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 Department: Department of Kinesiology, Health Promotion and Recreation
ADA Compliance and Accessibility of Aquatic Facilities in the North Texas Area

ADA Compliance and Accessibility of Aquatic Facilities in the North Texas Area

Date: May 2007
Creator: Pike, Hilary Eryn
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which existing aquatic facilities in the North Texas metroplex complied with the 1991 Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) and the proposed Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines: Recreation Facilities (ADAAG supplement). Fifty-two aquatic facilities were evaluated based on: parking lot, ticket counter, gate/entry, restroom, dressing area, drinking fountain, pathway, and pool entry method structural domains. Physical measurements and a few direct observations were recorded on the survey instrument. Surveys were then reviewed and facility scores were tabulated. No facility was found to be 100% compliant with ADAAG and the ADAAG supplement. Aquatic facilities are already struggling to catch up with the 1991 ADAAG, but when the United States Department of Justice approves the proposed ADAAG supplement, aquatic facilities will fall even further behind.
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Assessment and Comparison of  the Stress Experienced by International and American Students at the University of North Texas

Assessment and Comparison of the Stress Experienced by International and American Students at the University of North Texas

Date: May 2001
Creator: Islam, Nehalul
Description: There were two purposes of the current study: (1) to evaluate if the East Asian Student Stress Inventory could be used to assess the stress experienced by International and American students at the University of North Texas and (2) to determine if the Inventory could discriminate between the two groups on the basis of the stress assessment. A sample of International (n=205) and American (n=216) graduate and undergraduate students completed the inventory. Results indicated that the EASSI could be generalized to a wider spectrum of International students. Using principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation, eight factors were extracted: culture shock, physiological symptoms, family pressure, test anxiety, financial difficulties, attitude toward study, social support and academic self esteem. The inventory clearly discriminated between the two groups on the subscales of culture shock, family pressure and attitude toward study and the International students scored higher on these subscales.
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An Assessment of College Students' Attitudes and Empathy toward Rape

An Assessment of College Students' Attitudes and Empathy toward Rape

Date: December 1998
Creator: Burke, Sloane C. (Sloane Christine)
Description: The purpose of this study was to assess rape attitudes and empathy levels of students at a university in North Texas. The Attitudes Toward Rape questionnaire and the Rape Empathy Scale were administered to 387 undergraduate students. Dependent variables were attitudes and empathy and independent variables were prior knowledge or experience as a rape victim, having female siblings, gender, marital status, and age. Significance was found between rape-intolerant attitudes and both prior experience as a victim (p < .001), and gender (p < .001). Significance was also found between empathy and experience as a rape victim (p < .035) and gender (p < .032).
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Attentional Focus Strategies of Multi-Sport Athletes.

Attentional Focus Strategies of Multi-Sport Athletes.

Date: August 2003
Creator: Werner, Sara M.
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the attentional focus strategies used by triathletes during the three stages of an Olympic distance triathlon, (b) if level of experience influences the attentional focus strategies used by triathletes, and (c) whether there is a relationship between athletes finishing times and the attentional strategies used in each stage of the race. Triathletes (N = 160) completed the Triathlon Attentional Focus Inventory, which measured association and dissociation during the swim, bike, and run. One-way ANOVAs revealed significant differences between the athletes' level of experience and the attentional strategies used, as well as differences between the athletes overall race time and the attentional strategies used during each stage of the triathlon. Athletes with more experience associated more during the race, whereas athletes with less experience dissociated more throughout the race.
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Attitudes and Behaviors Toward Weight, Body Shape and Eating in Male and Female College Students

Attitudes and Behaviors Toward Weight, Body Shape and Eating in Male and Female College Students

Date: December 2000
Creator: Lofton, Stacy L.
Description: The purpose of this investigation was to assess the association between body mass index as well as race/ethnicity and established correlates of disordered eating including drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, bulimia, dietary restraint and social physique anxiety in male and female college students. Difference between actual, desirable and perceived body weight was also assessed. ANOVA suggested that as actual body mass index increased, in general, attitudes and behavior toward weight, body shape and eating increased. A two-tailed t-test suggested that males and females differed significantly with regards to attitudes and behavior toward weight body shape and eating. ANOVA indicated that little to no association existed between race/ethnicity and established correlates of disordered eating.
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Body Ideals and Weight Bias: Does Ethnicity Make a Difference?

Body Ideals and Weight Bias: Does Ethnicity Make a Difference?

Date: August 2006
Creator: Liebig, Yvonne D.
Description: The current study investigates whether there are there ethnic differences between Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic women in (a) weight bias, (b) body ideals, (c) social awareness and internalization of appearance standards and (d) physical activity in relation to these constructs. Participants included 130 Caucasian, 103 African American, and 52 Hispanic undergraduate female students. Participants completed a demographic survey, the Antifat Attitudes Test, the Figure Rating Scale, the Sociocultural Attitudes toward Appearance Questionnaire, and the Multiethnic Identity Measure questionnaire. No significant ethnic group differences in weight bias emerged. Differences were found for participants' perceptions of the culturally ideal female body shape, as well as awareness and internalization. No relationship was found between physical activity and weight bias, body ideals, and appearance standards. Future researchers should use health weight classifications, in addition to ethnicity, to examine weight bias, body ideals, and physical activity.
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Coaching Behavior Preferences of Interscholastic Athletes

Coaching Behavior Preferences of Interscholastic Athletes

Date: May 2003
Creator: Kravig, Seth Dayton
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether coaching behavior preferences of interscholastic athletes differ as a function of gender and type of sport. The Coaching Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ; Martin & Barnes, 1999) was administered to 372 interscholastic athletes. The mean scores of the participants' responses to each subscale on the CBQ were the dependent variables and gender and type of sport were the independent variables. Descriptive statistics revealed that female and male interscholastic athletes who perform on coactive, mixed, and interactive sport teams preferred coaches who engage in supportive and instructional behaviors, as opposed to non-responses or negative responses. A 2 (Gender) X 3 (Type of Sport) MANOVA and discriminant function analyses indicated that gender and the degree of interdependency between group members affects preferred coaching behavior. Thus, coaches should consider situational factors and personal characteristics when working with interscholastic athletes.
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College Students' Attitudes toward Pregnancy and Women in the Work Force

College Students' Attitudes toward Pregnancy and Women in the Work Force

Date: December 1997
Creator: Coolidge, Amy (Amy Lewis)
Description: The purpose of this study was to assess college students' attitudes toward pregnancy and women in the work force following the passage of the Family Medical Leave Act of 1993. Data were obtained from 347 students at a university in North Texas during the spring semester of 1997. Gender, age, employment status, parental status, and citizenship were independent variables hypothesized to influence attitudes toward pregnant working women. Gender was significant for the following factors: pregnant women as employees (p<.001), emotional stereotypes (p<.001), choosing family or career (p<.001), and physical limitations (p<.001). Those students 17-19-years-old had a more negative attitude toward pregnant women choosing work over family (p<.001) than did the older students.
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The Development and Validation of the College Student Attitude Toward Female Victims of Domestic Violence (CSAVDV) Scale

The Development and Validation of the College Student Attitude Toward Female Victims of Domestic Violence (CSAVDV) Scale

Date: December 1994
Creator: Wilson, Leanne S. (Leanne Sue)
Description: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the College Student Attitude Toward Female Victims of Domestic Violence Scale. Procedures used were a 12-day test-retest for reliability, experts assessment for face validity, and a principal component factor analysis for construct validity. Cronbach's alpha for test-retest reliability was .86.
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Do American Adults Know How to Exercise for a Health Benefit?

Do American Adults Know How to Exercise for a Health Benefit?

Date: December 1998
Creator: Krzewinski-Malone, Jeanette A. (Jeanette Aileen)
Description: Approximately 950,000 Americans die annually from cardiovascular disease. Physical activity is a major risk factor for the development of CVD and a risk factor for stroke. The purpose of this research was to determine whether American adults know how to exercise to achieve health benefits and whether this knowledge is a function of demographics. Items included knowledge of exercise guidelines and knowledge of traditional and non-traditional exercise activities. This information was obtained from 22 questions that were a part of a larger national survey of 2,002 American households. Statistical analyses of this sample, indicate American adults have knowledge which varies by demographic groups. Data revealed that overall the 61+, Less than High School, African-American, Hispanic-American, and Male groups have the least amount of knowledge about exercise. These data can provide health educators with important aspects of exercise knowledge for future health promotions/interventions.
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The Effect of Mode and Intensity on Vo2 Kinetics in the Severe Intensity Domain

The Effect of Mode and Intensity on Vo2 Kinetics in the Severe Intensity Domain

Date: May 2000
Creator: Updyke, Rhonda S.
Description: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mode and intensity on VO2 kinetics in the severe intensity domain. Seventeen participants completed 3-7 tests each on a cycle ergometer and treadmill. For each test, Tfatigue, VO2max, Tmean response, VO2GAIN, TVO2max and T@VO2max were determined. Linear regression techniques were used to describe the relationship between TVO2max and Tfatigue . VO2max values were higher in running. The VO2 response profile was faster for running than cycling and faster at higher intensities. The faster VO2 response in running may be associated with larger active muscle mass or differences in muscle activation patterns. The faster response at higher intensities may suggest that VO2 response is driven by O2 demand.
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The Effect of Running Speed on VO2 Kinetics in the Severe Exercise Domain

The Effect of Running Speed on VO2 Kinetics in the Severe Exercise Domain

Date: December 1997
Creator: Williams, Christine Suzanne
Description: There has been an interest in the kinetics of the V02 response during exercise at various intensities. However, most studies focus on the response of submaximal intensities whereas few studies have examined V02 kinetics at severe intensities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise intensity on V02 kinetics over a range of severe intensities.
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The Effects of a College Human Sexuality Course on Students' Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior.

The Effects of a College Human Sexuality Course on Students' Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior.

Date: December 2001
Creator: Smith, Jolene A.
Description: Using an experimental-comparison group design, data were collected at the beginning and end of a semester to assess the effect of a human sexuality course on students' sexual knowledge, sexual attitude, and sexual behaviors. Data analysis by t-tests showed statistical differences between the experimental and comparison group only on sexual knowledge scores ( p < .001), with the experimental group scoring higher. T-tests showed statistical difference between males and females in sexual attitude (p< .001) and sexual behavior (p< .001) with women scoring higher than men in the experimental group, and also when experimental and control groups were combined. Although not statistically significant, women scored higher in sexual knowledge than males.
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The Effects of Biofeedback on Task Performance

The Effects of Biofeedback on Task Performance

Date: December 2000
Creator: Bruce, Kurt
Description: This experiment attempted to study the effectiveness of biofeedback training on an individual's peak performance while performing a stress-provoking task. In a between subjects design 30 individual college students were divided into 2 groups. One group received auditory biofeedback and relaxation training, and the other group received no training. Both groups met the researcher for 1 hour a week for seven weeks. During each session the participant completed a ten-minute Competition and Coaction (C & C) computer software program (Shea, 1992). The biofeedback equipment recorded the physiological state of each of the participants while he/she performed the C & C task. Both groups' physiological values and C & C scores were compared using the SPSS software. The biofeedback group had statistically lower stress values than the non-biofeedback group (Schwartz, 1995). There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups' C & C scores. The STAI Y-1 and Y-2 anxiety inventories were given to each of the participants at the 1st and 7th session to examine the anxiety differences between the 2 groups. There were no statistical differences between the 2 groups' STAI scores. This study's findings show that individuals can be taught to lower their stress response while performing a ...
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Effects of Endurance Intensity and Rest Interval on Subsequent Strength Performance

Effects of Endurance Intensity and Rest Interval on Subsequent Strength Performance

Date: May 1996
Creator: Books, Gregory D. (Gregory Douglas)
Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of cycling exercise at different intensities and rest intervals on strength performance. Ten males, engaged in concurrent training for at least one month prior to testing, comprised the subject group for this study. Results show only leg press torque and leg press work to be decreased after cardiorespiratory exercise of moderate intensity. Leg extension average power, chest press torque, chest press power, and chest press work after cycling were not decreased from pre-exercise values. No significant effects were found for exercise intensity, testing times, or intensity by testing times. These results indicate that lower body strength is decreased by cycling and that one hour is not sufficient to restore leg strength.
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The Effects of Project PACE on Adolescent Females' Physical Activity Readiness

The Effects of Project PACE on Adolescent Females' Physical Activity Readiness

Date: May 1998
Creator: Williams, Christy Nicole
Description: This study evaluated the effects of Project PACE, a program designed to increase physical activity, on the physical activity level and selected psychosocial variables of sedentary adolescent females ages 12 to 18. Psychosocial variables included self efficacy, attitude, perception of barriers, perceived social support, and knowledge. Of the 69 participants, 40 were enrolled in the treatment group and 29 were enrolled in the control group at the start of the study. The only significant differences were found for attitudes towards physical activity at base line. Findings from this study suggest that implementation of Project PACE protocol in school settings may produce some positive effects, but no significant findings were detected.
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The Effects of Video-Computerized Feedback on Competitive State Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, Effort, and Baseball Hitting-Task Performance

The Effects of Video-Computerized Feedback on Competitive State Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, Effort, and Baseball Hitting-Task Performance

Date: December 1998
Creator: Leslie, P. Jason
Description: This study examined the effects of frame-by-frame video-computerized feedback on competitive state anxiety, self-efficacy, effort, and baseball performance of high school players. Players were randomly assigned to one of three feedback conditions: (a) Hitting score, (b) Hitting score and frame-by-frame analysis of a mechanically correct swing, (c) Hitting score and frame-by-frame analysis of participant's swing and a mechanically correct swing. Once per week for six weeks, the players completed three questionnaires: (a) Hitting Self-Efficacy Scale, (b) Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2C, and (c) Performance Effort Scale, and performed a hitting task. Results of the 3 (Group) x 6 (Trials) ANOVAs revealed no significant effects. This study does not support previous confidence-baseball hitting research.
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Ethnic Identity, Gay Identity and Sexual Sensation Seeking: HIV Risk-taking Predictors Among Men of Color Who Have Sex with Men

Ethnic Identity, Gay Identity and Sexual Sensation Seeking: HIV Risk-taking Predictors Among Men of Color Who Have Sex with Men

Date: August 1999
Creator: Géliga-Vargas, Jesús A.
Description: This study examined relationships among ethnic identity, gay identity, sexual sensation seeking, and HIV risk-taking behaviors among 302 men of color recruited from gay bars, bathhouses, community agencies, and the 1998 United States Conference on AIDS. The sample included 24% African American, 28% Latino, 25% Asian/ Pacific Islander, 19% Caucasian, 1% American Indian, and 3% other ethnicity. Logistic regression analysis identified sexual sensation seeking, having an undefined gay identity, being in a sexually exclusive relationship, not being HIV seronegative, and length of stay in the country (for those born overseas) as significant predictors of unprotected anal intercourse (insertive and penetrative) among men of color who have sex with men.
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Exploring flow among Division I and intramural athletes.

Exploring flow among Division I and intramural athletes.

Date: May 2004
Creator: Peterson, Ryan J.
Description: This study explores the flow experiences of collegiate athletes. NCAA Division I athletes and intramural athletes (N = 180) completed a series of measures on their flow experiences. Comparisons were made regarding the characteristics of flow, the perceived facilitators of flow, the frequency of flow experiences, and explored the role of perceived ability. Using a person by situation interaction framework, this study singles out perceived ability as a person factor and competitive level as a situational factor to more clearly examine flow experiences. Results indicated distinctions between the two groups. Mainly, the intramural athletes reported experiencing the merging of action and awareness, autotelic experience, transformation of time and having clear goals more frequently than the NCAA Division I athletes. No group differences were found for flow frequency or flow facilitators. Perceived ability was found to have a weak, but significant relationship with specific flow facilitators and characteristics.
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Factors related to cycling performance

Factors related to cycling performance

Date: May 2001
Creator: Naukkarinen, Vesa
Description: There were two primary goals in this investigation. The first goal was to determine if results from field tests (time-trials and a Conconi incremental test) are related to performance in mass-start long-distance bicycle races. The second goal was to investigate inter-relationships among field test variables. The testing variables measured were critical velocity (CV), Conconi anaerobic threshold (AT) velocity, 4mM AT velocity, fatigue index, peak blood lactate, and anaerobic work capacity. Participants were USCF 30 category 1 through 5 cyclists. Participants performed one 20.75 km and two 10.37 km all-out tests in the field. They also performed an incremental test. The tests were performed at one-week intervals. Results from the field tests were compared to recent mass-start racing performance. Results indicated that Conconi AT velocity was related to performance in a 161-km race. There was also a relationship between 4mM AT velocity and CV and between Conconi AT velocity and 4mM AT velocity. It was concluded that field tests might provide information about performance ability in mass-start long-distance bicycle races.
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Goal Setting Strategies, Locus of Control Beliefs, and Personality Characteristics of NCAA Division IA Swimmers

Goal Setting Strategies, Locus of Control Beliefs, and Personality Characteristics of NCAA Division IA Swimmers

Date: December 1999
Creator: Stout, Joel T.
Description: The purpose of the present study was to examine goal setting strategies, locus of control beliefs and personality characteristics of swimmers (108 males and 111 females) from top twenty 1999 NCAA Division IA programs. Three questionnaires were completed: (a) Goal Setting in Sport Questionnaire (GSISQ: Weinberg, Burton, Yukelson, & Weigand, 1993), (b) the Internal, Powerful Others, Chance Scale (IPC: Levenson, 1973), and (c) the compliance subscale and six conscientiousness subscales from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R: Costa & McCrae, 1985). Descriptive statistics from the GSISQ indicated that most of the swimmers set goals to improve overall performance (51%) and set moderately difficult goals (58%). Results associated with the IPC scale revealed that most of the swimmers attributed their sport performance to internal factors. Results pertaining to the NEO-PI-R indicated that most swimmers were highly conscientious, disciplined, purposeful, and determined.
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Identifying Changes in Resilience during Rehabilitation from a Spinal Cord Injury

Identifying Changes in Resilience during Rehabilitation from a Spinal Cord Injury

Date: May 2008
Creator: White, Brian Dale
Description: The study purposes were to identify changes in resilience, satisfaction with life (SWL), depression, spirituality, and functional independence (FI) and to examine the relationship between these variables, during the inpatient rehabilitation for a spinal cord injury (SCI). The sample included 42 individuals with a SCI, 33 males and 9 females, who were inpatients with a mean stay of 52 days (SD = 15.78). A repeated measures design was employed with questionnaires completed at three times during rehabilitation. Results indicated that there were significant changes in depression, satisfaction with life, spirituality, and FI during inpatient rehabilitation. Findings also indicated significant correlations between resilience, SWL, spirituality, and depression. Future studies developing interventions, and examining factors that predict resilience could help build resilience and may improve rehabilitation outcomes.
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Implementing a Physical Activity Centered Education Program for Individuals with Brain Injury

Implementing a Physical Activity Centered Education Program for Individuals with Brain Injury

Date: May 2012
Creator: Woolsey, Anne-Lorraine T.
Description: Research has shown that health promotion programs (HPP) that incorporate education about physical activity (PA) are one mode of rehabilitation that can improve the health of individuals with disabilities. However, education-based PA curriculum is not included in the rehabilitation program for individuals with a brain injury, indicating a gap in services provided. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to create and deliver a physical activity centered education (PACE) program that supplemented the existing rehabilitation program for brain injury. PACE consists of an 8-week (16 session) program aimed to (1) increase self-efficacy for being physically active of PACE program participants, (2) increase PA stage of change in PACE program participants or the maintenance of adequate level of PA, and (3) improve the rehabilitation outcomes (i.e., abilities, participation, adjustment) of PACE program participants. Based on previous research, it is hypothesized that participation in PACE will result in (1A) increased self-efficacy for PA, (1B) greater self-efficacy for PA than the standard of care group, (2A) increased readiness to be physically active, (2B) greater readiness to change their PA behavior than the standard of care group, (3A) improved rehabilitation outcomes, and (3B) greater rehabilitation outcomes than the standard of care group. the PACE ...
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Limiting Disability Post-Brain Injury Through a Physical Activity Centered Education Program

Limiting Disability Post-Brain Injury Through a Physical Activity Centered Education Program

Date: August 2011
Creator: Irwin, Kelley
Description: Brain injury (i.e., traumatic brain injury, stroke) is a considerable public health issue due to complicated outcomes of the injury, increasing incidence, and high costs linked with medical treatment. Rehabilitation centers are challenged to help individuals manage the resultant associated conditions and prevent secondary and chronic conditions. Research has shown that health promotion programs (HPP) that incorporate education about physical activity (PA) are one mode of rehabilitation that can improve the health of individuals with disabilities. However, PA is not included in the rehabilitation program for individuals with a brain injury, indicating a gap in the services provided. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to create and implement a physical activity centered education (PACE) program within an outpatient rehabilitation program. PACE consisted of an 8-week (16 session) program which aimed to (1) increase PA self-efficacy, (2) increase intention to change PA behaviors, (3) increase amount of PA completed regularly, and (4) promote positive rehabilitation outcomes. Based on previous research it was hypothesized that participation in PACE would result in (1) increased PA self-efficacy, (2) forward progression in intention to change PA behaviors, (3) increased amount of PA completed, and (4) improved rehabilitation outcomes (i.e., abilities, adjustment, participation). The PACE ...
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