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 Department: Department of Chemistry
 Degree Level: Master's
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Exploring Inorganic Catalysis with Electronic Structure Simulations

Exploring Inorganic Catalysis with Electronic Structure Simulations

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Date: 2016-5
Creator: Karbalaei Khani, Sarah
Description: Organometallic catalysis has attracted significant interest from both industry and academia due to its wide applications in organic synthetic transformations. Example of such transformations include the reaction of a zinc carbenoid with olefins to form cyclopropanes. The first project is a computational study using both density functional and correlated wavefunction methods of the reaction between ethylene and model zinc carbenoid, nitrenoid and oxenoid complexes (L-Zn-E-X, E = CH2, NH or O, L = X = I or Cl). It was shown that cyclopropanation of ethylene with IZnCH2I and aziridination of ethylene with IZnNHI proceed via a single-step mechanism with an asynchronous transition state. The reaction barrier for the aziridination with IZnNHI is lower than that of cyclopropanation. Changing the leaving group of IZnNHI from I to Cl, changes the mechanism of the aziridination reaction to a two-step pathway. The calculation results from the epoxidation with IZnOI and ClZnOCl oxenoids suggest a two-step mechanism for both oxenoids. Another important example of organometallic catalysis is the formation of alkyl arenes from arenes and olefins using transition metal catalysis (olefin hydroarylation). We studied with DFT methods the mechanism of a novel Rh catalyst (FlDAB)Rh(TFA)(η2–C2H4) [FlDAB = N,N’ -bis(pentafluorophenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene; TFA = trifluoroacetate] that converts ...
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Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and Raman Spectroscopy Imaging of Biological Tissues

Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and Raman Spectroscopy Imaging of Biological Tissues

Date: 2016-5
Creator: Gorishek, Emma
Description: Laser Ablation Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and Raman spectroscopy are both powerful imaging techniques. Their applications are numerous and extremely potential in the field of biology. In order to improve upon LA-ICP-MS an in-house built cold cell was developed and its effectiveness studied by imaging Brassica napus seeds. To further apply LA-ICP-MS and Raman imaging to the field of entomology a prong gilled mayfly (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from the Róbalo River, located on Navarino Island in Chile, was studied. Analysis of both samples showcased LA-ICP-MS and Raman spectroscopy as effective instruments for imaging trace elements and larger molecules in biological samples respectively.
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Synthesis and Electron Transfer Studies of Supramolecular Triads

Synthesis and Electron Transfer Studies of Supramolecular Triads

Date: 2016-5
Creator: Bodenstedt, Kurt
Description: This study expands the role of polythiophenes as an electron donating chromophore within energy harvesting milti-modular donor-acceptor systems. The polythiophene moiety would act as an electron donating spacer group between the donor and acceptor entities, viz., phenothiazine and fulleropyrrolidine, respectively, in the newly synthesized supramolecular triads. The triads 10-{[2,2';5',2"] terthiophene-5-fulleropyrrolidine} phenothiazine and 10-{[2,2'] bithiophene-5-fulleropyrrolidine} phenothiazine were synthesized and characterized through electrochemical and spectroscopic methods to ascertain their structural integrity. the componets of the triads were selected for their established redox parameters. Phenothiazine would act as a secondary donor and would facilitate hole-transfer from the polythiophene primary electron donor, due to its ease of oxidation and yield a long-lived charge separated state. Fulleropyrrolidine would act as an acceptor for ease of reductive capabilities and its ability to hold multiple charges. Finally, occurrence of photoinduced electron transferleading to the anticipated charge separated states is established from advanced transient spectroscopic techniques on these novel supramolecular systems.
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Determination of Solute Descriptors for Illicit Drugs Using Gas Chromatographic Retention Data and Abraham Solvation Model

Determination of Solute Descriptors for Illicit Drugs Using Gas Chromatographic Retention Data and Abraham Solvation Model

Date: August 2015
Creator: Mitheo, Yannick K.
Description: In this experiment, more than one hundred volatile organic compounds were analyzed with the gas chromatograph. Six capillary columns ZB wax plus, ZB 35, TR1MS, TR5, TG5MS and TG1301MS with different polarities have been used for separation of compounds and illicit drugs. The Abraham solvation model has five solute descriptors. The solute descriptors are E, S, A, B, L (or V). Based on the six stationary phases, six equations were constructed as a training set for each of the six columns. The six equations served to calculate the solute descriptors for a set of illicit drugs. Drugs studied are nicotine (S= 0.870, A= 0.000, B= 1.073), oxycodone(S= 2.564. A= 0.286, B= 1.706), methamphetamine (S= 0.297, A= 1.570, B= 1.009), heroin (S=2.224, A= 0.000, B= 2.136) and ketamine (S= 1.005, A= 0.000, B= 1.126). The solute property of Abraham solvation model is represented as a logarithm of retention time, thus the logarithm of experimental and calculated retention times is compared.
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Synthesis of Gold Complexes From Diphosphine Ligands and Screening Reactions of Heterocyclic Acetylacetonato (Acac) Ligands with Transitional Metal Complexes

Synthesis of Gold Complexes From Diphosphine Ligands and Screening Reactions of Heterocyclic Acetylacetonato (Acac) Ligands with Transitional Metal Complexes

Date: August 2015
Creator: Nyamwihura, Rogers
Description: Syntheses of diphosphine gold (I) complexes from gold THT and two ligands, 4, 5-bis (diphenylphosphino)-4-cyclopenten-1, 3-dione (BPCD) and 2,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)-N-phenylmaleimide (BPPM), were done separately. The reactions happened under ice conditions followed by room temperature conditions and produced two diphosphine gold (I) complexes in moderated yield. Spectroscopic results including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray crystallography were used to study and determine the structures of the products formed. Moreover, X-rays of all newly synthesized diphosphine gold (I) complexes were compared with the known X-ray structures of other phosphine and diphosphine gold (I) complexes. There were direct resemblances in terms of bond length and angle between these new diphosphine gold (I) complex structures and those already published. For instance, the bond lengths and angles from the newly prepared diphosphine gold (I) complexes were similar to those already published. Where there were some deviations in bond angles and length between the newly synthesized structures and those already published, appropriate explanation was given to explain the deviation. Heterocyclic ligands bearing acetylacetonate (ACAC) side arm(s) were prepared from ethyl malonyl chloride and the heterocyclic compounds 8-hydroxylquinoline, Syn-2-peridoxyaldoxime, quinoxalinol and 2, 6-dipyridinylmethanol. The products (heterocyclic ACAC ligands) from these reactions were screened with transition metal carbonyl compounds ...
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Applications of Single Reference Methods to Multi-Reference Problems

Applications of Single Reference Methods to Multi-Reference Problems

Date: May 2015
Creator: Jeffrey, Chris C.
Description: Density functional theory is an efficient and useful method of solving single-reference computational chemistry problems, however it struggles with multi-reference systems. Modifications have been developed in order to improve the capabilities of density functional theory. In this work, density functional theory has been successfully applied to solve multi-reference systems with large amounts of non-dynamical correlation by use of modifications. It has also been successfully applied for geometry optimizations for lanthanide trifluorides.
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Transition Metal Catalyzed Oxidative Cleavage of C-o Bond

Transition Metal Catalyzed Oxidative Cleavage of C-o Bond

Date: May 2015
Creator: Jiaqi, Wang
Description: The focus of this thesis is on C-O bonds activation by transition metal atoms. Lignin is a potential alternative energy resource, but currently is an underused biomass species because of its highly branched structure. To aid in better understanding this species, the oxidative cleavage of the Cβ-O bond in an archetypal arylglycerol β-aryl ether (β–O–4 Linkage) model compound of lignin with late 3d, 4d, and 5d metals was investigated. Methoxyethane was utilized as a model molecule to study the activation of the C-O bond. Binding enthalpies (ΔHb), enthalpy formations (ΔH) and activation enthalpies (ΔH‡) have been studied at 298K to learn the energetic properties in the C-O bond cleavage in methoxyethane. Density functional theory (DFT) has become a common choice for the transition metal containing systems. It is important to select suitable functionals for the target reactions, especially for systems with degeneracies that lead to static correlation effects. A set of 26 density functionals including eight GGA, six meta-GGA, six hybrid-GGA, and six hybrid-meta-GGA were applied in order to investigate the performance of different types of density functionals for transition metal catalyzed C-O bond cleavage. A CR-CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ was used to calibrate the performance of different density functionals.
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Kinetic Investigation of Atomic Hydrogen with Sulfur-containing Species

Kinetic Investigation of Atomic Hydrogen with Sulfur-containing Species

Date: December 2014
Creator: Kerr, Katherine Elaine
Description: The reactions of atomic hydrogen with methanethiol and that of atomic hydrogen with carbon disulfide were studied experimentally using flash-photolysis resonance-fluorescence techniques. Rate constants were determined over a range of temperatures and pressures, and through analysis and comparison to theoretical work details of the reactions were ascertained.
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Synthesis of Tethering Group on Borylazadipyrromethene Dyes to Apply to Photogalvanic Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

Synthesis of Tethering Group on Borylazadipyrromethene Dyes to Apply to Photogalvanic Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

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Date: August 2014
Creator: Park, Eunsol
Description: This is my thesis research on the preparation of borylazadipyrromethene (azaBODIPY) dyes bearing an anchoring group, such as a carboxylic acid group, at the β-pyrrolic position of the azadipyrromethene scaffold. Carboxylate groups form covalent bonds to oxide semiconductors such as TiO2 (n-type) or Cu2O (p-type) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) or photogalvanic dye-sensitized solar cells (P-DSCs). Oxide-binding azaBODIPY dyes can be used to investigate the rate and mechanism of electron injection from the dyes to the semiconductors. Two different types of azaBODIPY (difluoroboryl and dialkynylboryl) were prepared by following previously developed methods. To convert difluoroborylazaBODIPY to the final dyes having a carboxylic acid in the β-pyrrolic position, several distinct synthetic routes were designed, adopting various reactions, such as halogenation, Sonogashira coupling, Knoevenagel condensation, Grignard reagents, Vilsmeir-Haack, and Steglich esterification. Some of these reactions were successful, but the overall synthesis to the targeted final molecule couldn’t be accomplished. Even though further studies on the synthesis of oxide-binding azaBODIPYs are needed, at least my thesis research suggests what reactions can be implemented to complete this synthesis in the future. Proton NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and carbon NMR were commonly used to confirm the synthesized compounds, and sometimes crystallographic information was obtained by ...
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Determination of Molecular Descriptors for Illegal Drugs by Gc-fid Using Abraham Solvation Model

Determination of Molecular Descriptors for Illegal Drugs by Gc-fid Using Abraham Solvation Model

Date: December 2013
Creator: Akhter, Syeda Sabrina
Description: The Abraham solvation parameter model is a good approach for analyzing and predicting biological activities and partitioning coefficients. The general solvation equation has been used to predict the solute property (SP) behavior of drug compounds between biological barriers. Gas chromatography (GC) retention time can be used to predict molecular descriptors, such as E, S, A, B & L for existing and newly developed drug compounds. In this research, six columns of different stationary phases were used to predict the Abraham molecular descriptors more accurately. The six stationary phases used were 5% phenylmethyl polysiloxane, 6% cyanopropylphenyl 94% dimethylpolysiloxane, 5% diphenyl 95% dimethylpolysiloxane, 100% dimethylpolysiloxane, polyethylene glycol and 35% diphenyl 65% dimethylpolysiloxane. Retention times (RT) of 75 compounds have been measured and logarithm of experimental average retention time Ln(RTexp) are calculated. The Abraham solvation model is then applied to predict the process coefficients of these compounds using the literature values of the molecular descriptors (Acree Compilation descriptors). Six correlation equations are built up as a training set for each of the six columns. The six equations are then used to predict the molecular descriptors of the illegal drugs as a test set. This work shows the ability to extract molecular information from ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
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