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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Department: Department of Chemistry
 Language: English
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
From Development of Semi-empirical Atomistic Potentials to Applications of Correlation Consistent Basis Sets

From Development of Semi-empirical Atomistic Potentials to Applications of Correlation Consistent Basis Sets

Date: May 2014
Creator: Gibson, Joshua S.
Description: The development of the semi-empirical atomistic potential called the embedded atom method (EAM) has allowed for the efficient modeling of solid-state environments, at a lower computational cost than afforded by density functional theory (DFT). This offers the capability of EAM to model the energetics of solid-state phases of varying coordination, including defects, such as vacancies and self-interstitials. This dissertation highlights the development and application of two EAMs: a Ti potential constructed with the multi-state modified embedded atom method (MS-MEAM), and a Ni potential constructed with the fragment Hamiltonian (FH) method. Both potentials exhibit flexibility in the description of different solid-states phases and applications. This dissertation also outlines two applications of DFT. First, a study of structure and stability for solid-state forms of NixCy (in which x and y are integers) is investigated using plane-wave DFT. A ground state phase for Ni2C is elucidated and compared to known and hypothesized forms of NixCy. Also, a set of correlation consistent basis sets, previously constructed using the B3LYP and BLYP density functionals, are studied. They are compared to the well-known to the correlation consistent basis sets that were constructed with higher-level ab initio methodologies through computations of enthalpies of formation and combustion enthalpies. ...
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Fundamental Studies of Copper Bimetallic Corrosion in Ultra Large Scale Interconnect Fabrication Process

Fundamental Studies of Copper Bimetallic Corrosion in Ultra Large Scale Interconnect Fabrication Process

Date: May 2014
Creator: Koskey, Simon Kibet
Description: In this work, copper bimetallic corrosion and inhibition in ultra large scale interconnect fabrication process is explored. Corrosion behavior of physical vapor deposited (PVD) copper on ruthenium on acidic and alkaline solutions was investigated with and without organic inhibitors. Bimetallic corrosion screening experiments were carried out to determine the corrosion rate. Potentiodynamic polarization experiments yielded information on the galvanic couples and also corrosion rates. XPS and FTIR surface analysis gave important information pertaining inhibition mechanism of organic inhibitors. Interestingly copper in contact with ruthenium in cleaning solution led to increased corrosion rate compared to copper in contact with tantalum. On the other hand when cobalt was in contact with copper, cobalt corroded and copper did not. We ascribe this phenomenon to the difference in the standard reduction potentials of the two metals in contact and in such a case a less noble metal will be corroded. The effects of plasma etch gases such as CF4, CF4+O2, C4F8, CH2F2 and SF6 on copper bimetallic corrosion was investigated too in alkaline solution. It was revealed that the type of etching gas plasma chemistry used in Cu interconnect manufacturing process creates copper surface modification which affects corrosion behavior in alkaline solution. The learning ...
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A Study of Silver: an Alternative Maldi Matrix for Low Weight Compounds and Mass Spectrometry Imaging

A Study of Silver: an Alternative Maldi Matrix for Low Weight Compounds and Mass Spectrometry Imaging

Date: May 2014
Creator: Walton, Barbara Lynn
Description: Soft-landing ion mobility has applicability in a variety of areas. The ability to produce material and collect a sufficient amount for further analysis and applications is the key goal of this technique. Soft-landing ion mobility has provided a way to deposit material in a controllable fashion, and can be tailored to specific applications. Changing the conditions at which soft-landing ion mobility occurs effects the characteristics of the resulting particles (size, distribution/coverage on the surface). Longer deposition times generated more material on the surface; however, higher pressures increased material loss due to diffusion. Larger particles were landed when using higher pressures, and increased laser energy at ablation. The utilization of this technique for the deposition of silver clusters has provided a solvent free matrix application technique for MALDI-MS. The low kinetic energy of incident ions along with the solvent free nature of soft-landing ion mobility lead to a technique capable of imaging sensitive samples and low mass analysis. The lack of significant interference as seen by traditional organic matrices is avoided with the use of metallic particles, providing a major enhancement in the ability to analyze low mass compounds by MALDI.
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The Mechanisms of Methane C–h Activation and Oxy-insertion Via Small Transition Metal Complexes: a Dft Computational Investigation

The Mechanisms of Methane C–h Activation and Oxy-insertion Via Small Transition Metal Complexes: a Dft Computational Investigation

Date: May 2014
Creator: Prince, Bruce M.
Description: Our country continues to demand clean renewable energy to meet the growing energy needs of our time. Thus, natural gas, which is 87% by volume of methane, has become a hot topic of discussion because it is a clean burning fuel. However, the transportation of methane is not easy because it is a gas at standard temperature and pressure. The usage of transition metals for the conversion of small organic species like methane into a liquid has been a longstanding practice in stoichiometric chemistry. Nonetheless, the current two-step process takes place at a high temperature and pressure for the conversion of methane and steam to methanol via CO + H2 (syngas). The direct oxidation of methane (CH4) into methanol (CH3OH) via homogeneous catalysis is of interest if the system can operate at standard pressure and a temperature less than 250 C. Methane is an inert gas due to the high C-H bond dissociation energy (BDE) of 105 kcal/mol. This dissertation discusses a series of computational investigations of oxy-insertion pathways to understand the essential chemistry behind the functionalization of methane via the use of homogeneous transition metal catalysis. The methane to methanol (MTM) catalytic cycle is made up of two key ...
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Ab Initio and Density Functional Investigation of the Conformer Manifold of Melatonin and a Proposal for a Simple Dft-based Diagnostic for Nondynamical Correlation

Ab Initio and Density Functional Investigation of the Conformer Manifold of Melatonin and a Proposal for a Simple Dft-based Diagnostic for Nondynamical Correlation

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Date: August 2013
Creator: Fogueri, Uma
Description: In this work we address two problems in computational chemistry relevant to biomolecular modeling. In the first project, we consider the conformer space of melatonin as a a representative example of “real-life” flexible biomolecules. Geometries for all 52 unique conformers are optimized using spin-component scaled MP2, and then relative energies are obtained at the CCSD (T) level near the complete basis set limit. These are then used to validate a variety of DFT methods with and without empirical dispersion corrections, as well as some lower-level ab initio methods. Basis set convergence is found to be relatively slow due to internal C-H…O and C-H…N contacts. Absent dispersion corrections, many DFT functionals will transpose the two lowest conformers. Dispersion corrections resolve the problem for most functionals. Double hybrids yield particularly good performance, as does MP2.5. In the second project, we propose a simple DFT-based diagnostic for nondynamical correlation effects. Aλ= (1-TAE [ΧλC]/TAE[XC])/λ where TAE is the total atomization energy, XC the “pure” DFT exchange-correlation functional, and ΧλC the corresponding hybrid with 100λ% HF-type exchange. The diagnostic is a good predictor for sensitivity of energetics to the level of theory, unlike most of the wavefunction-based diagnostics. For GGA functionals, Aλ values approaching unity ...
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Accurate and Reliable Prediction of Energetic and Spectroscopic Properties Via Electronic Structure Methods

Accurate and Reliable Prediction of Energetic and Spectroscopic Properties Via Electronic Structure Methods

Date: August 2013
Creator: Laury, Marie L.
Description: Computational chemistry has led to the greater understanding of the molecular world, from the interaction of molecules, to the composition of molecular species and materials. Of the families of computational chemistry approaches available, the main families of electronic structure methods that are capable of accurate and/or reliable predictions of energetic, structural, and spectroscopic properties are ab initio methods and density functional theory (DFT). The focus of this dissertation is to improve the accuracy of predictions and computational efficiency (with respect to memory, disk space, and computer processing time) of some computational chemistry methods, which, in turn, can extend the size of molecule that can be addressed, and, for other methods, DFT, in particular, gain greater insight into which DFT methods are more reliable than others. Much, though not all, of the focus of this dissertation is upon transition metal species – species for which much less method development has been targeted or insight about method performance has been well established. The ab initio approach that has been targeted in this work is the correlation consistent composite approach (ccCA), which has proven to be a robust, ab initio computational method for main group and first row transition metal-containing molecules yielding, on ...
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Targeted and Metal-loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles As Potential Cancer Therapeutics

Targeted and Metal-loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles As Potential Cancer Therapeutics

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Date: May 2014
Creator: Harris, Alesha Nicole
Description: Polymeric nanoparticles were designed, synthesized, and loaded with metal ions to explore the therapeutic potential for transition metals other than platinum found in cisplatin. Nanoparticles were synthesized to show the potential for polymer based vectors. Metal loading and release were characterized via Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP MS), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Elemental Analysis. Targeting was attempted with the expectation of observed increased particle uptake by cancer cells with flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Results demonstrated that a variety of metals could be loaded to the nano-sized carriers in an aqueous environment, and that the release was pH-dependent. Expected increased targeting was inconsistent. The toxicity of these particles was measured in cancer cells where significant toxicity was observed in vitro via dosing of high copper-loaded nanoparticles and slight toxicity was observed in ruthenium-loaded nanoparticles. No significant toxicity was observed in cells dosed with metal-free nanoparticles. Future research will focus on ruthenium loaded polymeric nanoparticles with different targeting ligands dosed to different cell lines for the aim of increased uptake and decreased cancer cell viability.
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Interfacial Characterization of Chemical Vapor Deposition (Cvd) Grown Graphene and Electrodeposited Bismuth on Ruthenium Surface

Interfacial Characterization of Chemical Vapor Deposition (Cvd) Grown Graphene and Electrodeposited Bismuth on Ruthenium Surface

Date: May 2014
Creator: Abdelghani, Jafar
Description: Graphene receives enormous attention owing to its distinctive physical and chemical prosperities. Growing and transferring graphene to different substrates have been investigated. The graphene growing on the copper substrate has an advantage of low solubility of carbon on the copper which allow us to grow mostly monolayer graphene. Graphene sheet of few centimeters can be transferred to 300nm silicon oxide and quartz crystal pre-deposited with metal like Cu and Ru. Characterization of the graphene has been done with Raman and contact angle measurement and recently quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) has been employed. The underpotential deposition (UPD) process of Bi on Ru metal surface is studied using electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) and XPS techniques. Both Bi UPD and Bi bulk deposition are clearly observed on Ru in 1mM Bi (NO3)3/0.5M H2SO4. Bi monolayer coverage calculated from mass (MLMass) and from charge (MLCharge) were compared with respect to the potential scanning rates, anions and ambient controls. EQCM results indicate that Bi UPD on Ru is mostly scan rate independent but exhibits interesting difference at the slower scan. Bi UPD monolayer coverage calculated from cathodic frequency change (ΔfCathodic) is significantly smaller than the monolayer coverage derived from integrated charge under the cathodic ...
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Photochemical and Photophysical Properties of Mononuclear and Multinuclear Closed Shell D10 Coinage Metal Complexes and Their Metallo-organometallic Adducts

Photochemical and Photophysical Properties of Mononuclear and Multinuclear Closed Shell D10 Coinage Metal Complexes and Their Metallo-organometallic Adducts

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Date: December 2013
Creator: McDougald Jr., Roy N.
Description: This dissertation covers the studies of two major topics: the photochemistry of mononuclear and multinuclear gold(I) complexes and synthetic approaches to tailor photophysical properties of cyclic trinuclear d10 complexes. First a detailed photochemical examination into the photoreactivity of neutral mononuclear and multinuclear gold(I) complexes is discussed, with the aim of gold nanoparticle size and shape control for biomedical and catalysis applications. Next is a comprehensive systematic synthetic approach to tailor the photophysical properties of cyclic trinuclear d10 complexes. This synthetic approach includes an investigation of structure-luminescence relationships between cyclic trinuclear complexes, an examination into their π-acid/π-base reactivity with heavy metal cations and an exploration into the photophysical properties of new heterobimetallic cyclic trinuclear complexes. These photophysical properties inspections are used to screen materials for their employment in molecular electronic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and thin film transistors (OTFTs).
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Studies on the Porphyrin and Phthalocyanine Modified on Sno2 Photoelectrochemical Cells

Studies on the Porphyrin and Phthalocyanine Modified on Sno2 Photoelectrochemical Cells

Date: December 2013
Creator: Lin, Chunyu
Description: The world is facing a tough challenge regarding fulfilling human energy needs. Scientists are motivated to find alternative ways to the fossil fuel at a lower cost with little or no environmental pollution. Among the available renewable resources, the solar energy is an alternative energy to fossil fuel. Scientists are engaged in mimicking the photosynthesis to create the new energy devices such as dye sensitized solar cells. The fundamental theory and properties of the dye sensitized solar cells is given in the first chapter. In this research, the application of the different methods for surface alteration of SnO2 with water soluble porphyrins and phthalocyanine is studied. Using optical absorbance and steady state fluorescence studies, the formation of porphyrins and phthalocyanine discuss on the SnO2 surface is shown. Moreover, the different results of photoelectrochemical cells are show on chapter 2 to understand the porphyrin and phthalocyanine modified on SnO2 as electron injector. In summary, the application porphyrin and phthalocyanine of dimers as a broad band capturing photosensitized dye is discussed.
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