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 Department: College of Education
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
The Campus Ombudsman as Perceived by College and University Presidents, Vice-Presidents of Student Affairs, Study Body Presidents and Functioning Campus Ombudsmen
The purposes of this study are (1) to ascertain whether the implementation of a campus ombudsman is viewed differently by college and university presidents, vice-presidents of student affairs, and student body presidents, and (2) to determine whether the ombudsman concept itself is perceived differently by college and university presidents, vice-presidents of student affairs, student body presidents, and functioning campus ombudsmen. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164574/
Candidates' Perception of Training and Self-Efficacy in Traditional and Alternative Teacher Preparation Programs.
This research was encouraged by the tremendous demand for teachers. Two million new teachers will be needed in the United States over the next decade. The teacher shortage has school administration, school boards, education agencies, and institutions of higher education investigating how to train and retain more teachers. Alternative certification programs have been developed to address the teacher shortage. This study examined the effectiveness of traditionally and alternatively certified teachers in two separate programs with regard to their self-efficacy, perception of their training, and their ExCET scores. Traditional candidates (10) and alternative candidates (74) were examined using survey research. According to this data on self-efficacy, perception of training, and ExCET passing rates, there is no significant difference between those teachers who receive traditional training and those who are trained in alternative certification programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4173/
A Case Study of Municipal Recreation Programs for Senior Citizens and the Handicapped
This investigation is concerned with determining the extent of involvement by fifteen Texas municipal parks and recreation departments in providing programs for senior citizens, the mentally retarded, the physically handicapped, and the emotionally disturbed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164477/
Changes in Social Distance After the Inclusion of Spanish Instruction in a Fifth-grade Social Studies Unit
The problem of this study is concerned with the change in social distance to foreigners after the inclusion of Spanish language instruction in a four-week, fifth-grade social studies unit on Latin America. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164483/
Characteristics of Preservice Teachers Learning Parent Involvement Practices.
Numerous models of IS success and technology acceptance their extensions have been proposed and applied in empirical. This study continues this tradition and extends the body of knowledge on the topic of IS success by developing a more comprehensive model for measuring IS success and technology acceptance within a government organization. The proposed model builds upon three established IS success and technology acceptance frameworks namely the DeLone and McLean (2003), Venkatesh et al.'s (2003) unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT), and Wixom and Todd (2005). The findings from this study provide not only a comprehensive IS success assessment model but also insights into whether and how IS success models are influenced by application variables as applied within a government organization. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed for instrument refinement and validity test of the existing and proposed models. Using data from employees of a local government municipal, the comprehensive model explained 32 percent variance. Four of the hypothesis were fully supported five were not supported, and four were partially supported. In addition, the results suggest that behavioral intention may not be the best predictor of technology acceptance in a mandatory environment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9022/
Choice for All? Charter Schools and Students with Disabilities
In order to assess the extent and quality of special education services in charter schools in north Texas, the researcher examined data submitted to Texa Public Education Information Management System (PEIMS), and conducted qualitative interviews with selected charter school administrators. Five cornerstones of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): zero reject, individualized education program (IEP), appropriate assessment, free appropriate public education (FAPE), and least restrictive environment (LRE), were utilized in the assessment of quality. Levels of expertise in federal disability law and fiscal barriers were explored, as well. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc2905/
Comparative Analysis of Intensive Filial Therapy with Intensive Individual Play Therapy and Intensive Sibling Group Play Therapy with Child Witnesses of Domestic Violence
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Intensive Filial Therapy in: (a) improving the self-concept of child witnesses of domestic violence; (b) reducing internalizing behavior problems, such as withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety and depression, of child witnesses of domestic violence; (c) reducing externalizing behavior problems, such as aggression and delinquency, of child witnesses of domestic violence; (d) reducing overall behavior problems of child witnesses of domestic violence; and (e) increasing communication of empathy between mothers and child witnesses of domestic violence. A second objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Intensive Filial Therapy with Intensive Individual Play Therapy and Intensive Sibling Group Play Therapy with child witnesses of domestic violence. The experimental group consisted of 11 child witnesses of domestic violence whose mothers received 12 Intensive Filial Therapy training sessions within a three week period and had 12 mother-child play sessions. The Intensive Individual Play Therapy comparison group, consisting of 11 child witnesses, and the non-treatment control group, consisting of 11 child witnesses, were utilized from the Kot (1995) study. The Intensive Sibling Group Play Therapy comparison group was utilized from the Tyndall-Lind (1999) study. Children in all studies completed the Joseph Preschool and Primary Self-concept Screening Test and the Child Behavior Checklist. Mothers who received Intensive Filial Therapy training conducted pretest and posttest play sessions for the Measurement of Empathy in Adult-Child Interaction. Analyses of Covariance revealed the children in the experimental group significantly increased in self-concept, and significantly reduced overall behavior problems. A comparison of t-test scores of the pretests and posttests revealed mothers in the experimental group significantly increased communication of empathy to their children. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc2696/
Comparative Analysis of Management and Employee Job Satisfaction and Policy Perceptions.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the perceptions of job satisfaction as defined by management and nonmanagement employees and to compare both parties' perceptions of organizational benefits to a list prepared by the organization's benefit personnel. Turnover is costly to the organization, both in money and in the impact it has on those individuals remaining with the organization. Every effort should be undertaken to reduce the amount of turnover within the organization. A contributing factor leading to turnover may be a gap between what the employees believe is important to them and what management believes is important to the employees. The boundaries of the gap need to be identified before any effort can be made to reduce or bridge the gap. Once the boundaries are identified, policies can be analyzed and the possibility of reducing the gap investigated. Management as a whole must be aware of the needs and wants of their employees before any attempt to develop a retention strategy is undertaken. This knowledge can be acquired only through two-way communication with the employee. The communication process includes the simple process of asking employees for this information and then listening to how they respond. This study suggests that little difference exists in perception of job satisfaction importance for gender, age group, length of time with the organization, topic training hours, and between management and nonmanagement employees. However, perception gaps exist between the job satisfaction items addressed by organizational policies and procedures and those perceived by employees. Additional studies that include a number of varied organizations are needed before extensive generalizations can be made. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4239/
A Comparative Analysis of Social Alienation in Upper Elementary Student's Receiving Reading Instruction in Five Types of Environmental Settings
The problem of this study was to compare the social alienation of upper elementary students receiving reading instruction in five types of environmental settings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164496/
A Comparative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Three Different GED Preparation Programs
The purpose of this study was to identify effective instructional programs for GED tests preparation for students in a large suburban school district. Three different nonrandom, unequal naturally occurring instructional groups at three different locations were examined. One group participated in a traditional instruction program, a second group in a test/retest program, and a third group in a computer-assisted program. The demographics of the district population, the GED population, and the individual study groups were catalogued and analyzed. The demographics of the GED population were similar to the district population but different from the GED passers. Student characteristics did affect GED success. Both quantitative and qualitative data were gathered. Random students in each of the three groups were interviewed about their experiences in GED preparation using a questionnaire. Quantitative data were analyzed using frequencies, means, correlations, and a multiple regression analysis. Since the GED credential is an alternative to the high school diploma, its use as a dropout alternative is important to every school district. The study found that instructional methods had little impact on students' success in receiving the GED credential. The overall success rate of students was low in each group. The student's reading achievement score, GPA, and IQ score were predictors of GED tests success. Little research has been done in the area of GED instruction; perhaps this lack of work is due to the known limited effectiveness of GED preparation. Districts hoping to build effective GED programs should screen students prior to admission to a GED program. High school GED instruction seems to be effective for students likely to be successful in the regular school setting but in need of an immediate credential because of pregnancy or parenting or the need to work full-time or the desire to begin college study. Districts should also design programs to help disenfranchised students in the regular program remain in school. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc2805/
A Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Video-Based versus Live Presentation Staff Development on Teachers' Cognitive Learning and Attitudes
The problem of this study was the identification of effective and efficient means of providing quality staff development for reading instruction within a school-district setting. The study investigated the comparative effectiveness of two staff development delivery systems measured by 1) a cognitive test of a school district's reading program and 2) an affective measure of teacher attitudes toward staff development. The sample was drawn from the teacher population of a large urban school district. The 46 subjects were elementary school teachers in grades K-5 randomly divided into two groups: Group A (videotape with a trained on-site facilitator) and Group B (face-to-face live presenter). Participants in the study received training using "The Fort Worth Reading Program," a staff development program designed by the researcher. In addition to the presentation of content information, which is the central component, the program features small group discussions, off-line activities, and question and answer periods. Both groups received the same treatment with the following exception. A central component to the Group A training was the presentation of content information in a videotape format. Group B did not view the videotape, but received the same information via live presenter. Two instruments developed by the researcher were used in the study: 1) The Teacher Staff Development Questionnaire, a Likert-type survey to obtain teacher attitudes toward staff development, and 2) The Cognitive Test of Reading Knowledge, an instrument designed to measure cognitive objectives of the district's reading program. A multivariate analysis of covariance revealed no statistically significant differences between the groups. It was concluded that elementary classroom teachers, regardless of their attitudes toward staff development, learn content material equally well with either of the two delivery systems explored in this study. Specific suggestions and recommendations for further studies are addressed and discussed. Examples of the measurement instruments are included. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279179/
A Comparative Analysis of Traditional Versus Block and Accelerated Block Scheduled High Schools Over an Eight-Year Period in a Large Urban School District
This study compared traditional, A/B and accelerated block scheduling and its effects on student achievement and attendance by comparing the differences in student outcomes observed before and after the adoption of block/accelerated block schedules. The independent variable was the use of time in a block-scheduling model. The dependent variables were student outcomes measured by nine indicators based on the Academic Excellence Indicator System in Texas: student attendance, graduation rate, dropout rate, percentage of students taking advanced courses, percentage of students passing all Exit-level Texas Assessment of Academic Skills tests, percentage of students taking College Admissions Tests, mean SAT total score of those students who took the SAT, mean ACT total score of those students who took the ACT, and percentage of students who are at or above criterion on the SAT or ACT of those students taking the SAT or ACT. Data from archival files from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System for each respective year of the eight-year longitudinal study was collected. Scheduling models (traditional, alternating block and accelerated block) were investigated. The sample was drawn from the student population of a large urban school district in north central Texas, a district serving approximately 77,000 students. The district has twelve regular high schools serving students in grades nine through twelve. All twelve regular high schools were included in this study. The indicators were analyzed using SPSS multivariate and univariate analysis to compare the means, regression line slopes, and regression line intercepts for each type of schedule: traditional only, traditional prior to A/B block change, traditional prior to accelerated block change, A/B block, and accelerated block. The regression line, slopes, and intercepts were based on separate regression analysis where a school year was used to predict the AEIS indicators for each type of schedule. With the exception of graduation rate, significant difference was found for all dependent variables. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc2883/
A Comparative Study of Freshmen Students in a Selected Multicampus Junior College District
The problem of this study was to compare freshmen students in a selected multicampus junior college district with respect to attitudes, activities, vocational, and educational plans. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164465/
A Comparison of a Teacher-Directed Approach and a Traditional Approach to Production Work in Beginning Typewriting in High School
This investigation compares the effectiveness of two methods of teaching production work in beginning typewriting. One method is defined as the traditional approach, which adheres to suggestions and materials for teaching found in current typewriting textbooks. Students are paced, drilled, and timed on straight copy to build speed and accuracy, but not on production work; they usually type from perfectly arranged copy; and they circle their errors for at least half the course. The other method, developed at North Texas State University by Payne and Anderson, is defined as the teacher-directed approach. Students are intensively paced, drilled, and timed by the teacher on short, simple jobs or parts of jobs; they usually type from unarranged copy; they learn to erase errors on production work during the first production unit; and they are evaluated on the basis of the number of mailable items produced during a specific time period. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164610/
The Comparison of a Team/Group Dynamics Training Model with a Team/Traditional Training Model within Leadership Training Workshops
This study was conducted to compare two different approaches to leadership training workshops—a team/group dynamics training model with a team/traditional training model—with regard to the changes in tolerance, open-mindedness, flexibility, adaptability, and cooperativeness of the participants in the group dynamics model. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164507/
A Comparison of Change Toward Self-actualization in Marathon Group Counseling and Traditional Group Counseling
This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of marathon group counseling and traditional group counseling in producing certain growth changes in their particular group members. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative effectiveness of these two group counseling methods and their relationship in producing changes in self-actualization, self-concept, and level of dogmatism. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164484/
A Comparison of Five Robust Regression Methods with Ordinary Least Squares: Relative Efficiency, Bias and Test of the Null Hypothesis
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A Monte Carlo simulation was used to generate data for a comparison of five robust regression estimation methods with ordinary least squares (OLS) under 36 different outlier data configurations. Two of the robust estimators, Least Absolute Value (LAV) estimation and MM estimation, are commercially available. Three authormodified variations on MM were also included (MM1, MM2, and MM3). Design parameters that were varied include sample size (n=60 and n=180), number of independent predictor variables (2, 3 and 6), outlier density (0%, 5% and 15%) and outlier location (2x,2y s, 8x8y s, 4x,8y s and 8x,4y s). Criteria on which the regression methods were measured are relative efficiency, bias and a test of the null hypothesis. Results indicated that MM2 was the best performing robust estimator on relative efficiency. The best performing estimator on bias was MM1. The best performing regression method on the test of the null hypothesis was MM2. Overall, the MM-type robust regression methods outperformed OLS and LAV on relative efficiency, bias, and the test of the null hypothesis. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5808/
A Comparison of Four Selected Programs of Physical Education upon Physical Fitness and General Motor Ability
The problem of this study was the comparison of the effectiveness of four selected programs of physical education in the development of physical fitness and general motor ability. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164439/
A Comparison of IRT and Rasch Procedures in a Mixed-Item Format Test
This study investigated the effects of test length (10, 20 and 30 items), scoring schema (proportion of dichotomous ad polytomous scoring) and item analysis model (IRT and Rasch) on the ability estimates, test information levels and optimization criteria of mixed item format tests. Polytomous item responses to 30 items for 1000 examinees were simulated using the generalized partial-credit model and SAS software. Portions of the data were re-coded dichotomously over 11 structured proportions to create 33 sets of test responses including mixed item format tests. MULTILOG software was used to calculate the examinee ability estimates, standard errors, item and test information, reliability and fit indices. A comparison of IRT and Rasch item analysis procedures was made using SPSS software across ability estimates and standard errors of ability estimates using a 3 x 11 x 2 fixed factorial ANOVA. Effect sizes and power were reported for each procedure. Scheffe post hoc procedures were conducted on significant factos. Test information was analyzed and compared across the range of ability levels for all 66-design combinations. The results indicated that both test length and the proportion of items scored polytomously had a significant impact on the amount of test information produced by mixed item format tests. Generally, tests with 100% of the items scored polytomously produced the highest overall information. This seemed to be especially true for examinees with lower ability estimates. Optimality comparisons were made between IRT and Rasch procedures based on standard error rates for the ability estimates, marginal reliabilities and fit indices (-2LL). The only significant differences reported involved the standard error rates for both the IRT and Rasch procedures. This result must be viewed in light of the fact that the effect size reported was negligible. Optimality was found to be highest when longer tests and higher proportions of polytomous scoring were applied. Some indications were given that IRT procedures may produce slightly improved results in gathering available test information. Overall, significant differences were not found between the IRT and Rasch procedures when analyzing the mixed item format tests. Further research should be conducted in the areas of test difficulty, examinee test scores, and automated partial-credit scoring along with a comparison to other traditional psychometric measures and how they address challenges related to the mixed item format tests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4316/
A Comparison of Small Study Groups and Traditional Classes on Acquaintance Volume, Reported Problems, and Academic Achievement
The problem of this study was to determine the effect of a small-study-group method of teaching on the achievement, acquaintance volume, reported problems, and willingness to discuss problems of college students enrolled in Introduction to Psychology classes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164495/
A Comparison of Success in Academic Foundation College Courses between Students Presenting High School Credits in Practical Arts Courses and Those with Credits in Academic Courses
This study investigated the relationship of high school curriculum to performance in academic foundation college courses. The purposes of the study were twofold: First, to study the relationship of a practical arts high school curriculum as opposed to a college preparatory high school curriculum to performance in academic foundation college courses. Second, to analyze this relationship and its implications for high school students, parents, teachers, and counselors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164456/
A Comparison of the Desirability and Feasibility of Accountability Measures as Perceived by Public School Administrators and Teachers
This study had three main purposes. The first was to determine the perceptions of public school administrators toward desirability and toward feasibility of accountability items. The second was to determine the perceptions of public school teachers toward desirability and toward feasibility of accountability items. The third was to compare the perceptions of administrators with those of teachers and to indicate areas where they seemed to be in agreement or disagreement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279032/
Comparison of the Effectiveness of Two Interentions for the Treatment of Agoraphobia
The problem with which this investigation was concerned is that of treating agoraphobia with cognitive-behavioral group therapy and cognitive-behavioral group therapy combined with the drug alprazolam (Xanax). The purpose of the research was twofold. The first goal was to determine the relative effectiveness of the two treatment conditions on phobic behavior, anxiety, and depression. A second goal was to analyze the results and make recommendations concerning each of these modalities available to agoraphobics, their families, and to treatment specialists. The research design of this study was a randomized, pretest-posttest, experimental group design. The sample (N = 15) consisted of Group I (N = 7), who received behavioral-cognitive group therapy combined with the medication alprazolam, and Group II (N = 8), who received behavioral-cognitive group therapy only. The treatment included 15, 2-hour weekly group sessions, with the addition of a brief medication evaluation prior to each group meeting for Group I. During these sessions, the subjects received information about agoraphobia in the form of brief didactic segments, treatment materials, homework assignments, group interaction, and various forms of desensitization. Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusions were drawn: 1. Multidimensional behavioral-cognitive group therapy can significantly reduce phobic avoidance, anxiety, and depression associated with agoraphobia; and 2. Multidimensional behavioral-cognitive group therapy in combination with administration of alprazolam, can significantly reduce phobic avoidance and anxiety associated with agoraphobia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332272/
A Comparison of the Effects of Four Micro-teaching Environments on Fourth-grade Pupils' Coping Behavior and Verbal Response
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of four micro-teaching environments on fourth-grade pupils' coping behavior and verbal response and to determine if one micro-teaching environment is more appropriate than another. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278843/
A Comparison of Three Different Presentations of Reading Material Presented to Fifth-Grade Children
The purposes of this study were (1) to ascertain the effect of three approaches of presenting reading material to fifth-grade children, (2) to analyze the results of each approach in relationship to reading ability, mental ability, and sex, and (3) to ascertain the implications of these approaches for elementary teachers and principals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164438/
A Comparison of Two Approaches Designed to Improve the Computational Skills of Pupils in Grades Five and Seven
The purposes of this study were 1) to determine the effect upon the arithmetic computation, concepts, and application skills of pupils when the regular instructional program in arithmetic at the fifth- and seventh-grade levels was supplemented with the Cyclo-Teacher (2) programmed materials; 2) to determine the effect upon the arithmetic computation, concepts, and application skills of pupils when the regular instructional program in arithmetic at the fifth- and seventh-grade levels was supplemented with the Mental Computation (6) materials. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164593/
A Comparison of Two Methods of Teaching Life Career Planning to Junior High School Students
The problem of this study was a comparison of two methods of teaching life career planning to junior high school students. In this study, the experimental group was taught by means of the Life Career game, and the control group was taught by a teacher-directed technique using more traditional methods and materials. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164482/
A Comparison Study of Individual and Group Play Therapy In Treating Kindergarten Children With Adjustment Problems
This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of individual child-centered play therapy in the elementary school in: 1) enhancing the self-concept of kindergarten children who are experiencing adjustment difficulties; 2) decreasing the overall behavioral problems of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties 3) decreasing externalizing behavior problems such as aggression and delinquency of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties; 4) decreasing the internalizing behavior problems such as withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety and depression of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties; 5) increasing parental perception of change in the problematic behaviors of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties; and 6) enhancing self-control in kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties. A secondary objective was to compare the participants involved in individual child-centered play therapy with participants in a previous study who were involved in child-centered group play therapy on the above named dimensions. The experimental group, consisting of 14 kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties, received 10-12, 30-minute individual play therapy sessions in a 12 week period in their elementary school. The comparison group, utilized from the 1999 McGuire study, consisted of 15 children with adjustment problems and received 12-14, 45-minute group play therapy sessions in 14 weeks in their elementary school. The control group, consisting of 13 children experiencing adjustment problems, received no play therapy intervention over a 12 week period. An Analysis of Covariance revealed significant findings in 1 of the 6 hypotheses and one subscale hypothesis examining the effectiveness of individual play therapy versus the wait list control group. Specifically, children with adjustment problems in the experimental group exhibited a significant reduction in total behavior problems and a significant reduction in externalizing behavior problems as measured by the Child Behavior Checklist-Parent Form (CBCL). Additionally, an Analysis of Covariance revealed significant findings in 1 of the 6 hypotheses examining the comparison of the effectiveness of individual play therapy versus the group play therapy comparison group from McGuire (1999). Individual play therapy was significantly more effective than group play therapy in helping children maintain an acceptable level of classroom behaviors as perceived by teachers on the Early Childhood Behavior Scale (ECBS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc2504/
Comparisons of Improvement-Over-Chance Effect Sizes for Two Groups Under Variance Heterogeneity and Prior Probabilities
The distributional properties of improvement-over-chance, I, effect sizes derived from linear and quadratic predictive discriminant analysis (PDA) and from logistic regression analysis (LRA) for the two-group univariate classification were examined. Data were generated under varying levels of four data conditions: population separation, variance pattern, sample size, and prior probabilities. None of the indices provided acceptable estimates of effect for all the conditions examined. There were only a small number of conditions under which both accuracy and precision were acceptable. The results indicate that the decision of which method to choose is primarily determined by variance pattern and prior probabilities. Under variance homogeneity, any of the methods may be recommended. However, LRA is recommended when priors are equal or extreme and linear PDA is recommended when priors are moderate. Under variance heterogeneity, selecting a recommended method is more complex. In many cases, more than one method could be used appropriately. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4242/
Computer Supported Collaboration: Is the Transfer of Cognitive Structures Mediated by Mode of Communication?
The objective of this study was to observe evidence of structural transfer among subjects in a group problem-solving activity and determine whether mode of collaborative technology or use of a priming agent affected the nature of transferred structures. Evidence for structural transfer is found in three theoretical perspectives: organizational ditransitive (linguistic) verb structures, adaptive structuration theory, and mental model transfer theory. Dependent variables included various grammatical structures and coefficients derived from pretest and posttest scores on David Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory, modified for the experiment. The combination of changes in grammatical frequencies and learning style may suggest that one or more media or the priming agent may affect structural transfer. Results indicate that groups using the GroupSystems™ collaborative technology produced less overall linguistic content than did subjects using a generic chat system, but employed more complex language as indicated by frequency of the organizational ditransitive verb structure. Also, subjects supplied with an organization chart (priming agent) during the group problem-solving session experienced greater change on the learning styles inventory than did those participating in the session without the chart. These findings suggest that mode of communication and use of priming agents may contribute positively or negatively to the transfer of structures among group members. Researchers, collaborative system designers, organizational leaders, trainers & educators, and frequent collaborative technology system end-users should be aware of these potential affects. Suggestions for future research are provided. Relationship of theoretical foundations of structural transfer to constructivism is discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3162/
Concurrent Validity of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability-Revised with a Neurologically Compromised Pediatric Population
The Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML) is a relatively new instrument used in the assessment of memory in children. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the WRAML by comparing the performance of children on both the WRAML and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability- Revised (WJTCA-R). Subjects for the study were children in treatment for a brain tumor at a regional children's medical center. Fifty children participated in the study ranging from ages 6 to 17. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which of four selected clusters from the WJTCA-R would have the highest correlation with the Verbal Memory Index (VERI) from the WRAML. The Short-Term Memory (GSM) cluster had the highest correlation ( r = .82) as predicted. A Pearson's product-moment correlational analysis was conducted between the Visual Processing (GV) cluster from the WJTCA-R and the Visual Memory Index (VISI) from the WRAML. GV was found to have a high positive correlation ( r = .63) with VISI. A similar analysis was conducted between the Long-Term Retrieval (GLR) cluster from the WJTCA-R and the Learning Index (LRNI) from the WRAML. GLR was found to have a high positive correlation ( r = .81) with LRNI. Finally, a correlational analysis was conducted between the Broad Cognitive Ability (BCA) scale from the WJTCA-R and the General Memory Index (GENI) from the WRAML. A high positive correlation ( r = .87) was found between these most global measures from the two batteries. The observed correlation between BCA and GENI was much higher than anticipated. The author concluded that neurological impairment had affected subject memory and intellectual functioning in similar ways. The results do not generalize to children who have not had similar decrements in cognitive functioning. Future research should establish a baseline correlation between the two instruments with a non-impaired population. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc2700/
Constructing Transformative Experiences Through Problem Posing in a High School English Research Project.
This dissertation chronicles my search to engage high school English students in inquiry as part of a formal research process. The perspective of critical literacy theory is used to describe the four phases of the problem posing process in shaping student research and action. Grounded in Freire's approach and consistent with Dewey and others who advocate inquiry, action and relevance, Wink's process is built into the instructional plan described in this study. Because of the real-life context of the classroom and the complex social phenomena being considered, a case study methodology was utilized in which multiple sources of data converged to develop the themes. Data sources included the work and artifacts of ten students in a tenth grade English class during the spring semester of 2008. The analysis focuses on the supports, the constraints and the impact of problem posing on the high school research assignment. The analysis, findings, and conclusions contribute to the literature in three areas: audience, reflection and grading. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9919/
A Content Analysis of School Reading Textbooks in Taiwan and in Texas
The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the values, beliefs, and ideas in school reading textbooks (Readers) in Taiwan and in Texas. It intended to examine the social control function of school Readers, with which a culture deliberately molds its young generation. This study employed primarily qualitative methods. The collection of data used the technique of content analysis, student surveys, and teacher expert panel discussions. The analysis of data followed a constant comparative approach. The themes shared by the two sets of Readers included family, friends, humans and living creatures, political ideals, reading/writing, appreciation of nature, science, indomitable spirit, turning danger into safety, setting goals, education, desirable and undesirable qualities or behaviors. Despite the similarities of these themes, the substance or focus of them may vary. The themes unique to the Texas Readers were content knowledge, cultural diversity, dilemma and choice, observations about people, words, tomorrow's technology, winning, and general truth. The themes unique to the Taiwan Readers included life philosophy, learning, necessary difficulties, sensitivity, and military strategies. The theme occurring most frequently in both sets of Readers was the desirable qualities or behaviors. The values advocated in the Taiwan Readers were idealistic and had a society-centered focus (for example, patriotism, appreciation of others, serving others, and honesty). Absolute moral principles were taught. A group orientation and altruism were evident. In contrast, the Texas Readers did not have such an emphasis on the concept of group. Personal feelings, individual accomplishments, and self-centered values (for instance, effort, courage, determination, talent, and independence) received more attention. The values were perceived to be relative to the situation. The Taiwan Readers, produced by a national education system, transmitted traditional Chinese beliefs and values. The Texas Readers, with the publishers' intent to avoid controversies, presented more general or universal values. Although the sources of control were different, they influenced textbook content in a similar way. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278397/
A Correlational Analysis of Client Change In Sheltered Workshops with Selected Characteristics of the Client, Vocational Rehabilitation Counselor and Workshop Supervisor
This investigation was designed to assess the amount of attitudinal change experienced by the client and certain selected characteristics of the client, his vocational rehabilitation counselor, immediate workshop supervisor and his sheltered workshop. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279121/
The Current Status of High School Mathematics Programs in North Central Texas as Related to Selected Factors
The problem of this study was to investigate and compare the current status of mathematics programs in large, medium, and small high schools in North Central Texas in relation to selected factors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164408/
Curriculum Analysis in Teacher Preparation Programs at the College of Basic Education in Kuwait
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Preparing quality teachers is a continuing issue and concern in discussions about the future of schools in many countries. This study described and compared the stated goals and perceived outcomes of teacher preparation programs at the College of Basic Education (CBE) in Kuwait. This information will assist educational decision makers in Kuwait to align teacher preparation at the CBE and decide what is needed to make the programs more effective. The study assessed the perceptions of knowledge, skills, and attitudes of student teachers, new teachers, and instructors toward the existing program at the CBE in Kuwait. The discussion of teacher preparation in Kuwait was used to set a cultural and historical context. The literature reviewed recommendations from the United States to develop a framework of five common standards for analyzing the teacher preparation curriculum: content knowledge, instruction, diversity, professional development, and field work. In addition, research and evaluation of teacher education programs were reviewed for perceptions of student teachers and new teachers about their preparation and for methodology. Document analysis techniques were used with current documents from four major teacher preparation programs in the CBE. Five standards from U.S. recommendations were also found in the CBE curriculum. However, the analysis suggested that the curriculum in Kuwait might increase attention to professional attitudes and use of new technologies to prepare teachers. A three-part questionnaire was developed based upon the questionnaires of Van Zandt, Smith, and Zelazek et al. The questionnaire was translated into the Arabic language, and 280 responses to the survey instrument were analyzed. Perceptions of pre-service teachers, new teachers, and instructors toward the existing curriculum at the CBE in Kuwait were positive (3.3 and higher on 5-point scale) toward preparation of teachers’ knowledge, skills, and attitudes. However, a significant contrast was found between groups in perceptions of knowledge and skills. Pre-service teachers were more positive than first-year teachers or college instructors in their perceptions. No significant differences were found in attitudes. Recommendations included a suggestion to the faculty at CBE for continuing the model of curriculum analysis from this study to evaluate and address possible improvements in the teacher preparation program, such as use of technology and more attention to professional attitudes. Replication of the study was also suggested for other colleges of education in the Middle East. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc2583/
Cyberbullying: Responses of Adolescents and Parents toward Digital Aggression
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Cyberbullying is a category of bullying that occurs in the digital realm which affects our students at astonishing rates. Unlike traditional bullying, where displays of aggression may be evident to bystanders, the ramification of cyberbullying occurs through unconventional ways (e.g., text messaging; online weblogs; video sharing), which results in many cases being camouflaged by the advancement in technology. Nonetheless, the effects of this digital form of peer aggression can be as detrimental as face-to-face bullying. The characteristics of cyberbullying and its influences on adolescents and parents of adolescents were examined. The data accrued is based on an anonymous survey through one of the following methods: (a) paper-pencil survey for adolescent group with 37-question items on the adolescent questionnaire and (b) web-based survey for the parent group with 22-question items on the parent questionnaire. Each survey was systematically coded according to the participating group and assigned code numbers (i.e., 1 represents adolescent group and 2 represents parent group) was provided to ensure confidentiality of the study. Survey examined individual variables among the two target groups: (a) adolescents between 13 and 17 years of age and (b) parents of adolescents between 13 and 17 years of age. Specifically, individual variables examined include (a) demographics, (b) personal experiences, (c) vicarious experiences, and (d) preventative resources. A total of 137 participants (62 adolescents; 75 parents) responded to the survey. Results indicated that 90% of the participants from the adolescent group have reported to experience either as victims or as bystanders of cyberbullying. In addition, 70% of the victims have been cyberbullied 1 to 2 times within a month period and 50% of the victims did not know the perpetrator. Secondly, 89% of parent participants indicated to be knowledgeable about the issues relating to cyberbullying and 89% reported to have no knowledge if their child has or has not been a victim of cyberbullying. Furthermore, qualitative findings of personal perspectives toward cyberbullying from each participating group are discussed. A review of literature is provided and results and analysis of the survey are discussed as well as recommendations for future research. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12215/
The Departing Experience: a Qualitative Study of Personal Accounts by Women Who Are Former Athletic Directors of Intercollegiate Athletic Programs for Women
What happened to women who are former athletic directors of intercollegiate athletic programs during each of the four stages of the departing experience was the problem of this study. A qualitative design using personal interviews for data collection and ethnoscientific explanation for analysis of the data were used to study thirty-one women who were athletic directors between 1975 and 1986. Analytical tasks performed for each of the four levels of analysis helped answer research questions directed toward finding patterns among women in the following areas: what happened to them within and throughout the four stages of the departing experience, reasons they left the position of athletic director, and satisfaction in their subsequent job. Analysis of the data established that the departing experience occurred in four stages. How the subjects responded to the way that opportunities for female student-athletes were offered during each st3ge of the departing experience determined whether they were in positive or negative circumstances. Sixteen subjects either were in positive circumstances throughout the departing experience or ended it in positive circumstances. Fifteen subjects were either in negative circumstances throughout the departing experience or ended it in negative circumstances. The ability to reevaluate their beliefs and values, adapt to changes in their programs, make rational decisions, and influence others to support their decisions determined whether they were in positive or negative circumstances in each stage of the departing experience. In general, the findings of this study support literature on women in administrative positions and literature on the effects of job loss and job change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc331529/
A Descriptive Analysis of Selected Attitudes, Interests, and Personality Characteristics of Mature College Women
The problem of this study was to describe, by use of a questionnaire and selected testing instruments, mature college women enrolled in undergraduate curricula at a state supported university in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area. Factors of marital status, major fields of study, children, employment patterns age, part time and full time enrollment, family attitudes, regarding continuing education, and membership in ethnic groups were included in this study. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164493/
A Descriptive Analysis of the Process of Client-centered Play Therapy
The problem of this study was a descriptive analysis of the process of client-centered play therapy. The purposes of this study were (l) to investigate and describe the patterns of play activities, nonverbal expressions, and verbal comments during the process of client-centered play therapy; (2) to determine whether phases of emotional and/or social development do exist during the process of client-centered play therapy; and, (3) to describe any identified phases of emotional and/or social development that exist during the process of client-centered play therapy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164478/
Determination of the Lactate Threshold by Respiratory Gas Exchange Measures and Blood Lactate Levels During Incremental-Load Work
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the change in pulmonary ventilation (V_E), ventilatory equivalent of oxygen (VE_O_2) and lactic acid (LA) in relation to oxygen uptake (V_O_2) as predictors of the lactate threshold (LT). Eight healthy male (21.9 ± 3.0 years) subjects conducted three incremental-load tests. In each test the initial work rate consisted of 4 minutes of unloaded pedaling ("0" load) followed by incremental-load work of 360 Kgm • min^-1 at 60 rpm for trial I and trial II, while during trial III the work rate consisted of 540 Kgm • min^-1 of incremental-load work at 90 rpm. Work load was increased every third minute until the subject reached voluntary exhaustion. Blood samples from a forearm vein were collected during trial II (60 rpm) and trial III (90 rpm) and analyzed for lactic acid. In our subjects the measured (x̄ ± SD) lowest VE_O_2 for O_2 in relation to V_O_2 for trial I of 22.9 ± 1.9 occurred at a V_O_2 of 1.27 ± 0.8 L • min^-1. For trial II the VE_O_2 of 22.4 ± 1.3 occurred at a V_O_2 of 1.30 ± 0.09 L • min^-1, while for trial III a VE_O_2 of 24.4 ± 2.5 occurred at a V_O_2 of 1.84 ± 0.15 L • min^-1. The lowest VE_O_2 and onset of LA accumulation as calculated from individual exponential equations relating V_E to V_O_2 yielded V_O_2 values at 1.77 ± 0.18 L • min^-1 and 1.74 ± 0.25 L • min^-1 for trial II, and 1.83 ± 0.19 L • min^-1 and 2.02 ± 0.53 during trial III. Utilizing ln[LA]-ln V_O_2 equations, the LT occurred at a V_O_2 of 1.30 ± 0.07 L • min^-1 during trial II and 1.85 ± 0.12 L • min^-1 during trial III. It was concluded that during the 60 rpm test that the lactate threshold was best predicted by measured lowest VE_O_2 and the plot of the In[LA] to In V_O_2 relationship. The methods used in this study provide a valid and reliable estimate of the lactate threshold and support the use of measured lowest VE_O_2 , a respiratory gas exchange measure, as an indirect measure of the lactate threshold. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc331769/
Development of a Discouragement Scale for Adults with Normative Data for Gay Males
According to Alfred Adler, founder of Individual Psychology, a feeling of inferiority is in some degree common to all people. People who are unable to overcome these inferiority feelings by striving for cooperation may become discouraged. Although there are three scales to measure social interest, no scales measuring discouragement for adults was found. Additionally, Adler held basic assumptions regarding homosexuality, and the findings suggest that the assumptions should be reexamined. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, three University of North Texas candidates developed a discouragement scale for adults 18 years of age and older, known as the Discouragement Scale for Adults (DSA). Discouragement was examined relative to the five life tasks. Second, this candidate normed the instrument for the scores of gay male subjects and compared it to the scores of the other subject groups. Since the emphasis was on developing the instrument and norming it for various subject groups, no hypothesis was developed. Data was collected on three subject groups, known as the general norm subjects, the discouraged subjects, and the gay male subjects. Analyses were performed on the scores. Among the analyses, it was found that gay male subjects were slightly more discouraged than the general norm subjects, and the discouraged subjects were far greater discouraged than the other two subject groups. Initial reliability and validity was found to be high, offering support that the DSA is a reliable and valid instrument. The recommendations for further research include cultural and gender studies, predicting behavior, counseling intervention, and exploring the relationship between discouragement and stressors, such as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277855/
The Development of A Philosophy for Advising Elementary Education Majors in their Selection of an Academic Area of Specialization
This study is concerned with the problem of providing a program of formal advising for aiding elementary education majors in their selection of an academic area of specialization. . digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164460/
Development of a System for Reporting Disciplinary Problems by Utilizing Data Processing
The problem of this study was to develop and prepare a data processing system that would report, catalog, and file information pertaining to discipline of students referred to the principal. The purposes of the study were to develop a systematic approach to the reporting of disciplinary incidents, to develop a system of reports that could show what actions were being taken in specified areas and that could provide a cross reference of this information with other data, and to provide a system whereby information concerning disciplinary problems and actions taken could be compiled for a future longitudinal study. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164611/
The Development of a Theory of Sports Competitiveness
The purpose of this study was to construct a theory of sports competitiveness which would (1) contribute to a greater understanding of competitiveness as an aspect of human behavior affecting sports performance, and (2) serve as a source of hypotheses for experimental research and as a framework for interpretation of the results of experimental studies of competitiveness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164525/
Differences in Attitudes of Public School Students Toward Selected Drugs and the Relationship Between these Attitudes and Drug Knowledge
The problem was to identify the differences in attitudes of public school students at various educational levels toward selected drugs, and to determine the relationship between those attitudes and students' knowledge of drugs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164463/
Differences in Student and Faculty Attitudes toward Physical Activity
The problem was to identify the differences in attitudes toward physical activity of students and faculty within a health, physical education, and recreation professional preparation program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279277/
A Differential Study of Reasons Why Students Drop Out of School as Related to Actual Dropout-preventive Practices of a Metropolitan School District
The problem of this study was the differentiation of high schools in a metropolitan school district from the standpoint of the measures taken to prevent student dropouts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164564/
Dimensions of Quality : Teachers' Beliefs and Practices in Texas Public Prekindergartens
This study explores beliefs and practices about standards of quality in Texas public prekindergartens as viewed from various perspectives, including prekindergarten teachers, administrators of prekindergarten programs, and families of prekindergarten students. These beliefs and practices are compared with widely-accepted national standards of quality for preschool programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277857/
Educators' Technology Level of Use and Methods for Learning Technology Integrations.
The purpose of this study was to describe technology learning methods that teachers attend and perceive as effective. The goal was to provide district personnel data that may be utilized when planning for more effective technology staff development. This study examined (1) the methods of learning instructional technology that are being utilized by teachers and administrators and (2) why these methods are being utilized in two Texas school districts. Data was collected from educators via an online survey consisting of demographics, technology training methods, level of technology use (CBAM 1 item), stages of adoption and technology level of use (LoTi, 50-item). Educators with different technology levels of use (high, low) differed on their perceptions and utilization of technology training methods. Specifically, educators with different technology levels of use differed in their perceptions of independent online help, and learning through trial and error technology training methods. Results from the study showed that educators tended to use the technology training method that they perceived as most effective. Educators tended to utilize learning by trial and error, peer support, and technology personnel support the most frequently for learning technology integration Educators' in the study had varying technology levels of use based on their educator categories. Administrators tended to score much higher than both elementary and secondary teachers on their technology levels of use. Participants gave a variety of reasons for utilizing certain technology training methods most frequently. The most popular reason was that the method fit into their time schedule followed by the location of the training. The least given reason was that it was the best method for learning the technology skill. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4325/