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UNT Theses and Dissertations
 Absolute Beta Counting Using Thick Sources
 The problem with which we shall concern ourselves in this paper is the selfscattering and selfabsorption of beta particles by the source. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96872/
 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Studies of Highly Charged Molecular Ions
 The existence of singly, doubly, and triply charged diatomic molecular ions was observed by using an Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique. The mean lifetimes of 3 MeV boron diatomic molecular ions were measured. No isotopic effects on the mean lifetimes of boron diatomic molecules were observed for charge state 3+. Also, the mean lifetime of SiF^3+ was measured. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279004/
 Analysis of Biological Materials Using a Nuclear Microprobe
 The use of nuclear microprobe techniques including: Particle induced xray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) for elemental analysis and quantitative elemental imaging of biological samples is especially useful in biological and biomedical research because of its high sensitivity for physiologically important trace elements or toxic heavy metals. The nuclear microprobe of the Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL) has been used to study the enhancement in metal uptake of two different plants. The roots of corn (Zea mays) have been analyzed to study the enhancement of iron uptake by adding Fe (II) or Fe (III) of different concentrations to the germinating medium of the seeds. The Fe uptake enhancement effect produced by lacing the germinating medium with carbon nanotubes has also been investigated. The aim of this investigation is to ensure not only high crop yield but also Ferich food products especially from calcareous soil which covers 30% of world’s agricultural land. The result will help reduce iron deficiency anemia, which has been identified as the leading nutritional disorder especially in developing countries by the World Health Organization. For the second plant, Mexican marigold (Tagetes erecta), the effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus intraradices) for the improvement of leadphytoremediation of lead contaminated soil has been investigated. Phytoremediation provides an environmentally safe technique of removing toxic heavy metals (like lead), which can find their way into human food, from lands contaminated by human activities like mining or by natural disasters like earthquakes. The roots of Mexican marigold have been analyzed to study the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in enhancement of lead uptake from the contaminated rhizosphere. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700099/
 Analyzing Magnet System for the Electrostatic Accelerator
 This thesis describes the design and construction of a linear accelerator, specifically, a positiveion source, a high voltage supply, an accelerating column, and the necessary associated vacuum system. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc130409/
 Anderson Localization in TwoChannel Wires with Correlated Disorder: DNA as an Application
 This research studied the Anderson localization of electrons in twochannel wires with correlated disorder and in DNA molecules. It involved an analytical calculation part where the formula for the inverse localization length for electron states in a twochannel wire is derived. It also involved a computational part where the localization length is calculated for some DNA molecules. Electron localization in twochannel wires with correlated disorder was studied using a singleelectron tightbinding model. Calculations were within secondorder Bornapproximation to secondorder in disorder parameters. An analytical expression for localization length as a functional of correlations in potentials was found. Anderson localization in DNA molecules were studied in singlechannel wire and twochannel models for electron transport in DNA. In both of the models, some DNA sequences exhibited delocalized electron states in their energy spectrum. Studies with twochannel wire model for DNA yielded important link between electron localization properties and genetic information. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5204/
 Angular Dependence of the Stopping Processes and the Yields of Ioninduced Electron Emission from Channeled MEV Protons in <100> Silicon Foils
 The present work reports the experimental evidence of anomalous energy loss, energy straggling, and the corresponding ioninduced electron emission yields of channeled protons in silicon. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279025/
 The Angular Distribution and Total Flux of Neutrons Obtained from the DeuteriumTritium Reaction
 Monoenergetic neutrons have been produced with the lowvoltage CockroftWalton accelerator at North Texas State College using two different reactions. It is the purpose of this paper to report the angular distribution and total flux of the neutrons obtained from the T(D,n) reaction. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc107901/
 The Angular Distribution of the DeuteriumDeuterium Neutrons with 100 Kev Deuterons
 It is the purpose of this paper to present the experimental techniques used in obtaining. 3.25 MeV neutrons from the H2(d,n)He3 reaction, as well as an analysis of the experimental data. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc107904/
 Anisotropic Relaxation Time for Solids with Ellipsoidal Fermi Surfaces
 Many solids have Fermi surfaces which are approximated as ellipsoids. A comprehensive solution for the magnetoconductivity of an ellipsoid is obtained which proves the existence of a relaxation time tensor which can be anisotropic and which is a function of energy only. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278322/
 Antiferromagnetic Ordering in PicrylAminoCarbazyl
 The purpose of the experiment was to investigate other paramagnetic salts to determine whether the W. B. perchlorate type peak was more common than previously suspected. An organic salt, picrylnaminocarbazyl, was chosen. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc163864/
 Application of the Finite Element Method to Some Simple Systems in One and Two Dimensions.
 The finite element method (FEM) is reviewed and applied to the onedimensional eigensystems of the isotropic harmonic oscillator, finite well, infinite well and radial hydrogen atom, and the twodimensional eigensystems of the isotropic harmonic oscillator and the propagational modes of sound in a rectangular cavity. Computer codes that I developed were introduced and utilized to find accurate results for the FEM eigensolutions. One of the computer codes was modified and applied to the onedimensional unbound quantum mechanical system of a square barrier potential and also provided accurate results. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3087/
 Application of the Wigner Formalism to a Slightly Relativistic Quantum Plasma
 A slightly relativistic fermion gas is described by the dynamical theory obtained from the Wigner distribution function. The problem is approached in a selfconsistent manner including the twobody Darwin Hamiltonian. The goal is to find the departures from equilibrium and dispersion relations for wave propagation in the gas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc130850/
 Approach to Quantum Information starting from Bell's Inequality (Part I) and Statistical Analysis of Time Series Corresponding to Complex Processes (Part II)

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I: Quantum information obeys laws that subtly extend those governing classical information, making possible novel effect such as cryptography and quantum computation. Quantum computations are extremely sensitive to disruption by interaction of the computer with its environment, but this problem can be overcome by recently developed quantum versions of classical errorcorrecting codes and faulttolerant circuits. Based on these ideas, the purpose of this paper is to provide an approach to quantum information by analyzing and demonstrating Bell's inequality and by discussing the problems related to decoherence and errorcorrecting. II: The growing need for a better understanding of complex processes has stimulated the development of new and more advanced data analysis techniques. The purpose of this research was to investigate some of the already existing techniques (Hurst's rescaled range and relative dispersion analysis), to develop a software able to process time series with these techniques, and to get familiar with the theory of diffusion processes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3092/  Backscattering from Prolate Spheroids at Microwave Frequencies
 This thesis examines backscattering from prolate spheroids at microwave frequencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc107919/
 Ballistic Deposition: Global Scaling and Local Time Series.
 Complexity can emerge from extremely simple rules. A paradigmatic example of this is the model of ballistic deposition (BD), a simple model of sedimentary rock growth. In two separate ProbleminLieuof Thesis studies, BD was investigated numerically in (1+1)D on a lattice. Both studies are combined in this document. For problem I, the global interface roughening (IR) process was studied in terms of effective scaling exponents for a generalized BD model. The model used incorporates a tunable parameter B to change the cooperation between aggregating particles. Scaling was found to depart increasingly from the predictions of KardarParisiZhang theory both with decreasing system sizes and with increasing cooperation. For problem II, the local single column evolution during BD rock growth was studied via statistical analysis of time series. Connections were found between single column time series properties and the global IR process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4392/
 Boundary Scattering of Electrons in Thin Cadmium Single Crystals
 In the present investigation, zinc was plated onto a cadmium crystal to determine the effect on the scattering parameter. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc130996/
 Brownian Movement and Quantum Computers

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This problem in lieu of thesis is a discussion of two topics: Brownian movement and quantum computers. Brownian movement is a physical phenomenon in which the particle velocity is constantly undergoing random fluctuations. Chapters 2, 3 and 4, describe Brownian motion from three different perspectives. The next four chapters are devoted to the subject of quantum computers, which are the signal of a new era of technology and science combined together. In the first chapter I present to a reader the two topics of my problem in lieu of thesis. In the second chapter I explain the idea of Brownian motion, its interpretation as a stochastic process and I find its distribution function. The next chapter illustrates the probabilistic picture of Brownian motion, where the statistical averages over trajectories are related to the probability distribution function. Chapter 4 shows how to derive the Langevin equation, introduced in chapter 1, using a Hamiltonian picture of a bath with infinite number of harmonic oscillators. The chapter 5 explains how the idea of quantum computers was developed and how stepbystep all the puzzles for the field of quantum computers were created. The next chapter, chapter 6, discus the basic quantum unit of information namely, the so called qubit and its properties. Chapter 7 is devoted to quantum logic gates, which are important for conducting logic operation in quantum computers. This chapter explains how they were developed and how they are different from classical ones. Chapter 8 is about the quantum algorithm, Shor's algorithm. Quantum algorithm in quantum computers enables one to solve problems that are hard to solve on digital computers. The last chapter contains conclusions on Brownian movement and the field of quantum computers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4660/  A Calculation of the KaonNeutron Scattering Cross Section
 The purpose of this investigation was to study the scattering processes of K+ mesons with neutrons. In order to do such a study one must first make certain basic assumptions about the type of interaction involved and then proceed to calculate physically meaningful qualities which describe the processes. Thus, the problem is this: assuming the validity of Feynman's rules for these strongly interacting particles, calculate the differential and total scattering cross sections for the interaction of scalar K+ mesons and neutrons. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc130687/
 Carbon Contamination Measurements in Single Silicon Crystals
 The intent of this investigation was to directly measure the amount of carbon contamination in a single silicon crystal and, in so doing, develop a mathematical procedure that would be applicable to other contaminants in other substances. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc131331/
 Carbon Nanotube/Microwave Interactions and Applications to Hydrogen Fuel Cells.

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One of the leading problems that will be carried into the 21st century is that of alternative fuels to get our planet away from the consumption of fossil fuels. There has been a growing interest in the use of nanotechnology to somehow aid in this progression. There are several unanswered questions in how to do this. It is known that carbon nanotubes will store hydrogen but it is unclear how to increase that storage capacity and how to remove this hydrogen fuel once stored. This document offers some answers to these questions. It is possible to implant more hydrogen in a nanotube sample using a technique of ion implantation at energy levels ~50keV and below. This, accompanied with the rapid removal of that stored hydrogen through the application of a microwave field, proves to be one promising avenue to solve these two unanswered questions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5796/  Chaos and Momentum Diffusion of the Classical and Quantum Kicked Rotor
 The de BroglieBohm (BB) approach to quantum mechanics gives trajectories similar to classical trajectories except that they are also determined by a quantum potential. The quantum potential is a "fictitious potential" in the sense that it is part of the quantum kinetic energy. We use quantum trajectories to treat quantum chaos in a manner similar to classical chaos. For the kicked rotor, which is a bounded system, we use the Benettin et al. method to calculate both classical and quantum Lyapunov exponents as a function of control parameter K and find chaos in both cases. Within the chaotic sea we find in both cases nonchaotic stability regions for K equal to multiples of π. For even multiples of π the stability regions are associated with classical accelerator mode islands and for odd multiples of π they are associated with new oscillator modes. We examine the structure of these regions. Momentum diffusion of the quantum kicked rotor is studied with both BB and standard quantum mechanics (SQM). A general analytical expression is given for the momentum diffusion at quantum resonance of both BB and SQM. We obtain agreement between the two approaches in numerical experiments. For the case of nonresonance the quantum potential is not zero and must be included as part of the quantum kinetic energy for agreement. The numerical data for momentum diffusion of classical kicked rotor is well fit by a power law DNβ in the number of kicks N. In the anomalous momentum diffusion regions due to accelerator modes the exponent β(K) is slightly less than quadratic, except for a slight dip, in agreement with an upper bound (K2/2)N2. The corresponding coefficient D(K) in these regions has three distinct sections, most likely due to accelerator modes with period greater than one. We also show that the local Lyapunov exponent of the classical kicked rotor has a plateau for a duration that depends on the initial separation and then decreases asymptotically as O(t1lnt), where t is the time. This behavior is consistent with an upper bound that is determined analytically. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4824/
 Characterization and Field Emission Properties of Mo2C and Diamond Thin Films Deposited on Mo Foils and Tips by Electrophoresis
 In this dissertation M02C and diamond films deposited by electrophoresis on flat Mo foils and tips have been studied to determine their suitability as field emission tips. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278393/
 Characterization, Properties and Applications of Novel Nanostructured Hydrogels.

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The characterization, properties and applications of the novel nanostructured microgel (nanoparticle network and microgel crystal) composed of polyNisopropylacrylanmidecoallylamine (PNIPAMcoallylamine) and PNIPAMcoacrylic acid(AA) have been investigated. For the novel nanostructured hydrogels with the two levels of structure: the primary network inside each individual particle and the secondary network of the crosslinked nanoparticles, the new shear modulus, drug release law from hydrogel with heterogeneous structure have been studied. The successful method for calculating the volume fraction related the phase transition of colloid have been obtained. The kinetics of crystallization in an aqueous dispersion of PNIPAM particles has been explored using UVvisible transmission spectroscopy. This dissertation also includes the initial research on the melting behavior of colloidal crystals composed of PNIPAM microgels. Many new findings in this study area have never been reported before. The theoretical model for the columnar crystal growth from the top to bottom of PNIPAM microgel has been built, which explains the growth mechanism of the novel columnar hydrogel colloidal crystals. Since the unique structure of the novel nanostructured hydrogels, their properties are different with the conventional hydrogels and the hardspherelike system. The studies and results in this dissertation have the important significant for theoretical study and valuable application of these novel nanostructured hydrogels. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5605/  Charge Collection Studies on Integrated Circuit Test Structures using HeavyIon Microbeams and MEDICI Simulation Calculations
 Ion induced charge collection dynamics within Integrated Circuits (ICs) is important due to the presence of ionizing radiation in the IC environment. As the charge signals defining data states are reduced by voltage and area scaling, the semiconductor device will naturally have a higher susceptibility to ionizing radiation induced effects. The ionizing radiation can lead to the undesired generation and migration of charge within an IC. This can alter, for example, the memory state of a bit, and thereby produce what is called a "soft" error, or Single Event Upset (SEU). Therefore, the response of ICs to natural radiation is of great concern for the reliability of future devices. Immunity to soft errors is listed as a requirement in the 1997 National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors prepared by the Semiconductor Industry Association in the United States. To design more robust devices, it is essential to create and test accurate models of induced charge collection and transport in semiconductor devices. A heavy ion microbeam produced by an accelerator is an ideal tool to study charge collection processes in ICs and to locate the weak nodes and structures for improvement through hardening design. In this dissertation, the Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) technique is utilized to simulate recoil effects of ions in ICs. These silicon or light ion recoils are usually produced by the elastic scattering or inelastic reactions between cosmic neutrons or protons and the lattice atoms in ICs. Specially designed test structures were experimentally studied, using microbeams produced at Sandia National Laboratories. A new technique, Diffusion Time Resolved IBICC, is first proposed in this work to measure the average arrival time of the diffused charge, which can be related to the first moment (or the average time) of the arrival carrier density at the junction. A 2D device simulation tool, the MEDICI code, and heavyion microbeams are used to calculate and measure charge collection and relative arrival time on stripelike test junctions. The MEDICI simulation is in qualitative and sometimes even quantitative agreement with the microbeam measurements. The amount of charge collection and the magnitude of average arrival time for diffused charge collection can be crucial to understanding and mitigating radiation induced circuit malfunctions during normal IC operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc2469/
 Charge State Dependence of LShell XRay Production Cross Sections of ₂₈Ni, ₂₉Cu, ₃₀Zn, ₃₁Ga, and ₃₂Ge by Energetic Oxygen Ions
 Charge state dependence of Lshell xray production cross sections have been measured for 414 MeV ¹⁶O^q (q=3⁺8⁺) ions incident on ultraclean, ultrathin copper, and for 12 MeV ¹⁶O^q (q=3⁺8⁺) on nickel, zinc, gallium and germanium solid foils. Lshell xray production cross section were measured using target foils of thickness ≤0.6 μg/cm² evaporated onto 5 μg/cm² carbon backings. Oxygen ions at MeV energies and charge state q were produced using a 3MV 9SDH2 National Electrostatics Corporation tandem Pelletron accelerator. Different charge states, with and without Kvacancies, were produced using a post acceleration nitrogen striping gas cell or ¹²C stripping foils. Lshell xrays from ultrathin ₂₈Ni, ₂₉Cu,₃₀Zn,₃₁Ga, and ₃₂Ge targets were measured using a Si(Li) xray detector with a FWHM resolution of 135 eV at 5.9 keV. The scattered projectiles were detected simultaneously by means of silicon surface barrier detectors at angle of 45° and 169° with respect to the beam direction. The electron capture (EC) as well as direct ionization (DI) contributions were determined from the projectile charge state dependence of the target xray production cross sections under single collision conditions. The present work was undertaken to expand the measurements of Lshell xray production cross sections upon selected elements with low Lshell binding energies by energetic ¹⁶O^q (q=3⁺,4⁺,5⁺,6⁺,7⁺,8⁺) incident ions. Collision systems chosen for this work have sufficiently large Z₁/Z₂ ratios (0.250.28) so that EC may noticeably contribute to the xray production enhancement. In this region, reliable experimental data are particularly scarce, thus, fundamental work in this area is still necessary. DI and EC cross section measurements were compared with the ECPSSR and the first Born theories over the range of 0.25 <Z₁/Z₂ < 0.29 and 0.38 < v₁/v₂_L <0.72. The ECPSSR theoretical predictions (including DI and EC) are in closer agreement with the data than the first Born's. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277981/
 Charge State Dependence of MShell XRay Production in 67Ho by 212 MeV Carbon Ions
 The charge state dependence of Mshell xray production cross sections of 67HO bombarded by 212 MeV carbon ions with and without Kvacancies are reported. The experiment was performed using an NEC 9SDH2 tandem accelerator at the Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory of the University of North Texas. The high charge state carbon ions were produced by a postaccelerator stripping gas cell. Ultraclean holmium targets were used in ionatom collision to generate Mshell x rays at energies from 1.05 to 1.58 keV. The xray measurements were made with a windowless Si(Li) xray detector that was calibrated using radiative sources, particle induced xray emission (PIXE), and the atomic field bremsstrahlung (AFB) techniques. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278725/
 Charge State Distributions in Molecular Dissociation
 The present work provides charge state fractions that may be used to generate TEAMS relative sensitivity factors for impurities in semiconductor materials. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278340/
 Complexity as a Form of Transition From Dynamics to Thermodynamics: Application to Sociological and Biological Processes.
 This dissertation addresses the delicate problem of establishing the statistical mechanical foundation of complex processes. These processes are characterized by a delicate balance of randomness and order, and a correct paradigm for them seems to be the concept of sporadic randomness. First of all, we have studied if it is possible to establish a foundation of these processes on the basis of a generalized version of thermodynamics, of nonextensive nature. A detailed account of this attempt is reported in Ignaccolo and Grigolini (2001), which shows that this approach leads to inconsistencies. It is shown that there is no need to generalize the KolmogorovSinai entropy by means of a nonextensive indicator, and that the anomaly of these processes does not rest on their nonextensive nature, but rather in the fact that the process of transition from dynamics to thermodynamics, this being still extensive, occurs in an exceptionally extended time scale. Even, when the invariant distribution exists, the time necessary to reach the thermodynamic scaling regime is infinite. In the case where no invariant distribution exists, the complex system lives forever in a condition intermediate between dynamics and thermodynamics. This discovery has made it possible to create a new method of analysis of nonstationary time series which is currently applied to problems of sociological and physiological interest. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4209/
 Complexity as Aging NonPoisson Renewal Processes
 The search for a satisfactory model for complexity, meant as an intermediate condition between total order and total disorder, is still subject of debate in the scientific community. In this dissertation the emergence of nonPoisson renewal processes in several complex systems is investigated. After reviewing the basics of renewal theory, another popular approach to complexity, called modulation, is introduced. I show how these two different approaches, given a suitable choice of the parameter involved, can generate the same macroscopic outcome, namely an inverse power law distribution density of events occurrence. To solve this ambiguity, a numerical instrument, based on the theoretical analysis of the aging properties of renewal systems, is introduced. The application of this method, called renewal aging experiment, allows us to distinguish if a time series has been generated by a renewal or a modulation process. This method of analysis is then applied to several physical systems, from blinking quantum dots, to the human brain activity, to seismic fluctuations. Theoretical conclusions about the underlying nature of the considered complex systems are drawn. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3706/
 Computational Studies of Selected Ruthenium Catalysis Reactions.
 Computational techniques were employed to investigate pathways that would improve the properties and characteristics of transition metal (i.e., ruthenium) catalysts, and to explore their mechanisms. The studied catalytic pathways are particularly relevant to catalytic hydroarylation of olefins. These processes involved the +2 to +3 oxidation of ruthenium and its effect on rutheniumcarbon bond strengths, carbonhydrogen bond activation by 1,2addition/reductive elimination pathways appropriate to catalytic hydrogen/deuterium exchange, and the possible intermediacy of highly coordinatively unsaturated (e.g., 14electron) ruthenium complexes in catalysis. The calculations indicate a significant decrease in the RuCH3 homolytic bond dissociation enthalpy for the oxidation of TpRu(CO)(NCMe)(Me) to its RuIII cation through both reactant destabilization and product stabilization. This oxidation can thus lead to the olefin polymerization observed by Gunnoe and coworkers, since weak RuIIIC bonds would afford quick access to alkyl radical species. Calculations support the experimental proposal of a mechanism for catalytic hydrogen/deuterium exchange by a RuIIOH catalyst. Furthermore, calculational investigations reveal a probable pathway for the activation of CH bonds that involves phosphine loss, 1,2addition to the RuOH bond and then reversal of these steps with deuterium to incorporate it into the substrate. The presented results offer the indication for the net addition of aromatic CH bonds across a RuIIOH bond in a process that although thermodynamically unfavorable is kinetically accessible. Calculations support experimental proposals as to the possibility of binding of weakly coordinating ligands such as dinitrogen, methylene chloride and fluorobenzene to the "14electron" complex [(PCP)Ru(CO)]+ in preference to the formation of agostic RuHC interactions. Reactions of [(PCP)Ru(CO)(1ClCH2Cl)][BAr'4] with N2CHPh or phenylacetylene yielded conversions that are exothermic to both terminal carbenes and vinylidenes, respectively, and then bridging isomers of these by CC bond formation resulting from insertion into the RuCipso bond of the phenyl ring of PCP. The QM/MM and DFT calculations on full complexes [(PCP)(CO)Ru=(C)0,1=CHPh]+ and on small models [(PCP')(CO)Ru=(C)0,1=CH2]+, respectively, offered data supportive of the thermodynamic feasibility of the suggested experimental mechanisms and their proposed intermediates. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5203/
 A Computer Analysis of Complex GammaRay Spectra
 The purpose of this investigation was to provide a method for determining the relative intensities of all gamma rays in a particular spectrum, and thereby determine the relative transition probabilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc130612/
 The Concept of Collision Strength and Its Applications
 Collision strength, the measure of strength for a binary collision, hasn't been defined clearly. In practice, many physical arguments have been employed for the purpose and taken for granted. A scattering angle has been widely and intensively used as a measure of collision strength in plasma physics for years. The result of this is complication and unnecessary approximation in deriving some of the basic kinetic equations and in calculating some of the basic physical terms. The Boltzmann equation has a fivefold integral collision term that is complicated. Chandrasekhar and Spitzer's approaches to the linear FokkerPlanck coefficients have several approximations. An effective variablechange technique has been developed in this dissertation as an alternative to scattering angle as the measure of collision strength. By introducing the square of the reduced impulse or its equivalencies as a collision strength variable, many plasma calculations have been simplified. The fivefold linear Boltzmann collision integral and linearized Boltzmann collision integral are simplified to threefold integrals. The arbitrary order linear FokkerPlanck coefficients are calculated and expressed in a uniform expression. The new theory provides a simple and exact method for describing the equilibrium plasma collision rate, and a precise calculation of the equilibrium relaxation time. It generalizes bimolecular collision reaction rate theory to a reaction rate theory for plasmas. A simple formula of high precision with wide temperature range has been developed for electron impact ionization rates for carbon atoms and ions. The universality of the concept of collision strength is emphasized. This dissertation will show how Arrhenius' chemical reaction rate theory and Thomson's ionization theory can be unified as one single theory under the concept of collision strength, and how many important physical terms in different disciplines, such as activation energy in chemical reaction theory, ionization energy in Thomson's ionization theory, and the Coulomb logarithm in plasma physics, can be unified into a single one  the threshold value of collision strength. The collision strength, which is a measure of a transfer of momentum in units of energy, can be used to reconcile the differences between Descartes' opinion and Leibnitz's opinion about the "true'' measure of a force. Like Newton's second law, which provides an instantaneous measure of a force, collision strength, as a cumulative measure of a force, can be regarded as part of a law of force in general. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4530/
 A Continuously Sensitive Cloud Chamber
 A continuous cloud chamber would be a valuable asset to laboratory work in nuclear and atomic physics. For this reason the construction and investigation of a continuously sensitive diffusion cloud chamber has been undertaken. It is the purpose of this paper to report the design and operating characteristics of such a chamber. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc97019/
 Cooperationinduced Criticality in Neural Networks
 The human brain is considered to be the most complex and powerful informationprocessing device in the known universe. The fundamental concepts behind the physics of complex systems motivate scientists to investigate the human brain as a collective property emerging from the interaction of thousand agents. In this dissertation, I investigate the emergence of cooperationinduced properties in a system of interacting units. I demonstrate that the neural network of my research generates a series of properties such as avalanche distribution in size and duration coinciding with the experimental results on neural networks both in vivo and in vitro. Focusing attention on temporal complexity and fractal index of the system, I discuss how to define an order parameter and phase transition. Criticality is assumed to correspond to the emergence of temporal complexity, interpreted as a manifestation of nonPoisson renewal dynamics. In addition, I study the transmission of information between two networks to confirm the criticality and discuss how the network topology changes over time in the light of Hebbian learning. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc283813/
 A Correction Factor for the First Born Approximation
 This thesis looks at a Schroedinger equation and the Born approximation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc130574/
 Criticality in Cooperative Systems
 Cooperative behavior arises from the interactions of single units that globally produce a complex dynamics in which the system acts as a whole. As an archetype I refer to a flock of birds. As a result of cooperation the whole flock gets special abilities that the single individuals would not have if they were alone. This research work led to the discovery that the function of a flock, and more in general, that of cooperative systems, surprisingly rests on the occurrence of organizational collapses. In this study, I used cooperative systems based on selfpropelled particle models (the flock models) which have been proved to be virtually equivalent to sociological network models mimicking the decision making processes (the decision making model). The critical region is an intermediate condition between a highly disordered state and a strong ordered one. At criticality the waiting times distribution density between two consecutive collapses shows an inverse power law form with an anomalous statistical behavior. The scientific evidences are based on measures of information theory, correlation in time and space, and fluctuation statistical analysis. In order to prove the benefit for a system to live at criticality, I made a flock system interact with another similar system, and then observe the information transmission for different disturbance values. I proved that at criticality the transfer of information gets the maximal efficiency. As last step, the flock model has been shown that, despite its simplicity, is sufficiently a realistic model as proved via the use of 3D simulations and computer animations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271910/
 CrossSection at 15.6 and 16.1 MeV
 The intent of this investigation is the determination of the values of the Cs133 (n,2n)Cs132 crosssection at neutron energies of 15.6 and 16.1 MeV. Neutrons of this energy are produced with comparative ease by means of the DT reaction, in which deuterons of energy 500 and 750 keV, respectively, are impingent upon a tritium target. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc131110/
 Cross Section for the 165/Ho (n, 2n) 164/Ho Reaction at 15.6 MeV
 It was the purpose of this investigation to bring together the ideas and procedures involved in the measurement of (n, 2n) reaction cross sections. Some of the inherent properties of the material under investigation (Holium) are involved in determining these relationships. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc131148/
 Cross Section Measurements in Praseodymium141 as a Function of Neutron Bombarding Energy
 Using the parallel disk method of activation analysis, the (n,2n) reaction cross section in 141Pr was measured as a function of neutron energy in the range 15.4 to 18.4 MeV. The bombarding neutrons were produced from the 3T(d,n)4He reaction, where the deuterons were accelerated by the 3MV Van de Graff generator of the North Texas Regional Physics Laboratory in Denton, Texas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc131376/
 Crystalline Polymorphism of Nitrates
 The purpose of this study was to investigate the polymorphism of a group of related compounds. Special emphasis was placed upon the temperature at which transitions occurred and a possible correlation of these temperatures with other properties of the compounds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc97053/
 DD and DT Neutron Excitation of Energy Levels in Cs133
 The purpose of this experiment was to make positive assignment of the Cs133 energy levels excited by the inelastic scattering of neutrons. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc130455/
 A Decay Scheme for 164 Ho
 The present investigation was prompted by several considerations. In previous studies there was considerable variance with regard to the reported values for the halflives of the isomeric and ground states in 164 Ho. There was also considerable variance with regard to the values reported for the branching ratios and the relative intensities of the transitions. Thus a further study of the problem was needed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc131582/
 Decoherence, Master Equation for Open Quantum Systems, and the Subordination Theory
 This thesis addresses the problem of a form of anomalous decoherence that sheds light into the spectroscopy of blinking quantum dots. The system studied is a twostate system, interacting with an external environment that has the effect of establishing an interaction between the two states, via a coherence generating coupling, called inphasing. The collisions with the environment produce also decoherence, named dephasing. Decoherence is interpreted as the entanglement of the coherent superposition of these two states with the environment. The joint action of inphasing and dephasing generates a Markov master equation statistically equivalent to a random walker jumping from one state to the other. This model can be used to describe intermittent fluorescence, as a sequence of "light on" and "light off" states. The experiments on blinking quantum dots indicate that the sojourn times are distributed with an inverse power law. Thus, a proposal to turn the model for Poisson fluorescence intermittency into a model for nonPoisson fluorescence intermittency is made. The collisionlike interaction of the twostate system with the environment is assumed to takes place at random times rather than at regular times. The time distance between one collision and the next is given by a distribution, called the subordination distribution. If the subordination distribution is exponential, a sequence of collisions yielding no persistence is turned into a sequence of "light on" and "light off" states with significant persistence. If the subordination function is an inverse power law the sequel of "light on" and "light off" states becomes equivalent to the experimental sequences. Different conditions are considered, ranging from predominant inphasing to predominant dephasing. When dephasing is predominant the sequel of "light on" and "light off" states in the time asymptotic limit becomes an inverse power law. If the predominant dephasing involves a time scale much larger than the minimum time scale accessible to the experimental observation, thereby generating persistence, the resulting distribution becomes a MittagLeffler function. If dephasing is predominant, in addition to the inverse power law distribution of "light off" and "light on" time duration, a strong correlation between "light on" and "light off" state is predicted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4812/
 Design and Construction of a Positive RadioFrequency Ion Source for the Production of Negative Ions
 It is the purpose of this paper to present a detailed account of the design and construction of this positiveion source and associated equipment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc108015/
 Design and Testing of a Coincidence System
 This paper is concerned with the design, testing and performance of a coincidence system, the proposed North Texas State College accelerator. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc108113/
 Design and Testing of a Corona Column and a Closed Gas Distribution System for a Tandem Van de Graaff Voltage Generator
 The purpose of this study had been to design and test a corona column and an insulating gas distribution system for a small tandem Van de Graaff. The intent of this paper is to describe the gas handling system and to compare experimentally the effects of corona electrode shape on the corona current carried between adjacent sections of the column. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc163849/
 Design and Testing of a Positive Ion Accelerator and Necessary Vacuum System
 This thesis is a study of the design and testing of a positive ion accelerator and necessary vacuum system. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc163830/
 Detection of the Resonant Vibration of the Cellular Membrane Using Femtosecond Laser Pulses
 An optical detection technique is developed to detect and measure the resonant vibration of the cellular membrane. Biological membranes are active components of living cells and play a complex and dynamic role in life processes. They are believed to have oscillation modes of frequencies in the range of 1 to 1000 GHz. To measure such a highfrequency vibration, a linear laser cavity is designed to produce a train of femtosecond pulses of adjustable repetition rate. The method is then directly applied to liposomes, "artificial membrane", stained with a liphophilic potential sensitive dye. The spectral behavior of a selection of potential sensitive dyes in the membrane is also studied. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc331235/
 A Determination of the Bothe Depression Factor for Discs in Water
 The purpose of this work is to determine experimentally the depression of the neutron density by a detecting foil. The depression factor is known as the "selfshading" of the foil. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc130255/
 A Determination of the Fine Structure Constant Using Precision Measurements of Helium Fine Structure
 Spectroscopic measurements of the helium atom are performed to high precision using an atomic beam apparatus and electrooptic laser techniques. These measurements, in addition to serving as a test of helium theory, also provide a new determination of the fine structure constant α. An apparatus was designed and built to overcome limitations encountered in a previous experiment. Not only did this allow an improved level of precision but also enabled new consistency checks, including an extremely useful measurement in 3He. I discuss the details of the experimental setup along with the major changes and improvements. A new value for the J = 0 to 2 fine structure interval in the 23P state of 4He is measured to be 31 908 131.25(30) kHz. The 300 Hz precision of this result represents an improvement over previous results by more than a factor of three. Combined with the latest theoretical calculations, this yields a new determination of α with better than 5 ppb uncertainty, α1 = 137.035 999 55(64). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31547/