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- Comparative Analysis of Intensive Filial Therapy with Intensive Individual Play Therapy and Intensive Sibling Group Play Therapy with Child Witnesses of Domestic Violence
- The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Intensive Filial Therapy in: (a) improving the self-concept of child witnesses of domestic violence; (b) reducing internalizing behavior problems, such as withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety and depression, of child witnesses of domestic violence; (c) reducing externalizing behavior problems, such as aggression and delinquency, of child witnesses of domestic violence; (d) reducing overall behavior problems of child witnesses of domestic violence; and (e) increasing communication of empathy between mothers and child witnesses of domestic violence. A second objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Intensive Filial Therapy with Intensive Individual Play Therapy and Intensive Sibling Group Play Therapy with child witnesses of domestic violence. The experimental group consisted of 11 child witnesses of domestic violence whose mothers received 12 Intensive Filial Therapy training sessions within a three week period and had 12 mother-child play sessions. The Intensive Individual Play Therapy comparison group, consisting of 11 child witnesses, and the non-treatment control group, consisting of 11 child witnesses, were utilized from the Kot (1995) study. The Intensive Sibling Group Play Therapy comparison group was utilized from the Tyndall-Lind (1999) study. Children in all studies completed the Joseph Preschool and Primary Self-concept Screening Test and the Child Behavior Checklist. Mothers who received Intensive Filial Therapy training conducted pretest and posttest play sessions for the Measurement of Empathy in Adult-Child Interaction. Analyses of Covariance revealed the children in the experimental group significantly increased in self-concept, and significantly reduced overall behavior problems. A comparison of t-test scores of the pretests and posttests revealed mothers in the experimental group significantly increased communication of empathy to their children.
- A Comparison Study of Individual and Group Play Therapy In Treating Kindergarten Children With Adjustment Problems
- This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of individual child-centered play therapy in the elementary school in: 1) enhancing the self-concept of kindergarten children who are experiencing adjustment difficulties; 2) decreasing the overall behavioral problems of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties 3) decreasing externalizing behavior problems such as aggression and delinquency of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties; 4) decreasing the internalizing behavior problems such as withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety and depression of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties; 5) increasing parental perception of change in the problematic behaviors of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties; and 6) enhancing self-control in kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties. A secondary objective was to compare the participants involved in individual child-centered play therapy with participants in a previous study who were involved in child-centered group play therapy on the above named dimensions. The experimental group, consisting of 14 kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties, received 10-12, 30-minute individual play therapy sessions in a 12 week period in their elementary school. The comparison group, utilized from the 1999 McGuire study, consisted of 15 children with adjustment problems and received 12-14, 45-minute group play therapy sessions in 14 weeks in their elementary school. The control group, consisting of 13 children experiencing adjustment problems, received no play therapy intervention over a 12 week period. An Analysis of Covariance revealed significant findings in 1 of the 6 hypotheses and one subscale hypothesis examining the effectiveness of individual play therapy versus the wait list control group. Specifically, children with adjustment problems in the experimental group exhibited a significant reduction in total behavior problems and a significant reduction in externalizing behavior problems as measured by the Child Behavior Checklist-Parent Form (CBCL). Additionally, an Analysis of Covariance revealed significant findings in 1 of the 6 hypotheses examining the comparison of the effectiveness of individual play therapy versus the group play therapy comparison group from McGuire (1999). Individual play therapy was significantly more effective than group play therapy in helping children maintain an acceptable level of classroom behaviors as perceived by teachers on the Early Childhood Behavior Scale (ECBS).
- Filial Therapy Training with Undergraduate Teacher Trainees; Child-Teacher Relationship Training
- This experimental research study investigated the effectiveness of the application of Child-Teacher Relationship training, adapted from child-centered play therapy procedures and skills training (filial therapy), with undergraduate teacher trainees. Specifically, this research determined if Child-Teacher Relationship training facilitated change in teacher trainees' interactions with children, parenting attitudes, and play therapy attitude knowledge and skills. The experimental group of teacher trainees (n=18) received 10 weekly ninety minute training sessions in child-centered play therapy skills and procedures and conducted 7 weekly special play times with children. The comparison group (n=20) received supplemental training in child guidance during the ten weeks that included parent training and alternatives to corporal punishment. Experimental and comparison group participants completed pre-test and post-test measures, consisting of the Adolescent and Adult Parenting Attitudes Inventory (AAPI-2), the Play Therapy Attitudes, Knowledge, and Skills Survey (PTAKSS), and a videotaped special play time with a child which was rated using the Measurement of Empathy in Adult and Child Interactions (MEACI). Analysis of covariance on adjusted post test means revealed that the teacher trainees in the experimental group demonstrated statistically significant ("<.05) increases in empathy towards children, allowing the child self direction, communication of acceptance, and involvement as measured by the MEACI. Significant ("<.05) increases were also reported on teacher trainees in the experimental group on play therapy attitudes, knowledge, and skills as measured by the PTAKSS. The experimental group demonstrated growth in level of empathy and adult-child role subscales on the AAPI, and positive trends (.07) were reported on the AAPI expectations of children subscale.