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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Department: College of Business Administration
 Degree Level: Doctoral
Accident versus Essence:  Investigating the Relationship Among Information Systems Development and Requirements Capabilities and Perceptions of Enterprise Architecture

Accident versus Essence: Investigating the Relationship Among Information Systems Development and Requirements Capabilities and Perceptions of Enterprise Architecture

Date: August 2009
Creator: Salmans, Brian R.
Description: Information systems (IS) are indelibly linked to the global economy and are indispensable to society and organizations. Despite the decisive function of IS in organizations today, IS development problems continue to plague organizations. The failure to get the system requirements right is considered to be one of the primary, if not the most significant, reasons for this high IS failure rate. Getting requirements right is most notably identified with Frederick Brooks' contention that requirements are the essence of what IT professionals do, all the rest being accidents or risk management. However, enterprise architecture (EA) may also provide the discipline to bridge the gap between effective requirements, organizational objectives, and the actual IS implementations. The intent of this research is to examine the relationship between IS development capabilities and requirements analysis and design capabilities within the context of enterprise architecture. To accomplish this, a survey of IT professionals within the Society for Information Management (SIM) was conducted. Results indicate support for the hypothesized relationship between IS development and requirements capabilities. The hypothesized relationships with the organizational demographics were not supported nor was the hypothesized positive relationship between requirements capabilities and EA perceptions. However, the nature of the relationship of requirements and ...
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An Analysis as to the Causation of Leadership Style Based Upon Value System Determinants

An Analysis as to the Causation of Leadership Style Based Upon Value System Determinants

Date: December 1989
Creator: Hilpirt, Rod E.
Description: Leadership behavior has been a popular research topic for many years. Much of this research has focused upon the identification of leader behavior that is interactional or determined by the situation which influences leadership style. Current leadership theories raise the question of the relationships between leadership behavior and personal work values. The problem of this research is to investigate the relationship of leadership style with an individual's values for working. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between variables which characterize leadership styles and variables related to working values. The hypotheses hold that work values will correlate positively with leadership style. Data were collected through the administration of three research instruments to ninety-two managers of five business firms. The instruments were the participant cover letter providing demographic characteristics, Leader Behavior Analysis II identifying style of leadership, and Values for Working identifying personal work values. Coefficients of determination were calculated to identify possible relationships between leadership style and personal work values. No significant statistical correlation was found. The conclusion is that leadership style appears to be a function of something other than an individual's work values.
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Analysis of Reporting Compliance of Labor Relations Consultants Under Section 203 (b) of the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act, 1959

Analysis of Reporting Compliance of Labor Relations Consultants Under Section 203 (b) of the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act, 1959

Date: December 1990
Creator: Asdorian, Martin
Description: This study examines the reporting compliance, as defined by section 203(b) of the Labor -Management Reporting and Disclosure Act (LMRDA), 1959, of labor relations consultants who engage in persuader activity. Organized labor suggests that the loss in union strength results, in large part, from management's use of labor relations consultants and their failure to file required reports with the U.S. Department of Labor. Two samples of labor relations consultants known to have engaged in persuader activity and two samples of those who could be engaged in persuader activity are identified. A research questionnaire is mailed to 779 of the total of 887 labor relations consultants for whom an address could be developed. Discriminant analysis using 16 variables correctly classifies 93.8 percent of the responding labor relations consultants grouped according to whether they had filed required reports. Other discriminant analyses using selected variables are also conducted. Three associated questions are answered. First, there are an estimated 850 labor relations consultants who have engaged in persuader activity or who can be presumed to have engaged in persuader activity. Of this number, almost 500 are estimated to have engaged in persuader activity and only 30 percent of these are estimated to have filed ...
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An Analysis of the Equity and Revenue Effects of the Elimination or Reduction of Homeowner Preferences

An Analysis of the Equity and Revenue Effects of the Elimination or Reduction of Homeowner Preferences

Date: August 1987
Creator: Hall, Bethane Jo Pierce
Description: One perceived deficiency in the tax system is its unfairness (inequity). One area in which unfairness has been alleged is the favoritism shown toward homeowners. The focus of this study was on the effects of homeowner preferences on the Federal tax system. The overall impact of homeowner preferences can be said to produce three major results—loss of revenue, reduction in horizontal equity, and reduction in vertical equity.
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An Analysis of the Factors Used by the Tax Court in Applying the Step Transaction Doctrine

An Analysis of the Factors Used by the Tax Court in Applying the Step Transaction Doctrine

Date: August 1987
Creator: Smith, Darlene A. (Darlene Adel)
Description: The step transaction doctrine is one of the judicial doctrines used by the courts to interpret tax law. The doctrine requires that a series of transactions be treated as a single transaction if the transactions share a single, integrated purpose. Many authors believe there is a great deal of uncertainty as to when the doctrine will be applied. Uncertainty and inconsistency in the application of tax law add to the complexity of the law. One of the most complex areas of tax law is Subchapter C of the Internal Revenue Code, which governs corporate formations, redemptions, liquidations, distributions, and reorganizations. The purpose of this study was to determine if the step transaction doctrine is being consistently applied by the Tax Court and what variables affect the judges' decision in these cases. Hierarchical logit analysis was used to derive a full model and two restricted models. The full model was used to determine the predictive power of the variables that were identified and to explain the extent to which the individual variables affect the judges' decisions. One restricted model was used to test temporal stability. The other was used to test consistency when different issues of tax law are involved. The ...
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Application of Information Theory Concepts in the Investigation of the Growth Pattern of Production, Distribution and Velocity of Information

Application of Information Theory Concepts in the Investigation of the Growth Pattern of Production, Distribution and Velocity of Information

Date: August 1987
Creator: Attia, Abdel-Hameed M. (Abdel-Hameed Mohammed)
Description: The objective of this research is the investigation of the patterns of information growth to test whether there has been an "information explosion." To tackle the main problem, there are three issues which need to be addressed: (1) the concept of information dimensionality; (2) determination of common parameters to measure the amount of information within each dimension; and (3) a working definition of "explosiveness. "
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The Association Between the Establishment of Audit Committees Composed of Outside Directors and a Change in the Objectivity of the Management Results-Reporting Function: an Empirical Investigation Into Income Smoothing Patterns

The Association Between the Establishment of Audit Committees Composed of Outside Directors and a Change in the Objectivity of the Management Results-Reporting Function: an Empirical Investigation Into Income Smoothing Patterns

Date: December 1985
Creator: Roubi, Raafat Ramadan
Description: The purpose of this research was to empirically examine the effect of the establishment of outside audit committees on the objectivity of the management results-reporting practices of those companies that established such committees in response to the New York Stock Exchange mandate effective June 30, 1978. Management income smoothing behavior is taken as a measurable surrogate for the objectivity of the management results-reporting practices. This research involved the testing of one research problem. The research question asks, "Will the establishment of outside audit committees by companies that had no such committees prior to the New York Stock Exchange mandate effective June 30, 1978, be associated with a decrease in the degree of smoothing in the net income series for the period after that date relative to the degree of smoothing prior to that date?" The answer to this question required the selection of an experimental and a control group. Each group was composed of fifty New York Stock Exchange listed firms. Linear and semi-log regression models were used to measure each firm's degree of income smoothing (defined as reducing the variability of a net income series about its trend line). The change in mean square errors of the experimental and ...
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A Behavioral Modification Analysis of the Effects of Multimedia First Aid Training on Injuries in an Industrial Setting

A Behavioral Modification Analysis of the Effects of Multimedia First Aid Training on Injuries in an Industrial Setting

Date: May 1987
Creator: Sturrock, James Lee
Description: Past research has shown a correlation between first-aid training and the reduction of injuries. This connection has been noted in off-the-job situations in addition to industrial studies. This project is an extension of those past findings with three notable differences: total population training was studied, as the intervention instead of just saturation treatment; attention was given to the effect that the half-life of training had upon injury reduction; and three randomly chosen small groups we're studied to determine short range effects. The theoretical bases from which the study hypothesis was developed originated in the Behavioral Science and Psychology literature. Discussions are developed around the mental structuring of accidental potential situations in the case of a person trained in first-aid principles. Behavior Modification was one of the principles of change that offered a.safer environment through first-aid training. Group contagion provided the setting for development of a safer place to work because of socialization to a "safe attitude." The intervention, American National Red Cross Standard Multimedia First-Aid Course, provided some of the mental developments toward modification of behavior. These were the modeling and rehearsal features of the course. A connection between group deviance and accident "proneness" led to a proposal that avoidance ...
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Budget-Related Prediction Models in the Business Environment with Special Reference to Spot Price Predictions

Budget-Related Prediction Models in the Business Environment with Special Reference to Spot Price Predictions

Date: August 1986
Creator: Kumar, Akhil
Description: The purpose of this research is to study and improve decision accuracy in the real world. Spot price prediction of petroleum products, in a budgeting context, is the task chosen to study prediction accuracy. Prediction accuracy of executives in a multinational oil company is examined. The Brunswik Lens Model framework is used to evaluate prediction accuracy. Predictions of the individuals, the composite group (mathematical average of the individuals), the interacting group, and the environmental model were compared. Predictions of the individuals were obtained through a laboratory experiment in which experts were used as subjects. The subjects were required to make spot price predictions for two petroleum products. Eight predictor variables that were actually used by the subjects in real-world predictions were elicited through an interview process. Data for a 15 month period were used to construct 31 cases for each of the two products. Prediction accuracy was evaluated by comparing predictions with the actual spot prices. Predictions of the composite group were obtained by averaging the predictions of the individuals. Interacting group predictions were obtained ex post from the company's records. The study found the interacting group to be the least accurate. The implication of this finding is that even ...
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Communication Quality in Information Systems Development: The Effect of Computer-Mediated Communication on Task-Oriented Problem Solving

Communication Quality in Information Systems Development: The Effect of Computer-Mediated Communication on Task-Oriented Problem Solving

Date: May 1986
Creator: Smith, Jill Yvonne
Description: The problem motivating this research is that ineffective communication may hamper systems development efforts. Specifically germane to this study are development efforts characterized as task-oriented, and which require information-sharing and problem-solving activities. This research problem motivated an analysis of the communication process and lead to the development of a temporal framework that delineates variables associated with task-oriented, end user/systems analyst communication interactions. Several variables within this framework are depicted in two theoretical models. The first model shows the theoretical relationship between an independent variable, communication mode (represented by asynchronous computer conferencing and face-to-face conferencing), and five dependent variables: (1) the amount of information shared, (2) the significance of the information shared, (3) the comprehensiveness of the information shared, (4) the perception of progress toward the goal, and (5) the perception of freedom to participate. The second model depicts the assumed interaction between communication mode, the five variables cited above (now acting as independent variables), and a dependent variable, communication quality. There are two theoretical components of communication quality: (1) deviation from an optimal set of user requirements, and (2) the degree of convergence (unity based on mutual understanding and mutual agreement) emanating from a communication interaction. Using the theoretical models ...
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A Comparative Study of Internal and External Auditors' Judgment of Internal Auditor Independence

A Comparative Study of Internal and External Auditors' Judgment of Internal Auditor Independence

Date: May 1986
Creator: Pei, Ker-Wei
Description: The purpose of this study is to provide empirical evidence relevant to perceptions of internal auditor independence. Specifically, this study investigates how the auditor practitioners (both internal and external auditors) perceive the importance of five selected factors that characterize the organizational settings of an internal audit department. Role theory is the frame of reference used to develop the conceptual model for this study in which the judgment of internal auditor independence is viewed as the role perception of internal auditors. A modified version of the Brunswik's lens model was developed to provide "paramorphic" representation of judgment of independence. The research methodology of this study is based upon a laboratory experiment in which a replicated factorial design was used to elicit the subjects' judgments of independence. The data collected from this experiment were analyzed by three statistical methods: conjoint measurement, multiple regression, and cluster analysis. The major findings follow. First, the five selected factors were not perceived as equally important by the subjects. In general, internal auditor's scope of audit. scope o^ service, and reporting level were perceived as more important than adequacy of organizational support. and formalization of audit policies. Second, the two groups of auditors disagree, significantly, on the ...
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A Comparison of Elderly Segments on Prepurchase Information Sources

A Comparison of Elderly Segments on Prepurchase Information Sources

Date: August 1987
Creator: Utecht, Richard Lee
Description: The purpose of this research was to determine if differences exist between the young/old (55-74) and the old/old (75+) regarding external search behavior and the importance of information sources.
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A Comparison of Money Demand in Four Industrialized Countries Using Seemingly Unrelated Regressions

A Comparison of Money Demand in Four Industrialized Countries Using Seemingly Unrelated Regressions

Date: August 1987
Creator: Dheeriya, P. L. (Prakash Lachmandas)
Description: In this study, the possibility that money demand of one country might be affected by macroeconomic activities of other countries is investigated. We use the seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) technique, which takes into account all covariances between residuals of country-specific money demand equations. Efficiency of estimates using the SUR technique is enhanced because it uses information contained in the contemporaneous correlation of the error terms. The hypothesis of economic interdependence is tested. A proxy for foreign influence, deviation from interest rate parity (DIRP), is tested for significance in the money demand function.
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A Construct Validation Study of the Relationship Between Interpersonal Behavior Styles as Described by the Social Style of Behavior Profile and Leadership Styles as Described by the Leader Behavior Analysis

A Construct Validation Study of the Relationship Between Interpersonal Behavior Styles as Described by the Social Style of Behavior Profile and Leadership Styles as Described by the Leader Behavior Analysis

Date: May 1987
Creator: Allen, Billie (Billie Morgan)
Description: The extensive use of leadership training in industry suggests a need for validated information concerning the role of interpersonal behavior in the study of leadership styles. Early leadership research focused primarily on the traits of a leader. Subsequent research has attempted to f a correlation between leader behavior and personality type. Findings indicate that personality typologies, which include attitude and value constructs, are too broad to explain leader behavior. In order to move toward specificity in the study of leadership, it is necessary to determine if interpersonal behavior styles are related to leader behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of variables from data gathered on leadership styles from the Leader Behavior Analysis and variables related to interpersonal behavior reported from the Social Style of Behavior Profile. The dimensions of leadership style flexibility and social style of behavior versatility were also examined. A random sample of 100 corporate employees were used in this study. The research instruments that were tested for independence were the Leader Behavior Analysis and the Social Style of Behavior Profile. The results of this study indicate that the constructs of leadership style and social style are independent dimensions. Additionally, the results of ...
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Criteria by Which Ad Hoc Labor Arbitrators are Selected by Union and Management Advocates in the Petroleum Refining Industry

Criteria by Which Ad Hoc Labor Arbitrators are Selected by Union and Management Advocates in the Petroleum Refining Industry

Date: August 1990
Creator: Wayland, Robert F. (Robert Franklin)
Description: A non-experimental, descriptive study was conducted to examine the criteria by which ad hoc labor arbitrators are selected in the petroleum refining industry. Three factors — arbitrator background, recognition, and arbitration practice — were examined to determine their relative importance to advocates selecting ad hoc labor arbitrators. The population of the study consisted of management and labor union advocates in the petroleum refining industry who routinely select ad hoc labor arbitrators. Participating management and union advocates completed a questionnaire used to gather respondents' evaluations of criteria considered in the selection of ad hoc arbitrators. Responses to statements designed for measuring relative importance of the criteria considered were recorded. Descriptive statistics, discriminant analysis, and tests of significance were used in the treatment of the data.
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Effect of Modern Training Techniques on Economically-Disadvantaged Homeless People

Effect of Modern Training Techniques on Economically-Disadvantaged Homeless People

Date: August 1990
Creator: Frankenberger, John J. (John Joseph)
Description: This study examined a segment of the homeless population who participated in a jobs training program. The research investigated the effect of socioeconomic status, self-esteem, and locus of control on the clients in getting and keeping jobs. The training was a comprehensive 36-day treatment dealing with three major areas: (a) how to get a job, (b) how to keep a job, and (c) how to develop life-coping skills. A quasi-experimental research design was used for testing by t-tests, two-by-two repeated-measured anova, chi-square tests, and regression analysis. The findings showed that high socioeconomic status clients demonstrated higher self-esteem and internal locus of control than low socioeconomic status clients at the start of the treatment. The treatment had a significant effect on both groups with an increase in self-esteem and internal locus of control and a decrease in both external locus of control dimensions of powerful others and chance. The treatment had a greater effect on the low socioeconomic status clients than on the high socioeconomic status clients on increases in self-esteem and locus of control—internal. Both groups were successful in finding jobs, with 79% for high socioeconomic status clients and 74% for low socioeconomic status clients having jobs at the end ...
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An Empirical Examination of Service Dominant Logic: The Theory of the Network

An Empirical Examination of Service Dominant Logic: The Theory of the Network

Date: August 2007
Creator: Randall, Wesley Spencer
Description: Marketing scholars question the ability of the 4Ps to explain higher order phenomena in modern marketing. Scholars contend that marketing's historical framework, based in product centric economic theory, constrains the 4Ps ability to form a foundation for a general theory of marketing. The focus on value embedded in product fails to explain knowledge-based intangible sources of competitive advantage. In response to this concern a new dominant logic for marketing called service-dominant logic (S-D Logic) has been proposed. However, not all scholars are supportive of S-D Logic. Still nescient, S-D Logic lacks a theoretic model, operationalized constructs, and relationships between those constructs. This study addresses those deficiencies by: (1) generation of a grounded theory of a performance-oriented network; (2) empirical assessment of the S-D Logic literature; and (3) development of an inductively generated theory of S-D Logic to include constructs, relationships, outcomes, and hypothesis. This investigation provides an important set of research findings. The resultant service-oriented network theory suggests a theoretic structure for S-D Logic. Use of grounded theory provides a strong empirical foundation based in a leading edge multi-national market segment composed corporations and programs worth hundreds of billions of dollars. The analysis drew upon 44 field interviews and follow-up ...
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An Empirical Examination of the Effects of FASB Statement No. 52 on Security Returns and Reported Earnings of U.S.-Based Multinational Corporations

An Empirical Examination of the Effects of FASB Statement No. 52 on Security Returns and Reported Earnings of U.S.-Based Multinational Corporations

Date: December 1986
Creator: Elsayed-Ahmed, Sameh M. (Sameh Metwally)
Description: Prior to the issuance of Financial Accounting Standards Board Statement No. 8 (SFAS No. 8), there was a marked inconsistency in the area of accounting for foreign currency translation. Though designed to make the diverse accounting practices of multinational corporations (MNCs) more compatible, SFAS No. 8 was the subject of a great deal of criticism, eventually leading to the issuance of Financial Accounting Standards Board Statement No. 52 (SFAS No. 52). SFAS No. 52 differs from SFAS No. 8 on objectives and method of translation, and on accounting treatments of translation adjustments. This dissertation provides an empirical examination of the security market reaction to the accounting policy change embodied in SFAS No. 52, and its impact on the volatility of reported earnings of MNCs. The effects of the issuance and early adoption of SFAS No. 52 on security return distributions were determined by both cross-sectional comparisons of cumulative average residuals (CAR) between MNCs and domestic firms and between early and late adopters, and by time-series tests on CAR of MNCs. Two volume analyses were performed to test the effects of SFAS No. 52 on security volume. The first analysis was adjusted to remove the effects of the marketwide factors on ...
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An empirical investigation of how perceived devaluation and income effects influence consumers' intended utilization of savings from coupon redemption.

An empirical investigation of how perceived devaluation and income effects influence consumers' intended utilization of savings from coupon redemption.

Date: August 2007
Creator: Barat, Somjit
Description: Coupons are one of the most popular and attractive tools of promotion. Redeeming coupons makes shoppers feel that they are doing something good for their family's budget, because coupons offer 'savings.' On the other hand, a coupon might have several negative effects on purchase behavior as well, which might 'devalue' the promoted product in the consumer's perception. But a review of the literature shows a lack of attention afforded to the above-mentioned aspects of coupon redemption. In addition, the consumer's coupon redemption behavior is moderated by several factors drawn from research in the fields of market pricing, economics and psychology, each of which have contributed to the current study in their own way. Finally, there does not exist any substantive research as to why coupon redemption rates have been on the decline, despite an increase in distribution of coupons. Therefore, this research not only fills existing gaps in the literature but also enriches it by synthesizing views from different academic disciplines. This dissertation concentrates on grocery products. Data is collected from about 2500 adults, primarily residing in the Dallas-Fort Worth area. The conceptual framework is based on the theory of reasoned action, which suggests that an individual's beliefs influence his/her ...
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An Empirical Investigation of the Discriminant and Predictive Ability of the SFAS No. 69 Signals for Business Failure in the Oil and Gas Industry

An Empirical Investigation of the Discriminant and Predictive Ability of the SFAS No. 69 Signals for Business Failure in the Oil and Gas Industry

Date: December 1985
Creator: Eldahrawy, Kamal
Description: In 1982, the Financial Accounting Board (FASB) issued Statment of Financial Accounting Standards No. 69 (SFAS No. 69) which required oil and gas producing companies to disclose supplementary information to the basic financial statements. These disclosures include, costs incurred, capitalized costs, reserve quantities, and a standardized measure of discounted cash flows. The FASB considered these disclosures to be necessary to compensate for the deficiencies in historical cost financial statements. The usefulness of the new signals created by SFAS No. 69, however, is an empirical question and research regarding that objective is lacking. The objective of the study is to test the usefulness of SFAS No. 69. The research strategy used to achieve that objective is to compare the discriminant and predictive power of SFAS No. 69 signals or SFAS No. 69 signals combined with financial signals to that of financial signals alone. The research hypothesized that SFAS No. 69 signals by themselves or as supplmentary to financial signals have more discriminant and predictive ability for business failure in oil and gas industry than do financial signals alone. In order to test that hypothesis, the study used the multiple discriminant analysis technique (MDA) to develop three equations. The first is based ...
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An Empirical Investigation of the Factors Considered by the Tax Court in Determining Principal Purpose Under Internal Revenue Code Section 269

An Empirical Investigation of the Factors Considered by the Tax Court in Determining Principal Purpose Under Internal Revenue Code Section 269

Date: May 1987
Creator: Olson, William H. (William Halver)
Description: The purpose of this study was an empirical investigation of the factors considered by the United States Tax Court in determining whether the principal purpose for an acquisition was tax avoidance (or alternatively, given the totality of the surrounding circumstances, whether there was an overriding business purpose for the acquisition).
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Executive Participation in Innovation as a Function of Age and Tenure

Executive Participation in Innovation as a Function of Age and Tenure

Date: August 1973
Creator: Donnelly, Clifford V.
Description: This study is designed to investigate the relationship between the age and tenure of the chief executive officer of a corporation and his participation in innovation. The chief executive is assumed to be the key participant in the innovation process. Two questions form the basis of the study, Firsts, are younger chief executives more innovative than older executives? And second, does the tenure of chief executives affect performance in innovation?
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Explaining Buyer Opportunism in Business-to-Business Relationships

Explaining Buyer Opportunism in Business-to-Business Relationships

Date: May 2007
Creator: Hawkins, Timothy Glenn
Description: The interaction among firms in the supply chain is necessary for business process execution and relationship success. One phenomenon of great significance to buyer-supplier relationships is opportunism. Opportunism is defined as behavior that is self-interest seeking with guile. It is manifested in behaviors such as stealing, cheating, dishonesty, and withholding information. Opportunism negatively impacts relational exchange tenets such as trust, commitment, cooperation, and satisfaction. Furthermore, perceptions of opportunism negatively affect firm performance. In lieu of the known negative effects of opportunistic behavior on buyer-supplier relationships, why do agents continue to engage in opportunistic tactics with their exchange partners? A comprehensive examination is necessary in order to understand why sourcing professionals engage in acts of opportunism. Understanding why opportunism occurs will reveal how to deter it, and this remains a gap in the literature. Based on theories in economics, marketing channels, supply chain management, decision science, and psychology, a comprehensive model tested a set of factors hypothesized to drive the use of opportunistic tactics. Factors include buyer-supplier relationship-specific factors, environmental factors, individual personality-related factors, and situational factors. Data was collected via internet survey of sourcing professionals from private industry and government agencies. Common to many studies of ethics, respondents made choices ...
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Factors Associated with the Use of Ingratiatory Behaviors in Organizational Settings: an Empirical Investigation

Factors Associated with the Use of Ingratiatory Behaviors in Organizational Settings: an Empirical Investigation

Date: May 1990
Creator: Kumar, Kamalesh
Description: Although ingratiatory behaviors have been investigated by social psychologists for almost twenty-five years, and have been discussed as being used in organizational settings as an upward influence strategy, few empirical studies have explored the use of ingratiation in organizations. The intent of this study has been to empirically investigate the use of ingratiatory behaviors in organizational settings. In doing so, a theory-based rationale for the occurrence of ingratiatory behaviors in organizational settings was developed. The framework developed for this study examined ingratiation as both an individually initiated and organizationally induced behavior. Next, a scale was developed to measure the frequency with which employees resort to ingratiatory behaviors in relationships with their superiors. Finally, a series of research propositions about the occurrence of ingratiatory behaviors in organizations were tested across a variety of organizational settings.
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