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 Department: Department of Chemistry
 Language: English
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Characterization of post-plasma etch residues and plasma induced damage evaluation on patterned porous low-k dielectrics using MIR-IR spectroscopy.

Characterization of post-plasma etch residues and plasma induced damage evaluation on patterned porous low-k dielectrics using MIR-IR spectroscopy.

Date: May 2016
Creator: Rimal, Sirish
Description: As the miniaturization of functional devices in integrated circuit (IC) continues to scale down to sub-nanometer size, the process complexity increases and makes materials characterization difficult. One of our research effort demonstrates the development and application of novel Multiple Internal Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy (MIR-IR) as a sensitive (sub-5 nm) metrology tool to provide precise chemical bonding information that can effectively guide through the development of more efficient process control. In this work, we investigated the chemical bonding structure of thin fluorocarbon polymer films deposited on low-k dielectric nanostructures, using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Complemented by functional group specific chemical derivatization reactions, fluorocarbon film was established to contain fluorinated alkenes and carbonyl moieties embedded in a highly cross-linked, branched fluorocarbon structure and a model bonding structure was proposed for the first time. In addition, plasma induced damage to high aspect ratio trench low-k structures especially on the trench sidewalls was evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Damage from different plasma processing was correlated with Si-OH formation and breakage of Si-CH3 bonds with increase in C=O functionality. In another endeavor, TiN hard mask defect formation after fluorocarbon plasma etch was characterized and investigated. ...
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Design of New Monodentate Ligands for Regioselectivity and Enantioselectivity Tuning in Late Transition Metal Catalysis

Design of New Monodentate Ligands for Regioselectivity and Enantioselectivity Tuning in Late Transition Metal Catalysis

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Date: May 2016
Creator: Ruch, Aaron Anthony
Description: The ability of gold(I) to activate many types of unsaturated bonds toward nucleophilic attack was not widely recognized until the early 2000s. One major challenge in gold catalysis is the control over regioselectivity when there are two or more possible products as a result of complicated mechanistic pathways. It is well know that the choice of ligand can have dramatic effects on which pathway is being followed but very rarely are the reasons for this selectivity understood. The synthesis of new acyclic diaminocarbenes was developed and a study of the ligand effects on the regioselectivity of a gold-catalyzed domino enyne cyclization hydroarylation reaction and a Nazarov cyclization was undertaken. New chiral acyclic diaminocarbenes were also developed and tested along side new C3-symmetric phosphite ligands in an asymmetric intramolecular hydroamination of allenes. Structure activity correlations were developed for the potential use in further rational ligand design. The synthesis of 6a,7-dihydro-5-amino-dibenzo[c,g]chromene derivatives via a gold-catalyzed domino reaction of alkynylbenzaldehydes in the presence of secondary amines was developed. These were sent to be screened for biological activity.
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Direct Inject Mass Spectrometry for Illicit Chemistry Detection and Characterization

Direct Inject Mass Spectrometry for Illicit Chemistry Detection and Characterization

Date: May 2016
Creator: Williams, Kristina
Description: The field of direct inject mass spectrometry includes a massive host of ambient ionization techniques that are especially useful for forensic analysts. Whether the sample is trace amounts of drugs or explosives or bulk amounts of synthetic drugs from a clandestine laboratory, the analysis of forensic evidence requires minimal sample preparation, evidence preservation, and high sensitivity. Direct inject mass spectrometry techniques can rarely provide all of these. Direct analyte-probed nanoextraction coupled to nanospray ionization mass spectrometry, however, is certainly capable of achieving these goals. As a multifaceted tool developed in the Verbeck laboratory, many forensic applications have since been investigated (trace drug and explosives analysis). Direct inject mass spectrometry can also be easily coupled to assays to obtain additional information about the analytes in question. By performing a parallel artificial membrane assay or a cell membrane stationary phase extraction prior to direct infusion of the sample, membrane permeability data and receptor activity data can be obtained in addition to the mass spectral data that was already being collected. This is particularly useful for characterizing illicit drugs and their analogues for a biologically relevant way to schedule new psychoactive substances.
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Electrodeposited Metal Matrix Composites for Enhanced Corrosion Protection and Mechanical Properties

Electrodeposited Metal Matrix Composites for Enhanced Corrosion Protection and Mechanical Properties

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Date: May 2016
Creator: Thurber, Casey Ray
Description: In the oil and gas industry, high corrosion resistance and hardness are needed to extend the lifetime of the coatings due to exposure to high stress and salt environments. Electrodeposition has become a favorable technique in synthesizing coatings because of low cost, convenience, and the ability to work at low temperatures. Electrodeposition of metal matrix composites has become popular for enhanced corrosion resistance and hardness in the oil and gas industry because of the major problems that persist with corrosion. Two major alloys of copper-nickel, 90-10 and 70-30, were evaluated for microbial corrosion protection in marine environments on a stainless steel substrate. Copper and copper alloys are commonly used in marine environments to resist biofouling of materials by inhibiting microbial growth. Literature surveying the electrodeposition of Cu-Ni incorporated with nano- to micro- particles to produce metal matrix composites has been reviewed. Also, a novel flow cell design for the enhanced deposition of metal matrix composites was examined to obtain the optimal oriented structure of the layered silicates in the metal matrix. With the addition of montmorillonite into the Ni and Cu-Ni matrix, an increase in strength, adhesion, wear and fracture toughness of the coating occurs, which leads to an increase ...
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Exploring Inorganic Catalysis with Electronic Structure Simulations

Exploring Inorganic Catalysis with Electronic Structure Simulations

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Date: May 2016
Creator: Karbalaei Khani, Sarah
Description: Organometallic catalysis has attracted significant interest from both industry and academia due to its wide applications in organic synthetic transformations. Example of such transformations include the reaction of a zinc carbenoid with olefins to form cyclopropanes. The first project is a computational study using both density functional and correlated wavefunction methods of the reaction between ethylene and model zinc carbenoid, nitrenoid and oxenoid complexes (L-Zn-E-X, E = CH2, NH or O, L = X = I or Cl). It was shown that cyclopropanation of ethylene with IZnCH2I and aziridination of ethylene with IZnNHI proceed via a single-step mechanism with an asynchronous transition state. The reaction barrier for the aziridination with IZnNHI is lower than that of cyclopropanation. Changing the leaving group of IZnNHI from I to Cl, changes the mechanism of the aziridination reaction to a two-step pathway. The calculation results from the epoxidation with IZnOI and ClZnOCl oxenoids suggest a two-step mechanism for both oxenoids. Another important example of organometallic catalysis is the formation of alkyl arenes from arenes and olefins using transition metal catalysis (olefin hydroarylation). We studied with DFT methods the mechanism of a novel Rh catalyst (FlDAB)Rh(TFA)(η2–C2H4) [FlDAB = N,N’ -bis(pentafluorophenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene; TFA = trifluoroacetate] that converts ...
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Forensic Analysis of Ink on Documents Using Direct Analyte-Probed Nanoextraction Coupled Techniques

Forensic Analysis of Ink on Documents Using Direct Analyte-Probed Nanoextraction Coupled Techniques

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Date: May 2016
Creator: Huynh, Vivian
Description: Analzying questioned documents in a nondestructive nature has been an issue for the forensic science community. Using nondestructive techniques such as video spectral comparator does not give reliable information due to the variations in gray or color levels that are distinguished differently by analysts. Destructive techniques such as chromatography give dependable, qualitative and quantitative, information but involves altering the evidentiary value of these questioned documents. The paradox of document examination becomes a problem when document evidence is involved, especially when trying to preserve its evidentiary value and critical data is needed. Thus, a nondestructive technique has been developed to solve the loopholes in document examinations. Direct analyte-probed nanoextraction (DAPNe) is a nanomanipulation technique that extracts ink directly off the document for further examination. A watermark is left, at most, post-extraction. DAPNe utilizes a tip emitter, pre-filled with a solvent, which is controlled in x-, y-, and z-coordinates via joystick controller and aspirates/extracts using a pressure injector. The versatility of this technique lies within the solvent chemistry and its capability to be coupled to various types of instrumentation. The extraction solvent can be altered to target specific components in the ink. For example, a chelator may be added to target metal ...
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Interfacial Electrochemistry of Cu/Al Alloys for IC Packaging and Chemical Bonding Characterization of Boron Doped Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films for Infrared Cameras

Interfacial Electrochemistry of Cu/Al Alloys for IC Packaging and Chemical Bonding Characterization of Boron Doped Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films for Infrared Cameras

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Date: May 2016
Creator: Ross, Nick Mark
Description: We focused on a non-cooling room temperature microbolometer infrared imaging array device which includes a sensing layer of p-type a-Si:H component layers doped with boron. Boron incorporation and bonding configuration were investigated for a-Si:H films grown by plasma enhanced chemical deposition (PECVD) at varying substrate temperatures, hydrogen dilution of the silane precursor, and dopant to silane ratio using multiple internal reflection infrared spectroscopy (MIR-IR). This study was then confirmed from collaborators via Raman spectroscopy. MIR-IR analyses reveal an interesting counter-balance relationship between boron-doping and hydrogen-dilution growth parameters in PECVD-grown a-Si:H. Specifically, an increase in the hydrogen dilution ratio (H2/SiH4) or substrate temperature was found to increase organization of the silicon lattice in the amorphous films. It resulted in the decrease of the most stable SiH bonding configuration and thus decrease the organization of the film. The new chemical bonding information of a-Si:H thin film was correlated with the various boron doping mechanisms proposed by theoretical calculations. The study revealed the corrosion morphology progression on aluminum alloy (Al, 0.5% Cu) under acidic chloride solution. This is due to defects and a higher copper content at the grain boundary. Direct galvanic current measurement, linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), and Tafel plots are used ...
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Investigation of Post-Plasma Etch Fluorocarbon Residue Characterization, Removal and Plasma-Induced Low-K Damage for Advanced Interconnect Applications

Investigation of Post-Plasma Etch Fluorocarbon Residue Characterization, Removal and Plasma-Induced Low-K Damage for Advanced Interconnect Applications

Date: May 2016
Creator: Mukherjee, Tamal
Description: Modern three-dimensional integrated circuit design is rapidly evolving to more complex architecture. With continuous downscaling of devices, there is a pressing need for metrology tool development for rapid but efficient process and material characterization. In this dissertation work, application of a novel multiple internal reflection infrared spectroscopy metrology is discussed in various semiconductor fabrication process development. Firstly, chemical bonding structure of thin fluorocarbon polymer film deposited on patterned nanostructures was elucidated. Different functional groups were identified by specific derivatization reactions and model bonding configuration was proposed for the first time. In a continued effort, wet removal of these fluorocarbon polymer was investigated in presence of UV light. Mechanistic hypothesis for UV-assisted enhanced polymer cleaning efficiency was put forward supported by detailed theoretical consideration and experimental evidence. In another endeavor, plasma-induced damage to porous low-dielectric constant interlayer dielectric material was studied. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses of dielectric degradation in terms of increased silanol content and carbon depletion provided directions towards less aggressive plasma etch and strip process development. Infrared spectroscopy metrology was also utilized in surface functionalization evaluation of very thin organic films deposited by wet and dry chemistries. Palladium binding by surface amine groups was examined in plasma-polymerized amorphous ...
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Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and Raman Spectroscopy Imaging of Biological Tissues

Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and Raman Spectroscopy Imaging of Biological Tissues

Date: May 2016
Creator: Gorishek, Emma
Description: Laser Ablation Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and Raman spectroscopy are both powerful imaging techniques. Their applications are numerous and extremely potential in the field of biology. In order to improve upon LA-ICP-MS an in-house built cold cell was developed and its effectiveness studied by imaging Brassica napus seeds. To further apply LA-ICP-MS and Raman imaging to the field of entomology a prong gilled mayfly (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from the Róbalo River, located on Navarino Island in Chile, was studied. Analysis of both samples showcased LA-ICP-MS and Raman spectroscopy as effective instruments for imaging trace elements and larger molecules in biological samples respectively.
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Lipidomic Analysis of Single Cells and Organelles Using Nanomanipulation Coupled to Mass Spectrometry

Lipidomic Analysis of Single Cells and Organelles Using Nanomanipulation Coupled to Mass Spectrometry

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Date: May 2016
Creator: Bowman, Amanda
Description: The capability to characterize disease states by way of determining novel biomarkers has led to a high demand of single cell and organelle analytical methodologies due to the unexpected heterogeneity present in cells of the same type. Lipids are of particular interest in the search for biomarkers due to their active roles in cellular metabolism and energy storage. Analyzing localized lipid chemistry from individual cells and organelles is challenging however, due to low analyte volume, limited discriminate instrumentation, and common requirements of separation procedures and expenditure of cell sample. Using nanomanipulation in combination with mass spectrometry, individual cells and organelles can be extracted from tissues and cultures in vitro to determine if heterogeneity at the cellular level is present. The discriminate extraction of a single cell or organelle allows the remainder of cell culture or tissue to remain intact, while the high sensitivity and chemical specificity of mass spectrometry provides structural information for limited volumes without the need for chromatographic separation. Mass analysis of lipids extracted from individual cells can be carried out in multiple mass spectrometry platforms through direct-inject mass spectrometry using nanoelectrospray-ionization and through matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization.
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The One Electron Basis Set:  Challenges in Wavefunction and Electron Density Calculations

The One Electron Basis Set: Challenges in Wavefunction and Electron Density Calculations

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Date: May 2016
Creator: Mahler, Andrew
Description: In the exploration of chemical systems through quantum mechanics, accurate treatment of the electron wavefunction, and the related electron density, is fundamental to extracting information concerning properties of a system. This work examines challenges in achieving accurate chemical information through manipulation of the one-electron basis set.
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Synthesis and Electron Transfer Studies of Supramolecular Triads

Synthesis and Electron Transfer Studies of Supramolecular Triads

Date: May 2016
Creator: Bodenstedt, Kurt
Description: This study expands the role of polythiophenes as an electron donating chromophore within energy harvesting milti-modular donor-acceptor systems. The polythiophene moiety would act as an electron donating spacer group between the donor and acceptor entities, viz., phenothiazine and fulleropyrrolidine, respectively, in the newly synthesized supramolecular triads. The triads 10-{[2,2';5',2"] terthiophene-5-fulleropyrrolidine} phenothiazine and 10-{[2,2'] bithiophene-5-fulleropyrrolidine} phenothiazine were synthesized and characterized through electrochemical and spectroscopic methods to ascertain their structural integrity. the componets of the triads were selected for their established redox parameters. Phenothiazine would act as a secondary donor and would facilitate hole-transfer from the polythiophene primary electron donor, due to its ease of oxidation and yield a long-lived charge separated state. Fulleropyrrolidine would act as an acceptor for ease of reductive capabilities and its ability to hold multiple charges. Finally, occurrence of photoinduced electron transferleading to the anticipated charge separated states is established from advanced transient spectroscopic techniques on these novel supramolecular systems.
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Accurate Energetics Across the Periodic Table Via Quantum Chemistry

Accurate Energetics Across the Periodic Table Via Quantum Chemistry

Date: December 2015
Creator: Peterson, Charles Campbell
Description: Greater understanding and accurate predictions of structural, thermochemical, and spectroscopic properties of chemical compounds is critical for the advancements of not only basic science, but also in applications needed for the growth and health of the U.S. economy. This dissertation includes new ab initio composite approaches to predict accurate energetics of lanthanide-containing compounds including relativistic effects, and optimization of parameters for semi-empirical methods for transition metals. Studies of properties and energetics of chemical compounds through various computational methods are also the focus of this research, including the C-O bond cleavage of dimethyl ether by transition metal ions, the study of thermochemical and structural properties of small silicon containing compounds with the Multi-Reference correlation consistent Composite Approach, the development of a composite method for heavy element systems, spectroscopic of compounds containing noble gases and metals (ArxZn and ArxAg+ where x = 1, 2), and the effects due to Basis Set Superposition Error (BSSE) on these van der Waals complexes.
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Biological Applications of a Strongly Luminescent Platinum (Ii) Complex in Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging and Hypoxia Imaging in Caenorhabditis Elegans

Biological Applications of a Strongly Luminescent Platinum (Ii) Complex in Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging and Hypoxia Imaging in Caenorhabditis Elegans

Date: December 2015
Creator: Kinyanjui, Sophia Nduta
Description: Phosphorescent transition metal complexes make up an important group of compounds that continues to attract intense research owing to their intrinsic bioimaging applications that arise from bright emissions, relatively long excited state lifetimes, and large stokes shifts. Now for biomaging assay a model organism is required which must meet certain criteria for practical applications. The organism needs to be small, with a high turn-over of progeny (high fecundity), a short lifecycle, and low maintenance and assay costs. Our model organism C. elegans met all the criteria. The ideal phosphor has low toxicity in the model organism. In this work the strongly phosphorescent platinum (II) pyrophosphito-complex was tested for biological applications as a potential in vivo hypoxia sensor. The suitability of the phosphor was derived from its water solubility, bright phosphorescence at room temperature, and long excited state lifetime (~ 10 µs). The applications branched off to include testing of C. elegans survival when treated with the phosphor, which included lifespan and fecundity assays, toxicity assays including the determination of the LC50, and recovery after paraquat poisoning. Quenching experiments were performed using some well knows oxygen derivatives, and the quenching mechanisms were derived from Stern-Volmer plots. Reaction stoichiometries were derived from ...
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Computational Modeling of Small Molecules

Computational Modeling of Small Molecules

Date: December 2015
Creator: Weber, Rebecca J.
Description: Computational chemistry lies at the intersection of chemistry, physics, mathematics, and computer science, and can be used to explain the behavior of atoms and molecules, as well as to augment experiment. In this work, computational chemistry methods are used to predict structural and energetic properties of small molecules, i.e. molecules with less than 60 atoms. Different aspects of computational chemistry are examined in this work. The importance of examining the converged orbitals obtained in an electronic structure calculation is explained. The ability to more completely describe the orbital space through the extrapolation of energies obtained at increasing quality of basis set is investigated with the use of the Sapporo-nZP-2012 family of basis set. The correlation consistent Composite Approach (ccCA) is utilized to compute the enthalpies of formation of a set of molecules and the accuracy is compared with the target method, CCSD(T,FC1)/aug-cc-pCV∞Z-DK. Both methodologies are able to produce computed enthalpies of formation that are typically within 1 kcal mol-1 of reliable experiment. This demonstrates that ccCA can be used instead of much more computationally intensive methods (in terms of memory, processors, and time required for a calculation) with the expectation of similar accuracy yet at a reduced computational cost. The ...
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Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Aqueous Polymeric Hybrid Composites and Nanomaterials of Platinum(ii) and Gold(i) Phosphorescent Complexes for Sensing and Biomedical Applications

Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Aqueous Polymeric Hybrid Composites and Nanomaterials of Platinum(ii) and Gold(i) Phosphorescent Complexes for Sensing and Biomedical Applications

Date: December 2015
Creator: Upadhyay, Prabhat K.
Description: The two major topics studied in this dissertation are the gold(I) pyrazolate trimer {[Au(3-R,5-R’)Pz]3} complexes in aqueous chitosan polymer and phosphorescent polymeric nanoparticles based on platinum(II) based complex. The first topic is the synthesis, characterization and optical sensing application of gold(I) pyrazolate trimer complexes within aqueous chitosan polymer. A gold(I) pyrazolate trimer complex, {[Au(3-CH3,5-COOH)Pz]3}, shows high sensitivity and selectivity for silver ions in aqueous media, is discussed for optical sensing and solution-processed organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) applications. Gold(I) pyrazolate trimer complexes are bright red emissive in polymeric solution and their emission color changes with respect to heavy metal ions, pH and dissolved carbon dioxide. These photophysical properties are very useful for designing the optical sensors. The phosphorescent polymeric nanoparticles are prepared with Pt-POP complex and polyacrylonitrile polymer. These particles show excellent photophysical properties and stable up to >3 years at room temperature. Such nanomaterials have potential applications in biomedical and polymeric OLEDs. The phosphorescent hybrid composites are also prepared with Pt-POP and biocompatible polymers, such as chitosan, poly-l-lysine, BSA, pnipam, and pdadmac. Photoluminescent enhancement of Pt-POP with such polymers is also involved in this study. These hybrid composites are promising materials for biomedical applications such as protein labeling and ...
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Design, Synthesis and Study of Supramolecular Donor – Acceptor Systems Mimicking Natural Photosynthesis Processes

Design, Synthesis and Study of Supramolecular Donor – Acceptor Systems Mimicking Natural Photosynthesis Processes

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Date: December 2015
Creator: KC, Chandra Bikram
Description: This dissertation investigates the chemical ingenuity into the development of various photoactive supramolecular donor – acceptor systems to produce clean and carbon free energy for the next generation. The process is inspired by the principles learned from nature’s approach where the solar energy is converted into the chemical energy through the natural photosynthesis process. Owing to the importance and complexity of natural photosynthesis process, we have designed ideal donor-acceptor systems to investigate their light energy harvesting properties. This process involves two major steps: the first step is the absorption of light energy by antenna or donor systems to promote them to an excited electronic state. The second step involves, the transfer of excitation energy to the reaction center, which triggers an electron transfer process within the system. Based on this principle, the research is focused into the development of artificial photosynthesis systems to investigate dynamics of photo induced energy and electron transfer events. The derivatives of Porphyrins, Phthalocyanines, BODIPY, and SubPhthalocyanines etc have been widely used as the primary building blocks for designing photoactive and electroactive ensembles in this area because of their excellent and unique photophysical and photochemical properties. Meanwhile, the fullerene, mainly its readily available version C60 is ...
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Fundamental Studies of Copper Corrosion in Interconnect Fabrication Process and Spectroscopic Investigation of Low-k Structures

Fundamental Studies of Copper Corrosion in Interconnect Fabrication Process and Spectroscopic Investigation of Low-k Structures

Date: December 2015
Creator: Goswami, Arindom
Description: In the first part of this dissertation, copper bimetallic corrosion and its inhibition in cleaning processes involved in interconnect fabrication is explored. In microelectronics fabrication, post chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) cleaning is required to remove organic contaminants and particles left on copper interconnects after the CMP process. Use of cleaning solutions, however, causes serious reliability issues due to corrosion and recession of the interconnects. In this study, different azole compounds are explored and pyrazole is found out to be a potentially superior Cu corrosion inhibitor, compared to the most widely used benzotriazole (BTA), for tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH)-based post CMP cleaning solutions at pH 14. Micropattern corrosion screening results and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) revealed that 1 mM Pyrazole in 8 wt% TMAH solution inhibits Cu corrosion more effectively than 10 mM benzotriazole (BTA) under same conditions. Moreover, water contact angle measurement results also showed that Pyrazole-treated Cu surfaces are relatively hydrophilic compared to those treated with BTA/TMAH. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis supports Cu-Pyrazole complex formation on the Cu surface. Overall Cu corrosion rate in TMAH-based highly alkaline post CMP cleaning solution is shown to be considerably reduced to less than 1Å/min by addition of 1 mM Pyrazole. In ...
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The Impact of Computational Methods on Transition Metal-containing Species

The Impact of Computational Methods on Transition Metal-containing Species

Date: December 2015
Creator: Wang, Jiaqi
Description: Quantum chemistry methodologies can be used to address a wide variety of chemical problems. Key to the success of quantum chemistry methodologies, however, is the selection of suitable methodologies for specific problems of interest, which often requires significant assessment. To gauge a number of methodologies, the utility of density functionals (BLYP, B97D, TPSS, M06L, PBE0, B3LYP, M06, and TPSSh) in predicting reaction energetics was examined for model studies of C-O bond activation of methoxyethane and methanol. These species provide excellent representative examples of lignin degradation via C-O bond cleavage. PBE0, which performed better than other considered DFT functionals, was used to investigate late 3d (Fe, Co, and Ni), 4d (Ru, Rh, and Pd), and 5d (Re, Os, and Ir) transition metal atom mediated Cβ -O bond activation of the β–O–4 linkage of lignin. Additionally, the impact of the choice of DFT functionals, basis sets, implicit solvation models, and layered quantum chemical methods (i.e., ONIOM, Our Own N-layered Integrated molecular Orbital and molecular Mechanics) was investigated for the prediction of pKa for a set of Ni-group metal hydrides (M = Ni, Pd, and Pt) in acetonitrile. These investigations have provided insight about the utility of a number of theoretical methods in ...
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Self-assembly Polymeric Nanoparticles Composed of Polymers Crosslinked with Transition Metals for Use in Drug Delivery

Self-assembly Polymeric Nanoparticles Composed of Polymers Crosslinked with Transition Metals for Use in Drug Delivery

Date: December 2015
Creator: Nguyen, Duong Thuy
Description: A major drawback of chemotherapy is the lack of selectively leading to damage in healthy tissue, which results in severe acute side effects to cancer patients. The use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has emerged as novel strategy to overcome the barriers of immunogenic response, controlled release of therapeutic, and targeting the toxicity only to cancerous cells. In this study, polymeric nanoparticles composed of transition metals and particles derived from natural biopolymers have been generated via self-assembly. For example, nanoparticles composed of cobalt crosslinked with albumin (Co-alb NPs) via Co-amine coordination chemistry of lysine residue were syntheisized in various sizes. The method to generate Co-alb NPs involves no thermal heat, organic solvent or any surfactants, which is ideal for the production of large amounts in a timely manner. The Co-alb NPs displayed exceptional stability under physiological conditions (pH 7.4) for several days with minor changes in size; however degradation could be triggered by reductant (reduced glutathione (GSH), 10 mM) with complete disappearance of particles in less than 2 hour. Numerous therapeutics that are highly effective toward cancer cells have been developed; however, many cannot be administered to patients due to poor solubility in water and pH dependent properties. ...
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Determination of Solute Descriptors for Illicit Drugs Using Gas Chromatographic Retention Data and Abraham Solvation Model

Determination of Solute Descriptors for Illicit Drugs Using Gas Chromatographic Retention Data and Abraham Solvation Model

Date: August 2015
Creator: Mitheo, Yannick K.
Description: In this experiment, more than one hundred volatile organic compounds were analyzed with the gas chromatograph. Six capillary columns ZB wax plus, ZB 35, TR1MS, TR5, TG5MS and TG1301MS with different polarities have been used for separation of compounds and illicit drugs. The Abraham solvation model has five solute descriptors. The solute descriptors are E, S, A, B, L (or V). Based on the six stationary phases, six equations were constructed as a training set for each of the six columns. The six equations served to calculate the solute descriptors for a set of illicit drugs. Drugs studied are nicotine (S= 0.870, A= 0.000, B= 1.073), oxycodone(S= 2.564. A= 0.286, B= 1.706), methamphetamine (S= 0.297, A= 1.570, B= 1.009), heroin (S=2.224, A= 0.000, B= 2.136) and ketamine (S= 1.005, A= 0.000, B= 1.126). The solute property of Abraham solvation model is represented as a logarithm of retention time, thus the logarithm of experimental and calculated retention times is compared.
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Electrochemical Synthesis and Applications of Layered Double Hydroxides and Derivatives

Electrochemical Synthesis and Applications of Layered Double Hydroxides and Derivatives

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Date: August 2015
Creator: Kahl, Michael S.
Description: Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are a class of anionic clay with alternating layers of positive and negative charge. A metal hydroxide layer with divalent and trivalent metals with a positive charge is complemented by an interlayer region containing anions and water with a negative charge. The anions can be exchanged under favorable conditions. Hydrotalcite (Mg6Al2(OH)16[CO3]·4H2O) and other variations are naturally occurring minerals. Synthetic LDH can be prepared as a powder or film by numerous methods. Synthetic LDH is used in electrode materials, adsorbents, nuclear waste treatment, drug delivery systems, water treatment, corrosion protection coatings, and catalysis. In this dissertation Zn-Al-NO3 derivatives of zaccagnaite (Zn4Al2(OH)12[CO3]·3H2O) are electrochemically synthesized as films and applied to sensing and corrosion resistance applications. First, Zn-Al-NO3 LDH was potentiostatically electrosynthesized on glassy carbon substrates and applied to the electrochemical detection of gallic acid and caffeic acid in aqueous solutions. The modified electrode was then applied to the detection of gallic acid in green tea samples. The focus of the work shifts to corrosion protection of stainless steel. Modified zaccagnaite films were electrodeposited onto stainless steel in multiples layers to reduce defects caused by drying of the films. The films were deposited using a step potential method. The ...
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Molecules and Materials for Excitonic Solar Cells Using P-type Metal Oxide Semiconductors

Molecules and Materials for Excitonic Solar Cells Using P-type Metal Oxide Semiconductors

Date: August 2015
Creator: Haynes, Keith M.
Description: This dissertation has two intersecting foci; firstly, the discovery of a new methodology for the growth of high surface area cuprous oxide (Cu2O) substrates. Secondly, the synthesis and characterization of electron-accepting molecules, and their incorporation into excitonic solar cells (XSCs) using the Cu2O substrates as electrodes. Increasing the surface area of the semiconductor creates more locations for charge transfer to occur thus increasing the overall efficiency of the device. Zinc oxide (ZnO) has been widely studied, and can be easily grown into many different films with high surface area morphologies. The ZnO films serve as sacrificial templates that allow us to electrochemically grow new semiconductors with the same high surface area morphologies but composed of a material having more desirable electronic properties. A polymer can be applied over the surface of the ZnO nanorod films before etching the ZnO with a weak acid, thereby leaving a polymer nanopore membrane. Cathodic electrodeposition of Cu2O into the membrane nanopores gives Cu2O nanorods. Electron-accepting dyes are designed with tethers that allow for direct attachment to metal oxide semiconductors. After soaking, the semiconductor is coated with a monolayer of a dye and then the coated semiconductor films were made into various dye-sensitized solar cells ...
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Novel Carborane Derived Semiconducting Thin Films for Neutron Detection and Device Applications

Novel Carborane Derived Semiconducting Thin Films for Neutron Detection and Device Applications

Date: August 2015
Creator: James, Robinson
Description: Novel carborane (B10C2H12) and aromatic compounds (benzene, pyridine, diaminobenzene) copolymers and composite materials have been fabricated by electron beam induced cross-linking and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) respectively. Chemical and electronic structure of these materials were studied using X-ray and ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS). UPS suggest that the systematic tuning of electronic structure can be achieved by using different aromatic compounds as co-precursors during the deposition. Furthermore, top of valence band is composed of states from the aromatic moieties implying that states near bottom of the conduction band is derived from carborane moieties. Current- voltage (I-V) measurements on the ebeam derived B10C2HX: Diaminobenzene films suggest that these films exhibit enhanced electron hole separation life time. Enhanced electron hole separation and charge transport are critical parameters in designing better neutron voltaic devices. Recently, PECVD composite films of ortho-carborane and pyridine exhibited enhanced neutron detection efficiency even under zero bias compared to the pure ortho-carborane derived films. This enhancement is most likely due to longer electron-hole separation, better charge transport or a combination of both. The studies determining the main factors for the observed enhanced neutron detection are in progress by fabricating composite films of carborane with other aromatic ...
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