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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Department: College of Music
 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2007
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Accessibility and Authenticity in Julia Smith's Cynthia Parker

Accessibility and Authenticity in Julia Smith's Cynthia Parker

Date: December 2007
Creator: Buehner, Katie R.
Description: In 1939, composer Julia Smith's first opera Cynthia Parker dramatized the story of a Texas legend. Smith manipulated music, text, and visual images to make the opera accessible for the audience in accordance with compositional and institutional practices in American opera of the 1930s. Transparent musical themes and common Native Americans stereotypes are used to define characters. Folk music is presented as diegetic, creating a sense of authenticity that places the audience into the opera's Western setting. The opera is codified for the audience using popular idioms, resulting in initial but not lasting success.
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Alberto Grau: The Composer, Selected Works, and Influence upon the Venezuelan and International Choral Community

Alberto Grau: The Composer, Selected Works, and Influence upon the Venezuelan and International Choral Community

Date: August 2007
Creator: Yu, Julie
Description: Alberto Grau is arguably one of the most influential contemporary Venezuelan choral composers and conductors of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. This thesis explores the synthesis of Venezuelan nationalism with global internationalism found within his works. As a student of the nationalistic generation of composers (Vicente Emilio Sojo, Juan Bautista Plaza, and Ángel Sauce) Grau's works display the distinct characteristics found in Venezuelan music. His output also exhibits international influences, using texts associated with social and environmental events and concerns including literary and musical influences of other nations and cultures. The first section of the thesis traces the lineage of Venezuelan choral composers beginning with the colonial period and the Escuela de Chacao to the nationalistic composers from the Santa Capilla generation. The second section describes Alberto Grau's compositional style as exemplified in his work Kasar mie la gaji (The Earth is Tired). The final section of the document comprises interviews with Alberto Grau and his wife, the Venezuelan choral conductor, María Guinand. Guinand studied piano and conducting with Alberto Grau and was his assistant at the Orfeón Universitario Simón Bolívar and the Schola Cantorum de Caracas. She is the founding conductor of the Cantoría Alberto Grau and the editor ...
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The American Trumpet Sonata in the 1950s: An Analytical and Sociohistorical Discussion of Trumpet Sonatas by George Antheil, Kent Kennan, Halsey Stevens, and Burnet Tuthill.

The American Trumpet Sonata in the 1950s: An Analytical and Sociohistorical Discussion of Trumpet Sonatas by George Antheil, Kent Kennan, Halsey Stevens, and Burnet Tuthill.

Date: August 2007
Creator: Dearden, Jennifer Lorien
Description: The trumpet, or some ancestral form of the trumpet, has existed nearly as long as civilization itself. Despite its long history, however, the trumpet's solo repertoire remained limited and relatively unvaried until the second half of the twentieth century. Like most music, the American trumpet sonatas from the 1950s are a reflection of the culture and history surrounding their composition. The purpose of this research is to show how the trumpet sonatas by George Antheil, Kent Kennan, Halsey Stevens, and Burnet Tuthill are both distinctly American and unmistakably from the 1950s. The post-war era in America is often viewed as a time of unbridled optimism stemming from economic prosperity and the nation's military and industrial supremacy. The decade of the 1950s is often viewed today as a simpler, happier time in America's history. The trumpet sonatas of this era reflect this primarily in their ebullient rhythms and brilliant, often heroic melodies. However, darker characteristics of the decade (the rise of communism, for example) also make veiled appearances in these four sonatas. After an overview of the social and musical trends of the decade, the central chapter of the work delineates formal, thematic, and tonal structures of each of the four ...
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An Analytical Study of Mily Alekseyevich Balakirev's Musical Style in his Early Piano and Orchestra Works: Grande Fantaisie on Russian Folk Songs and Concerto Op.1 in F# Minor.

An Analytical Study of Mily Alekseyevich Balakirev's Musical Style in his Early Piano and Orchestra Works: Grande Fantaisie on Russian Folk Songs and Concerto Op.1 in F# Minor.

Date: May 2007
Creator: Kim, Miyang
Description: Balakirev's two early piano and orchestra works, Grande Fantaisie on Russian Folk Songs and Concerto Op. 1 in F# Minor, were composed in the middle of the nineteenth century when in Russia there were no particularly important works for piano and orchestra. Balakirev was still a teenager when he wrote these two pieces and unfortunately both remained unfinished. However the beauty and remarkable compositional achievement of these works should be highly recognized. There are six chapters in this essay. The general background, purpose and the state of research are discussed in the first chapter. The second chapter presents Balakirev's biographical information and the overview of his works for piano and orchestra is stated in Chapter III. Individual works, Grande Fantaisie and Concerto in F# Minor are discussed in the chapters IV and V, which including discussing compositional background, analysis and diagram of structural schemes. The last chapter concludes with Balakirev's contribution to Russian music and the development of the Russian concerto coming into its own. It deals particularly with Balakirev's approach to folk songs, which gives the concerto a unique Russian aesthetic, in addition to his ability to write in the European tradition.
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Artistic Expression in Music and Poetry

Artistic Expression in Music and Poetry

Date: May 2007
Creator: Wertz, Charles Bradley
Description: This paper delineates meaningful relationships of passions, emotions, feelings, affections, nuances and aural perceptions of expressions and utterances, for understanding human artistic possibilities historically and contemporarily in the fraternal arts of music and poetry, with reference to sounds, silences, sequences, rhythms, rhymes, repetitions, retards, accelerations, tempos, harmonies, melodies, forms, etc., in four poetic and three musical compositions uniquely created by its author.
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"Between the Staves" - Adaptations of Debussy's Six épigraphes antiques and Creative Tasks of the Performer

"Between the Staves" - Adaptations of Debussy's Six épigraphes antiques and Creative Tasks of the Performer

Date: December 2007
Creator: Astilla, Christopher
Description: The Six épigraphes antiques represent a cross-section of Debussy's creative output that traces the composer's germ-seed from his original setting of the work in 1901 as incidental music to accompany the recitation of several poems, to the four-hand piano version of 1914, and its consequent reduction for solo piano. What can be gleaned by the methods of derivation from his original sketches to the final, mature works is an understanding of Debussy's use of musical metaphor and his connection to the poetry - the Chansons de Bilitis of Pierre Louÿs. Embedded literary procedures create a new musical expression of the work whereby text and music become integrated. Rather than serving as accompaniment to the poems, the Épigraphes function as the primary vessel for the conveyance of these ancient scenes. Several of Debussy's hallmark symmetrical and structural moulds, such as the whole-tone, chromatic, octatonic, and mirroring techniques reflect the omnipresent symmetry of Classical Greece. Various other artistic creations emanated from the Épigraphes, most significantly the orchestration of Ernest Ansermet in 1939. A look at the techniques used by Ansermet for the augmentation of the piano work serves to extrapolate the multifarious layers relevant in performance. In order to facilitate the four-hand ...
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Beyond the "Year of Song": Text and Music in the Song Cycles of Robert Schumann after 1848

Beyond the "Year of Song": Text and Music in the Song Cycles of Robert Schumann after 1848

Date: May 2007
Creator: Ringer, Rebecca Scharlene
Description: In recent years scholars have begun to re-evaluate the works, writings, and life of Robert Schumann (1810-1856). One of the primary issues in this ongoing re-evaluation is a reassessment of the composer's late works (roughly defined as those written after 1845). Until recently, the last eight years of Schumann's creative life and the works he composed at that time either have been ignored or critiqued under an image of an illness that had caused periodic breakdowns. Schumann's late works show how his culture and the artists communicating within that culture were transformed from the beginning to the middle of the nineteenth century. These late works, therefore, should be viewed in the context of Schumann's output as a whole and in regard to their contributions to nineteenth-century society. Schumann's contributions, specifically to the genre of the song cycle from 1849 to 1852, are among his late compositional works that still await full reconsideration. A topical study, focusing on three themes of selections from his twenty-three late cycles, will provide a critical evaluation of Schumann's compositional output in the genre of the song cycle. First, Schumann's political voice will be examined. The political events that led to the mid-nineteenth-century revolutions inspired crucial ...
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The Choral Works of Robert Ward: A View of His Compositional Approach to Text Settings and His Use of Symbols and Allusions

The Choral Works of Robert Ward: A View of His Compositional Approach to Text Settings and His Use of Symbols and Allusions

Date: May 2007
Creator: Tucker, Carlton S.
Description: Robert Eugene Ward's impressive body of work encompasses almost every genre of music. He has composed symphonies, operas, large orchestral pieces, chamber works, solo instrumental pieces, extended choral works, short choral pieces, ceremonial works, a ballet, theatre pieces, and even jazz and swing band pieces. Ward's name is recognized in most musical circles but usually only for his opera The Crucible, a work for which he earned a Pulitzer Prize in 1962. In fact, a survey of all the dissertations, articles, interviews, and books written about Robert Ward shows that the vast majority of these studies focus on his most famous opera. His choral works, though they comprise some of Ward's most expressive work, have received little attention. Ward's works show a deliberate use of symbols and allusions. While this use is far from an innovative concept in composition, Ward distinguishes himself with a consistent and purposeful application of these devices establishing an unmistakable interweaving of text, composition, and context. This study examines several of Ward's short choral compositions as they relate to the composer's use of symbols and allusions. Comparisons are made to Ward's use of these devices in his operatic works as a means of determining the consistency ...
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Di/con[ver(gence/sions)]   for Saxophone Quartet by David Dzubay: A Performance Analysis

Di/con[ver(gence/sions)] for Saxophone Quartet by David Dzubay: A Performance Analysis

Date: May 2007
Creator: Dewhirst, Greg
Description: The abstract includes a detailed analysis of the quartet as well as idiomatic aspects of the music. In addition, a background of composer/performer relationships is outlined.
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An Examination of Laude: Four Character Sketches for Solo Trumpet in B-flat or C by Stanley Friedman, together with Three Recitals of Selected Works by Joseph Haydn, George Fredrick Handel, Eric Ewazen, and Others

An Examination of Laude: Four Character Sketches for Solo Trumpet in B-flat or C by Stanley Friedman, together with Three Recitals of Selected Works by Joseph Haydn, George Fredrick Handel, Eric Ewazen, and Others

Date: August 2007
Creator: Lambert, Adam
Description: Stanley Friedman is a composer of many works, primarily for brass instruments, that have become part of the standard repertoire. Solus, for Trumpet Unaccompanied, for example, appears on many audition and competition lists, as do others of his works. On the other hand, Laude: Four Character Sketches for Solo Trumpet, commissioned by the International Trumpet Guild in 1980, is unfortunately not widely known among trumpet performers and educators. The intent of this study is to demonstrate, through discussion and analysis, the qualities and potential appeal of this lesser-known work and to renew interest in its performance. Among the six chapters is an overview of Laude, including an explanation of Friedman's peculiar titles for each movement: Nocturne for St. Thomas, Phantasie für Der Wiz, Berceuse for John Julius, and Rondo for Professor Nabob. Other chapters discuss the procedure for analysis of the work and probable sources for melodic material. The motivic development and form of each movement of the work are also explored. The final chapter includes recommendations for the performance of Laude and is followed by a summary and conclusion.
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An examination of music for trumpet and marimba and the Wilder Duo with analyses of three selected works by Gordon Stout, Paul Turok, and Alec Wilder.

An examination of music for trumpet and marimba and the Wilder Duo with analyses of three selected works by Gordon Stout, Paul Turok, and Alec Wilder.

Date: December 2007
Creator: Foster, Christopher C.
Description: This document discusses the relationship between trumpet and percussion over the past centuries, the development of music for trumpet and percussion ensembles, trumpet and percussion in twentieth-century chamber music and the creation of music for trumpet and marimba. A listing of all known trumpet and percussion duos is included. An exploration of the development of the Wilder Duo and a listing of all known trumpet and marimba duos is also included. There are analyses of works by Gordon Stout, Paul Turok and Alec Wilder. These analyses examine sound, form, harmony, melody and rhythm for each piece. Musical illustrations are included. These analyses are divided into chapters. Each chapter begins with a short biography of each composer. A short description of each work is also given. Summaries are included at the end of each analytical chapter.
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An Examination of the Clarinet Music of Luigi Bassi

An Examination of the Clarinet Music of Luigi Bassi

Date: August 2007
Creator: Johnson, Madeline LeBaron
Description: This dissertation focuses on the clarinet music of Luigi Bassi (1833-1871), an Italian clarinetist and composer. Biographical information and performance history for Luigi Bassi are included. Bassi wrote 27 works for clarinet, including 15 opera fantasies or transcriptions. Most of his works are housed in the Milan Conservatory library. This document provides analysis of all but two of Bassi's 27 works. For Bassi's pieces with ties to opera, I identified his source material and discussed the ways in which he manipulated the material. A brief synopsis of each opera is included. This study serves as a performance guide for those seeking to perform Bassi's clarinet works.
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Finding the "Indian" in Amy Beach's Theme and Variations for Flute and String Quartet, op. 80.

Finding the "Indian" in Amy Beach's Theme and Variations for Flute and String Quartet, op. 80.

Date: December 2007
Creator: Burgess, Stephanie J.
Description: Music that is categorized as part of the Indianist movement in American music (ca. 1890-1925) typically evokes Native American culture, ritual, story, or song through compositional gestures. It may also incorporate Native American tunes. Amy Beach (1867-1944) is considered to have composed five Indianist works, but her Theme and Variations for Flute and String Quartet, op. 80 has not been included as one of them. This thesis rethinks categorization of the piece, seeking the "Indian" in it through examination of its gestures, instrumentation, and relationship to contemporary Indianist compositions.
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The Fundamental Unity in Brahm's Horn Trio, Op. 40

The Fundamental Unity in Brahm's Horn Trio, Op. 40

Date: August 2007
Creator: Kim, JongKyun
Description: Different sections or movements of a piece are associated with each other and contain the composer essential thought. A vague affinity of mood and a resembling theme or form testifies to the relationship. However, the evidence is insufficient to reveal the unification of the different sections or movements since these are under restraint of external music proofs. In order to figure out the relationship, thus, identical musical substance should be discovered. In the study the substantial evidence, which can be called unity or unification, is mainly discussed. The unity is illustrated with Brahms's Horn Trio, Op.40 that is one of the Brahms's significant works. The unity found in the Horn Trio is based on the internal structure and structural voice-leading notes. The unity in the Horn Trio is the fundamental structural unity that is divided into initial ascent and voice exchange, and fundamental voice-leading motive. The fundamental unity seriously affects the master piece and penetrates the movements as a whole. Further, it reveals the hidden connections to the historical background of the Horn Trio and the philosophy of Brahms for the music. Even though a piece consists of several sections or movements, the entire piece presents homogeneity. The identity of ...
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A Historical and Analytical Examination of the Stravinsky Octet for Wind Instruments, with a Guide to Performance Preparation of the Two Trumpet Parts

A Historical and Analytical Examination of the Stravinsky Octet for Wind Instruments, with a Guide to Performance Preparation of the Two Trumpet Parts

Date: May 2007
Creator: Wood, James J.
Description: The Octuor pour instruments a vents (or Octet), written in 1922-1923 by Igor Stravinsky, is a piece in three movements for a curious assortment of instruments: two trumpets, two trombones, flute, clarinet and two bassoons. It is one of four influential chamber works for winds by Stravinsky to include trumpet. Of these pieces, the Octet contains the fewest number of players but is no less complex and important in Stravinsky's oeuvre. The Octet helped mark the beginning of the neoclassical period in twentieth-century music. Chapter 2 examines the life and musical background of the composer. It also reveals the history surrounding the origin of the Octet and its role in neoclassicism. Chapter 3 discusses the role of the Octet in the wind ensemble and orchestral repertoire, and includes a representative performance history, including the premiere. Chapter 4 provides analytical insights into the construction and format of the piece. Chapter 5 provides suggestions regarding style in Stravinsky's music, including interviews with important figures in the trumpet world. Chapter 6 concludes the guide with specific suggestions regarding preparation and performance of the Octet.
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An historical and analytical survey of the Transcendental Etudes by Sergei Liapunov.

An historical and analytical survey of the Transcendental Etudes by Sergei Liapunov.

Date: August 2007
Creator: Chernyshev, Igor
Description: Sergei Mikhailovich Liapunov (1859-1924) was a distinguished Russian composer, pianist and teacher of the late 19th and early 20th century whose works are relatively unknown. His piano pieces were highly regarded and performed by pianists such as Konstantin Igumnov, Josef Hofmann, Josef Lhévinne, Ferruccio Busoni, and Vladimir Horowitz. However, they are rarely included in modern pianists' repertoire both in Russia and abroad, and are often viewed merely for their historic significance. Works of Liapunov are characterized by a life-affirming character and monumental beauty largely inspired by the images of nature as well as the sounds of his native Russian folk songs and dances. His music rarely conveys the urgency or profound melancholy which is often seen in the music composed during the same period by Rachmaninoff and Scriabin. Liapunov continued and enriched the great traditions of Russian music started by Glinka and The Mighty Five. He did not discover bold new ways of composing, and at the same time did not succumb to the temptation of following contemporary musical trends. The Twelve Transcendental Etudes, op. 11, dedicated to the memory of Franz Liszt, are masterpieces of immense value both from a technical and artistic standpoint. Just like Liszt's études, they ...
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An historical and stylistic examination of Charles Chaynes' Concerto Pour Trompette and Deuxième Concerto Pour Trompette, with an interview of the composer.

An historical and stylistic examination of Charles Chaynes' Concerto Pour Trompette and Deuxième Concerto Pour Trompette, with an interview of the composer.

Date: August 2007
Creator: Reed, Marc Allen
Description: Research has been conducted on prominent mid-twentieth century French trumpet concertos and their composers. Jolivet, Bozza, and Tomasi have all been the subject of research. Charles Chaynes' music is equally valuable to modern trumpet repertoire as that of Jolivet, Bozza, and Tomasi. Chaynes' exclusion from research leaves a void in resources available to future trumpet students. A study of Charles Chaynes and his trumpet concertos is essential to preserving the history of the valve trumpet's young modern repertoire. Lack of understanding of Chaynes' trumpet concertos can only lead to misconceptions when interpreting these pieces. The thirty-nine year gap between Chaynes' Trumpet Concerto No. 1 and Trumpet Concerto No. 2 is a remarkable time span between major compositions, and examining the works gives insight to the evolution of the trumpet concerto throughout the twentieth century. This project highlights Charles Chaynes' contribution to the trumpet repertoire from both the beginning and end of his compositional career, and fills the research gap concerning his concertos. It includes correspondence with Charles Chaynes and others, in order to gain information not found in common source materials. It highlights examples from each concerto that are representative of the composer's compositional style.
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In-between Music: The Musical Creation of Cholo Identity in Cochabamba, Bolivia

In-between Music: The Musical Creation of Cholo Identity in Cochabamba, Bolivia

Date: August 2007
Creator: Jones, Eric
Description: Music and identity are inextricably linked. While a particular social or ethnic group's music may reflect characteristics of that group, it also functions in creating the identity of the group. In Andean Bolivia, the choloethnic group has very subjective and constantly changing boundaries. Cholo-ness is made possible through mediated cultural performances of all types, in which members actively choose elements from both criollo and Indian cultures. Music is one particularly effective way in which cholos create and maintain their identity. This thesis focuses on the ways in which cholos use music to create a hybrid identity in and around Cochabamba, Bolivia.
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The Influence of Jazz on the Solo Trumpet Compositions of Eugène Bozza

The Influence of Jazz on the Solo Trumpet Compositions of Eugène Bozza

Date: December 2007
Creator: Dovel, Jason
Description: This paper investigates the influence of jazz on the nine solo trumpet compositions of the French composer Eugène Bozza (1905-1991). Bozza, like many other French composers in the first half of the 20th century, combines traditional elements of western European art music with innovations of American popular music. While Bozza holds a prominent role as a composer of solo trumpet literature in the mid-20th century, little has been written about the influence of jazz in his works. This paper traces the influences of American jazz upon French composers and analyzes the elements of jazz within Bozza's compositions for solo trumpet by comparing them to conventions employed by jazz composers.
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Interpreting Richard Strauss's Der Krämerspiegel from the perspectives of the performers and the audience.

Interpreting Richard Strauss's Der Krämerspiegel from the perspectives of the performers and the audience.

Date: August 2007
Creator: Hurst, Michael Shane
Description: The purpose of this document is to examine Richard Strauss's 1918 song cycle Der Krämerspiegel in order to discern compositional intent and to address problems performers may face in communicating the work to a contemporary audience. Examining the existing literature, it is never clearly stated why Strauss composed such an anomalous song cycle that defied aesthetic and generic norms of the day. The premise taken in this study is that Strauss, who was litigiously forced to write the work in order to fulfill a contract with the publisher Bote & Bock, composed certain difficulties into the cycle to make it less marketable and thus less profitable for the firm. Furthermore, he commissioned a text that lampooned the publishing industry in general and certain firms and individuals in particular. Following a brief history of Strauss's involvement with the publishing industry, general considerations for interpretation are examined. The individual songs are then explored, keeping in mind the text's word play and parody, Strauss's use of self-quotation, and the challenges performers and audiences face when confronting Krämerspiegel. Finally, the individual songs are explored, and suggestions for preparation and performance of Krämerspiegel are given suggesting a more operatic understanding of the piece, especially given ...
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Jon Christopher Nelson’s Fantasies and Flourishes: An Interactive Concerto for Disklavier and Orchestra: A Performance Analysis

Jon Christopher Nelson’s Fantasies and Flourishes: An Interactive Concerto for Disklavier and Orchestra: A Performance Analysis

Date: August 2007
Creator: Marosek, Scott
Description: Jon Christopher Nelson’s Fantasies and Flourishes: An Interactive Concerto for Disklavier and Orchestra (1995) is the first interactive work to present the Disklavier as the solo instrument in a concerto with orchestra. The purpose of this study is to provide an analysis of Fantasies and Flourishes and advice on how to successfully present it in performance. Fantasies and Flourishes reveals the composer’s interest in the music of Elliot Carter, in particular his A Symphony of Three Orchestras. The entire work is based on the two all-interval tetrachords also used by Carter; in Fantasies and Flourishes, these tetrachords are combined to form seven octachords that are used in various manipulations. The Disklavier is an acoustic piano that can be played by a performer, can play by itself, or can be controlled by a computer program. In interactive works for Disklavier, a pianist plays on the Disklavier while the Disklavier plays by itself, much like if a pianist were to play on a player piano while the piano was also playing by itself. However, in interactive Disklavier music the pianist’s performance affects what the Disklavier plays; particular notes in the piano part trigger the Disklavier’s music. Chapter I provides an introduction to ...
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Live Sampling in Improvised Musical Performance: Three Approaches and a Discussion of Aesthetics

Live Sampling in Improvised Musical Performance: Three Approaches and a Discussion of Aesthetics

Date: August 2007
Creator: Morris, Jeffrey Martin
Description: Three original software programs utilizing improvisation and live sampling are presented here, along with a discussion of aesthetic issues raised by each. They are entitled Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Musiker, Motet, and Gamepad Sampler. These programs vary in the degree of required interaction and in the kind of user control. They are each studies in imitative counterpoint through live sampling, with an approach seeking elegance before solutions. Because of the improvisational nature of these works, there is no standard musical score. Instead the complete Max/MSP source code and a sound recording of performances making use of these programs in varied situations are included. A discussion of issues raised by these works includes aesthetics, ontology, performance, and the role of the composer. Non-interactive indeterminate compositions are ontologically thin, because some composerly agency is required of the performer. An interactive work can be ontologically substantial if it makes distinct and significant contributions to performance, even though it may not make sound on its own. Although reproducibility reduces ontology and eliminates aura, live sampling within a performance can deepen the ontology of the performance by recontextualizing previous events, reframing the original event as the first reference to an abstract musical idea that lies outside ...
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Manuel M. Ponce: A critical study of his Concierto Romántico for piano and orchestra.

Manuel M. Ponce: A critical study of his Concierto Romántico for piano and orchestra.

Date: August 2007
Creator: Vázquez, Carlos Balam
Description: The Concierto Romántico for Piano and Orchestra is one of Manuel M. Ponce's outstanding compositional accomplishments from his Romantic period, reflecting both the state of Mexican music at the turn of the 20th century, and his early nationalist tendencies. However, it remains the only concerto in Ponce's output in need of a more comprehensive analysis. This treatise focuses on a global investigative that examines descriptive and analytic references to the work, as well as a comparison and clarification of the existing score sources. An analytical and stylistic musical study using conventional theoretical techniques leads to a musicological interpretation of the work's extra-musical meaning, based on close assessments of Ponce's compositional practice and social principles.
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Miles Davis: The Road to Modal Jazz

Miles Davis: The Road to Modal Jazz

Date: May 2007
Creator: Camacho Bernal, Leonardo
Description: The fact that Davis changed his mind radically several times throughout his life appeals to the curiosity. This thesis considers what could be one of the most important and definitive changes: the change from hard bop to modal jazz. This shift, although gradual, is best represented by and culminates in Kind of Blue, the first Davis album based on modal style, marking a clear break from hard bop. This thesis explores the motivations and reasons behind the change, and attempt to explain why it came about. The purpose of the study is to discover the reasons for the change itself as well as the reasons for the direction of the change: Why change and why modal music?
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