities, and elements of harmony, melody and rhythm as they relate to interpretation of the poetry, reveal the depth to which the poetry is embedded in ...
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The First Movement of Piano Sonata in B-flat Minor by Julius Reubke: a Comparison of Three Editions From the Performer’s Point of View

The First Movement of Piano Sonata in B-flat Minor by Julius Reubke: a Comparison of Three Editions From the Performer’s Point of View

Date: August 2014
Creator: Pátkai, Imre
Description: The objective of this dissertation is to review the discrepancies between the first edition, Stradal’s edition and Marzocchi’s edition of Reubke’s piano sonata, providing assistance for performers by clarifying inconsistencies between the three editions. Information in reference to major aspects such as fingerings, pedaling, phrasing, tempo markings is presented. Examples of discrepancies found throughout the first movement are discussed in Chapter 3. Detailed assessment of these discrepancies, accompanied by the author’s comments are listed in the comprehensive comparison table in Appendix A. Additionally, directions are given in cases of presumptive errors, and discrepancies are addressed with possible variant solutions. In conclusion, the relative merit of the three editions is assessed in Chapter 4.
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Gordon Binkerd’s “Intermezzo” From Essays for the Piano (1976): a Comprehensive Analysis of Brahmsian Compositional Influences and Stylistic Elements

Gordon Binkerd’s “Intermezzo” From Essays for the Piano (1976): a Comprehensive Analysis of Brahmsian Compositional Influences and Stylistic Elements

Date: August 2014
Creator: Noh, Kyung-Ah
Description: Gordon Binkerd (1916-2003) was an influential and well-known twentieth century composer. While his choral works are renowned worldwide, his piano music is rather unfamiliar to present-day scholars and performers. Binkerd’s Essays for the Piano (1976) is a set of six pieces that was greatly influenced by Brahms’ music. Especially noteworthy is the first piece of the set, titled “Intermezzo,” which is based on Brahms’ “Intermezzo” Op. 118, No. 1. The fact that Binkerd’s compositional procedures allow for a “recasting” of Brahms’ piece in a way that disguises the original source of his work are intriguing and call for further research on the topic. As such, the main purpose of this study is to analyze Binkerd’s modern transcription-style writing, and consequently examine how it incorporates a series of influences and compositional elements from Brahms’ music. This dissertation is divided into five chapters. The first chapter contains a general overview of piano works by Binkerd that incorporate quotations of works by other composers are addressed. These include Five Pieces for Piano, Suite for Piano: Five Fantasies (Nos. 2, 3, and 4), and the Piano Sonatas Nos. 1-3. The second chapter provides an analytical study of the fundamental structure found in Brahms’ Intermezzo, ...
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The Influence of Indigenous Bushmen Musical Elements and Significant Compositional Traits on Niel Van Der Watt’s Song Cycle, Die Wind Dreun Soos ‘N Ghoera, ‘N Siklus Boesman-mites

The Influence of Indigenous Bushmen Musical Elements and Significant Compositional Traits on Niel Van Der Watt’s Song Cycle, Die Wind Dreun Soos ‘N Ghoera, ‘N Siklus Boesman-mites

Date: August 2014
Creator: Bester, Christiaan
Description: In Ghoera, Afrika-verse vir kinders, poet Hennie Aucamp demonstrates an affiliation with and reflection of his surroundings, such as the tribal communities he experienced as a child. This group of African children’s poems, published by Protea Boekhuis in 2011, became the source of inspiration for composer Niel van der Watt’s song cycle Die wind dreun soos ‘n ghoera, ‘n Siklus Boesman-mites. This study investigates and identifies significant compositional traits that contributed to van der Watt’s song cycle. To explore and understand the nature of such influences, the second chapter considers the composer’s early childhood; religious world views; student life; social, environmental, and political ideas; personal tonal language; and western musical elements. To ascertain possible indigenous Bushmen musical elements in van der Watt’s song cycle, the third chapter traces the history of the Bushmen and their marginalization, followed by a brief survey of historical writings on Bushmen music, and an identification process utilizing musicologist Percival R. Kirby’s research on Bushmen music as a foundation. The fourth chapter explores the origins of the cycle and other significant compositional influences. This study suggests that Hennie Aucamp’s poetry and Niel van der Watt’s song cycle represent a reconciling vehicle for cross-cultural understanding generating awareness ...
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The Measurement of Occupational Identity Among Undergraduate Preservice Music Teachers: a Test Development Study

The Measurement of Occupational Identity Among Undergraduate Preservice Music Teachers: a Test Development Study

Date: August 2014
Creator: Rewolinski, Christine
Description: A large segment of society is either preparing to enter the work force, or is already engaged in some chosen line of work. Preparing to enter the work force takes a considerable amount of time and effort. The decision to follow one career path over countless others may, on the surface, appear to be discretely individual. But when viewed from a sociological perspective, occupational choices are implicitly and explicitly reached through a consensus of contributing factors. Consequently, an occupational identity is not how an individual describes a personal work-related self, but is rather dialectic. It is the merging, albeit, negotiation of viewpoints which causes persons to view themselves in relationship with how others think of them. It is expected that students newly enrolled in music education degree programs will, with time, replace erroneous lay conceptions of music teaching with those presented in curricula and espoused by significant role models. However, the professional socialization process, characteristic of music education degree programs, has not always been successful in transforming students’ personal perspectives of music teaching. This transformation process is critical toward the development of occupational identities that are congruent with school music teaching positions. There has been an established line of research ...
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Pedagogical Applications of Scat-singing Within the Jazz Trombone Studio

Pedagogical Applications of Scat-singing Within the Jazz Trombone Studio

Date: August 2014
Creator: Schneller, Aric Lewis
Description: This study investigates the pedagogical applications of scat-singing within the jazz trombone studio. In addition to the obvious ear-training benefits that the student player can gain from this synthesis, the palette of articulation subtleties and overall musically expressive qualities for trombonists can also be greatly enhanced. These commonalities will encompass the pedagogical focus of this document, utilizing performance recordings and publications by prominent jazz artists and writers to document existing teaching strategies as well as develop new concepts. The first section of this document presents an introduction that includes a historical overview of scat-singing, prominent scat-singing instrumentalists, and concepts and current literature. The second section presents selected biographies on Wycliffe Gordon and Bill Watrous, both prominent jazz trombonists who sing as well as play the trombone. The third section investigates jazz articulation, scat-singing articulation, and doodle-tongue articulation and their relevance to this topic. The fourth section explores musically expressive qualities as analyzed in Bill Watrous’ solo transcription of “Body and Soul.” The final section draws conclusions about the pedagogical applications of scat-singing within the jazz trombone studio and summarizes current teaching strategies. Although this document is not a performance guide, an informed performance of the concepts and examples contained herein ...
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A Performance Guide for the Unique Challenges in Concerto for Tuba and Chamber Orchestra by Jan Bach

A Performance Guide for the Unique Challenges in Concerto for Tuba and Chamber Orchestra by Jan Bach

Date: August 2014
Creator: Robinson, Ryan J.
Description: In 2003, Jan Bach completed his monumental Concerto for Tuba and Chamber Orchestra. This concerto requires unique performance techniques and technical skills unlike the majority of available tuba repertoire. In addition to these techniques, the guide explores the influence of popular songs, jazz/rock/funk styles, implied humor, and personal experience through an interview with the composer.
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A Performance Guide to the Dramatic, Vocal, and Musical Challenges of Judith Weir’s Opera, King Harald’s Saga

A Performance Guide to the Dramatic, Vocal, and Musical Challenges of Judith Weir’s Opera, King Harald’s Saga

Date: August 2014
Creator: Park, Sang Hee
Description: Judith Weir (b. 1954) composed King Harald’s Saga: Grand Opera in Three Acts for Unaccompanied Solo Soprano Singing Eight Rôles (1979) for radio broadcast. She wrote the libretto for the opera based on Snorri Sturluson’s book, King Harald’s Saga. This opera illustrates Weir’s remarkable compositional style, including her treatment of the libretto in narrative style and her representation of multiple characters by one singer. Despite Weir’s fame as an opera composer, King Harald’s Saga is rarely performed owing to three major musical and performing challenges. These challenges are performer’s ability to delineate eight separate characters (dramatic challenges), to sing wide leaps and long melismas (vocal challenges), and to perform a cappella with wide leaps and complex rhythms (musical challenges). This dissertation presents a performance guide for the soprano addressing these three challenges and suggesting possible solutions. Such a guide will assist the soprano in preparing and performing this grand opera, which thus far has not received the due attention and appreciation of either performers or audiences.
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Prokofiev Beckons the Double Bass Into the Modern Age: a Pedagogical Study of the Op 39 Quintet

Prokofiev Beckons the Double Bass Into the Modern Age: a Pedagogical Study of the Op 39 Quintet

Date: August 2014
Creator: Jones, Kathryn E.
Description: Until Serge Prokofiev’s 1924 ballet score Trapèze, the double bass occupied a background or at best a doubling role in almost all composers’ use of the instrument. Technical challenge was limited in these pieces, because composers did not see the instrument’s potential in a chamber music environment. As luthiers developed the instrument, the technical ability of players grew, and composers began writing more challenging music for the instrument. As one of the first major composers to see the double bass in a new light, Prokofiev wrote challenging music for the instrument. This paper illuminates the alluring pedagogical aspects of Prokofiev's Quintet in G Minor, Op. 39 and provides recommendations for accomplishing some difficult passages with ease.
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“The Scherzo for Trombone Quartet” by John La Montaine: A Performer’s Edition

“The Scherzo for Trombone Quartet” by John La Montaine: A Performer’s Edition

Date: August 2014
Creator: Begnoche, David J.
Description: In 1939, during his studies at the Eastman School of Music, John La Montaine (1920-2013) composed a Scherzo for four trombones. The Scherzo was revised more than 60 years later, becoming the third movement of a three-movement trombone quartet completed in 2001. Interestingly, the same Scherzo subsequently appeared in two of his later works: first the final movement of his Piano Concerto No. 4 Op. 59 (1989) and 12 years later as the final movement of a three-movement Trombone Quartet. The thesis presents a detailed account of the compositional history of the Scherzo, its connection to the first two movements, and a performance edition of the Scherzo based on my collaboration with the composer between for five years from 2003 to 2007.
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Shostakovich's Use of Satire in Anti-formalist Rayok with a Focus on the Music of the Character Dt Troikin

Shostakovich's Use of Satire in Anti-formalist Rayok with a Focus on the Music of the Character Dt Troikin

Date: August 2014
Creator: Grabowski, Gregory
Description: In January 1989, a much-rumored work by Dmitri Shostakovich titled Anti-Formalist Rayok received its public premiere. Rayok is a single-act satirical opera/cantata for bass soloist and mixed chorus. Each character represents a prominent Soviet political figure: Joseph Stalin, Andrei Zhdanov, and Dmitri Shepilov. The text of the libretto is either taken directly from actual speeches given by these political figures or follows their idiosyncratic style of public speaking. Rayok often falls victim to criticism for its lack of musical depth, a point of view that could easily lead one to see it as one of Shostakovich's lesser works. The purpose of this document is to examine the political environment of the Soviet Union in the early twentieth century in order to provide context for Shostakovich's Anti-Formalist Rayok and to show how Shostakovich uses satire in this piece. This dissertation document looks at the broader concepts of Formalism and Socialist Realism, traces how Socialist Realism became the established Soviet cultural aesthetic, and examines specific historical events in the 1940s and 1950s that relate to Rayok. Musical examples are taken from the section of the piece centering around D.T. Troikin. These examples demonstrate how Shostakovich uses Socialist Realist clichés in order to ...
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Sitting Next to Bach: the Influence of Js Bach on Sven-david Sandström’s Bach Motet Project with a Focus on the Motets “Der Geist Hilft” and “Singet Dem Herrn”

Sitting Next to Bach: the Influence of Js Bach on Sven-david Sandström’s Bach Motet Project with a Focus on the Motets “Der Geist Hilft” and “Singet Dem Herrn”

Date: August 2014
Creator: Franklin, James Christopher
Description: In many of his choral works, Swedish composer Sven-David Sandström has sought a connection with the musical masters of the past. The number of Sandström works that bear a strong connection to Bach’s music is quite extensive and includes High Mass (1994), Magnificat (2005), the six motets (2003-2008) which constitute the Bach Motet Project under current discussion, and St. Matthew Passion, which recently premiered in Germany and Sweden in 2014. This study explores the extent to which Sven-David Sandström emulated the motets of J.S. Bach in the composition of his own motets. Further, this paper investigates these motets as a collection and examines two individual works within the collection as case studies for in-depth analysis. Ultimately, through analysis and discussion of the text, the division of text, the scoring of the motets, points of imitation, and specific compositional devices, the discussion explains how Sandström pays homage to Bach in the Motet Project primarily through the use of similar structural elements while maintaining his unique compositional voice to forge his own expressive path.
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Temporality and Rhythmic Structure in Thirteen Drums by Maki Ishii and Rebond a by Iannis Xenakis

Temporality and Rhythmic Structure in Thirteen Drums by Maki Ishii and Rebond a by Iannis Xenakis

Date: August 2014
Creator: Liu, Yi-Jan
Description: This dissertation will focus on the concepts of musical time of two solo multiple-percussion compositions, Thirteen Drums (1985) by Maki Ishii and Rebond A (1987-1989) by Iannis Xenakis. The aesthetic experience of musical works is tied to the perception of musical time. Performers have to understand the concepts and methods of construction of musical time in order to interpreting composer’s works. The model of cognitive process in neuroscience of music and the information processing theory from cognitive psychology is provided to explain the perception of musical time and its importance to the aesthetic experience of music. The rhythmic structure, which is essential in temporal structure to the perception of musical time, is examined in depth to show its significant influence on the aesthetic experience in both works. Rhythmic tension will also affect the aesthetic experience.
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Theorizing Atonality: Herbert Eimert’s and Jefim Golyscheff’s Contributions to Composing with Twelve Tones

Theorizing Atonality: Herbert Eimert’s and Jefim Golyscheff’s Contributions to Composing with Twelve Tones

Date: August 2014
Creator: Weaver, Jennifer L.
Description: In 1924, Herbert Eimert’s Atonale Musiklehre was the first published text to describe a systematic approach to composing atonal music. It contains significant contributions to the discourse on the early development of twelve-tone composition. While Eimert uses the term “atonal” to describe his compositional approach, his definition of atonality demands that all twelve tones be present with none repeated, and that they present as complexes not ordered rows. Eimert’s discussion of atonality differs from others of the same period because he focuses on vertical sonorities and introduces “interlocking complexes”, wherein two separate statements of the aggregate can overlap by one pitch or by a set of pitches. Interlocking complexes are an important feature of Eimert’s string quartet Fünf Stücke für Streichquartett, which was published in 1925 and composed at the same time as Atonale Musiklehre was written. In the foreword to Atonale Musiklehre, Eimert clarifies that he is not the originator of the concept of atonality, rather that he absorbed the ideas of Josef Matthias Hauer and Jefim Golyscheff. Twelve-tone complexes appear first in Golyscheff’s 1914 String Trio. He refers to them as “twelve-tone duration complexes” and labels them in the score. As the name “duration complexes” implies, there are ...
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Utilizing Standard Violin Orchestral Excerpts As a Pedagogical Tool: an Analytical Study Guide with Functional Exercises

Utilizing Standard Violin Orchestral Excerpts As a Pedagogical Tool: an Analytical Study Guide with Functional Exercises

Date: August 2014
Creator: Chang, Ai-Wei
Description: Orchestral excerpts have been used as a teaching material by violin pedagogues to develop violin techniques in addition to scales and etudes in the twentieth century. However, instructions on developing specific techniques and the relationship to its musical content have been left out. This dissertation provides an analytical study guide addressing the common challenges for violinists. Ten orchestral excerpts are selected from surveying frequently requested orchestral excerpts for the first violin. Through analysis of each excerpt, insight from the other violinists and pedagogues are included. Fifty-four functional exercises with comments are created to help violinists practice effectively and serve as a pedagogical tool in violin instruction.
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Voice Building Exercises From the Cornelius L Reid Archive: an Introduction

Voice Building Exercises From the Cornelius L Reid Archive: an Introduction

Date: August 2014
Creator: Yarrington, Jonathan S.
Description: The study introduces the Cornelius Reid Archive and provides biographical and functional context for Reid’s teaching method, which he referred to as functional voice training. Biography, summary of Reid’s ideas on environmental control and vocal registration, together with descriptions taken from Reid’s own writings of the function and purpose of various exercises transcribed from the Archive, constitute the primary chapters. Appendices include complete transcription of ca. 170 exercises and several illustrations of Dr. Douglas Stanley’s overt teaching methods.
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An Analysis of Honegger’s Cello Concerto (1929): a Return to Simplicity?

An Analysis of Honegger’s Cello Concerto (1929): a Return to Simplicity?

Date: May 2014
Creator: Kleinmann, Denika Lam
Description: Literature available on Honegger’s Cello Concerto suggests this concerto is often considered as a composition that resonates with Les Six traditions. While reflecting currents of Les Six, the Cello Concerto also features departures from Erik Satie’s and Jean Cocteau’s ideal for French composers to return to simplicity. Both characteristics of and departures from Les Six examined in this concerto include metric organization, thematic and rhythmic development, melodic wedge shapes, contrapuntal techniques, simplicity in orchestration, diatonicism, the use of humor, jazz influences, and other unique performance techniques.
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The Changing Symbolic Images of the Trumpet: Bologna and Venice in the Seventeenth Century

The Changing Symbolic Images of the Trumpet: Bologna and Venice in the Seventeenth Century

Date: May 2014
Creator: Karp, Jamie Marie
Description: The trumpet is among the most ancient of all musical instruments, and an examination of its history reveals that it has consistently maintained important and specific symbolic roles in society. Although from its origins this symbolic identity was linked to the instrument’s limited ceremonial and signaling function, the seventeenth century represents a period in which a variety of new roles and identities emerged. Bologna and Venice represent the two most important centers for trumpet writing in Italy during the seventeenth century. Because of the differing ideologies at work in these cities, two distinctive symbolic images of the instrument and two different ways of writing for it emerged. The trumpet’s ecclesiastic role in Bologna and its participation in Venetian opera put the instrument at the service of two societies, one centered around the Church, and another around a more permissive state. Against the backdrop of the social and political structures in Venice and Bologna, and through an examination of its newly-emerging musical roles in each city, the trumpet’s changing identities during a most important point in the history of the instrument will be examined.
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Defining the Contralto Voice Through the Repertoire of Ralph Vaughan Williams

Defining the Contralto Voice Through the Repertoire of Ralph Vaughan Williams

Date: May 2014
Creator: Daniels, Sarah M.
Description: At the beginning of the twentieth century, the recognition of the contralto voice type had reached its apex in England. Throughout the remainder of the century, the number and popularity of recorded contraltos has decreased alongside the rise of the mezzo-soprano voice type. Due to the contralto’s decline and the lack of repertoire composed specifically for the voice, the definition of “contralto” remains somewhat ambiguous. The large contralto repertoire of English composer Ralph Vaughan Williams displays a unique sensitivity to the contralto, particularly with regards to vocal range, flexibility, tessitura, and sustainability. These works thus suggest a new perspective for the voice type. The scope of Vaughan Williams’s oeuvre examined includes each of his operatic roles for contralto and choral works featuring the contralto. Also examined will be the compositional techniques implemented within these pieces which demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of the contralto voice. A workable definition of the voice type for the pedagogue and performer is included.
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