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 Degree Discipline: Chemistry
 Degree Level: Master's
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation of 1,7- & 1,9-dibromopentacyclo[5.4.0.02,6.03,10.05,9]undecane-8,11-dione

Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation of 1,7- & 1,9-dibromopentacyclo[5.4.0.02,6.03,10.05,9]undecane-8,11-dione

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Date: May 2004
Creator: Akinola, Adeniyi O.
Description: Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of 1,9-dibromopentacyclo[5.4.0.02,6.03,10.05,9]undecane-8,11-dione (1,9-dibromo-PCU-8,11-dione) was performed by using an excess amount of m-chloroperbenzoic acid (3 equivalents) and resulted in the formation of the corresponding monolactone. The reaction would not proceed to the dilactone stage. The structure of the reaction product was established unequivocally via single crystal X-ray diffraction. Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of 1,9-dibromo-PCU-8,11-dione using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) was also performed and afforded a mixture of lactones. Only one of these lactones, which also contained an alkene functionality, could be isolated and characterized. 1,7-dibromo-PCU-8,11-dione was also reacted with CAN, yielding the mono-lactone, which has also been characterized.
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Diphosphine Ligand Substitution in H4Ru4(CO)12: X-ray Diffraction Structures and Reactivity Studies of the Diphosphine Substituted Cluster Products

Diphosphine Ligand Substitution in H4Ru4(CO)12: X-ray Diffraction Structures and Reactivity Studies of the Diphosphine Substituted Cluster Products

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Date: December 2006
Creator: Kandala, Srikanth
Description: The tetraruthenium cluster H4Ru4(CO)12 has been studied for its reactivity with the unsaturated diphosphine ligands (Z)-Ph2PCH=CHPPh2, 4,5-bis (diphenylphosphino)-4-cyclopenten-1,3-dione, bis(diphenyphosphino)benzene and 1,8- bis(diphenyl phosphino)naphthalene under thermal, near-UV photolysis, and Me3NO-assisted activation. All three cluster activation methods promote loss of CO and furnish the anticipated substitution products that possess a chelating diphosphine ligand. Clusters 1, 2, 3 and 4 have been characterized in solution by IR and NMR spectroscopies, and these data are discussed with respect to the crystallographically determined structures for all new cluster compounds. The 31P NMR spectral data and the solid-state structures confirm the presence of a chelating diphosphine ligand in all four new clusters. Sealed NMR tubes containing clusters 1, 2, 3 and 4 were found to be exceeding stable towards near-UV light and temperatures up to ca. 100°C. The surprisingly robust behavior of the new clusters is contrasted with the related cluster Ru3(CO)10(bpcd) that undergoes fragmentation to the donor-acceptor compound Ru2(CO)6(bpcd) and the phosphido-bridged compound Ru2(CO)6 (µ-PPh2)[µ-C=C(PPh2)C(O)CH2C(O)] under mild conditions. The electrochemical properties have been investigated in the case of clusters 1 and 2 by cyclic voltammetry, and the findings are discussed with respect to the reported electrochemical data on the parent cluster H4Ru4(CO)12.
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Effects of Web-based instruction in high school chemistry.

Effects of Web-based instruction in high school chemistry.

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Date: May 2003
Creator: Stratton, Eric W.
Description: The intent of this study is to identify correlations that might exist between Web-based instruction and higher assessment scores in secondary education. The study framework was held within the confines of a public high school chemistry classroom. Within this population there were students identified as gifted and talented (GT) as well as those without this designation. These two classifications were examined for statistically higher assessment scores using a two-tailed t-test. Results indicated that females outperformed males on pre- and post- instructional unit tests. All subgroups improved their logical-thinking skills and exhibited positive attitudes towards Web-based instruction. In general, Web-based instruction proved beneficial to improving classroom performance of all GT and non-GT groups as compared to traditional classroom instruction.
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Electrochemical deposition of zinc-nickel alloys in alkaline solution for increased corrosion resistance.

Electrochemical deposition of zinc-nickel alloys in alkaline solution for increased corrosion resistance.

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Date: December 2009
Creator: Conrad, Heidi A.
Description: The optimal conditions for deposition of zinc-nickel alloys onto stainless steel discs in alkaline solutions have been examined. In the past cadmium has been used because it shows good corrosion protection, but other methods are being examined due to the high toxicity and environmental threats posed by its use. Zinc has been found to provide good corrosion resistance, but the corrosion resistance is greatly increased when alloyed with nickel. The concentration of nickel in the deposit has long been a debated issue, but for basic solutions a nickel concentration of 8-15% appears optimal. However, deposition of zinc-nickel alloys from acidic solutions has average nickel concentrations of 12-15%. Alkaline conditions give a more uniform deposition layer, or better metal distribution, thereby a better corrosion resistance. Although TEA (triethanolamine) is most commonly used to complex the metals in solution, in this work I examined TEA along with other complexing agents. Although alkaline solutions have been examined, most research has been done in pH ≥ 12 solutions. However, there has been some work performed in the pH 9.3-9.5 range. This work examines different ligands in a pH 9.3-9.4 range. Direct potential plating and pulse potential plating methods are examined for optimal platings. The ...
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Layered Double Hydroxides and the Origins of Life on Earth

Layered Double Hydroxides and the Origins of Life on Earth

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Date: May 2001
Creator: Brister, Brian
Description: A brief introduction to the current state of research in the Origins of Life field is given in Part I of this work. Part II covers original research performed by the author and co-workers. Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) systems are anion-exchanging clays that have the general formula M(II)xM(III)(OH)(2x+2)Y, where M(II) and M(III) are any divalent and trivalent metals, respectively. Y can be nearly any anion, although modern naturally occuring LDH systems incorporate carbonate (CO32-), chloride (Cl-), or sulfate (SO42-) anions. Intercalated cobalticyanide anion shows a small yet observable deviation from local Oh symmetry causing small differences between its oriented and non-oriented infrared spectra. Nitroprusside is shown to intercalate into 2:1 Mg:Al LDH with decomposition to form intercalated ferrocyanide and nitrosyl groups of an unidentified nature. The [Ru(CN)6]4- anion is shown to intercalate into layered double hydroxides in the same manner as other hexacyano anions, such as ferrocyanide and cobalticyanide, with its three-fold rotational axis perpendicular to the hydroxide sheets. The square-planar tetracyano-nickelate(II), -palladate(II), and platinate(II) anions were intercalated into both 2:1 and 3:1 Mg:Al layered double hydroxides (LDH). The basal spacings in the 2:1 hosts are approximately 11 Å, indicating that the anions are inclined approximately 75 degrees relative to ...
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Preparation and characterization of praseodymium oxide films and powders.

Preparation and characterization of praseodymium oxide films and powders.

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Date: May 2004
Creator: Shang, Yajuan
Description: Nanocrystalline praseodymium oxide films have been successfully generated on stainless steel substrates. The electrochemical deposition was performed in the cathode compartment of a divided electrochemical cell with a regular three-electrode configuration. The green films obtained by electrodeposition were then annealed at high temperatures for 1-3 hours. X-ray diffraction revealed the fluorite structure of Pr6O11 and the crystallite size was calculated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to study the composition of the oxide films and also the oxidation state of Pr. Scanning electron microscopy was utilized to study the surface texture and microstructure of deposits. Fourier transform infrared spectrometery was used to investigate the composition of the films. The effects of different conditions on the green films were also studied such as different pH values of the electrolyte solution, different deposition modes, different supporting electrolytes and different applied current densities. Sintering experiments were conducted to investigate the properties of the green films. Praseodymium oxide powders were also successfully prepared by combining electrochemical methods with sintering processes. The praseodymium oxide powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystallite sizes of the powders were evaluated.
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Synthesis and X-ray Diffraction Structure of 8,9-Dichloropyrrolo[1,2-a]perimidin-10-one

Synthesis and X-ray Diffraction Structure of 8,9-Dichloropyrrolo[1,2-a]perimidin-10-one

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Date: August 2003
Creator: Chen, Tao
Description: Treatment of dichloromaleic anhydride and 1,8-diaminonaphthalene in either benzene or toluene under refluxing conditions gives low yields of the new heterocyclic compound 8,9-dichloropyrrolo[1,2-a]perimidin-10-one. This product has been isolated and characterized in solution by NMR, IR, and UV/vis spectroscopies, and the solid-state structure of 8,9-dichloropyrrolo[1,2-a]perimidin-10-one has been established by X-ray crystallography. The nature of the HOMO and LUMO levels of 8,9-dichloropyrrolo[1,2-a]perimidin-10-one has been studied by extended Hückel molecular orbital calculations.
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