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  Access Rights: Public
 Degree Discipline: Kinesiology
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
The Effects of Mental Imagery Training on a Baseball Throwing Task

The Effects of Mental Imagery Training on a Baseball Throwing Task

Date: December 1993
Creator: Freeman, James D. (James David Douglas)
Description: This study was designed to determine if long term training of mental imagery skills is more beneficial to an athlete than immediate imagery rehearsal practiced only prior to an event. Subjects were thirty male high school baseball athletes who were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: (1) long term imagery training and practice; (2) immediate imagery practice only; and (3) control. An accuracy relay-throwing test was performed with pre-test, mid-test, and post-test performance trials. Results of the study revealed no statistically significant differences over the three test periods for any of the treatment conditions. Thus, long term imagery combined with immediate imagery practice, immediate imagery practice and control groups performed equally well on the baseball throwing task.
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Students' and Teachers' Perspective of Purposes for Engaging in Physical Activity

Students' and Teachers' Perspective of Purposes for Engaging in Physical Activity

Date: August 1994
Creator: Thomason, Jonathan E.
Description: Purposes for engaging in physical activities were examined from the perspective of university students enrolled in physical activity classes and kinesiology faculty. Data was collected from 473 students and 20 faculty members. Both groups completed the Personal Purposes and Meanings in Movement Inventory (PPMMI). Independent t-tests were conducted for each of the twenty-two purpose statements to determine differences between faculty and students in the rating of purposes. Students attending individual sport activity classes rated self-knowledge, transcendence, object projection/reception, awareness, competition, neuromuscular efficiency, movement appreciation, and muscular strength significantly lower (p<.01) than the faculty. Students attending team sport activities rated self-knowledge, transcendence, participation, object projection/reception, teamwork, awareness, competition, leadership, and expression significantly (pc.01) lower than the faculty. Students attending fitness activity classes rated self-knowledge, competition, leadership, transcendence, participation, teamwork, circulo-respiratory efficiency, and personal integration significantly (p<.01) lower than faculty.
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Critical Power as a Predictor of Performance in a Bicycle Time Trial

Critical Power as a Predictor of Performance in a Bicycle Time Trial

Date: December 1994
Creator: Dangelmaier, Brian (Brian S.)
Description: Certain measures of aerobic power have been shown to have a high relationship with endurance performance. Critical power (CP) has also been shown to be well correlated to endurance performance, but few studies have evaluated its use in a competitive scenario. In this study, cardiorespiratory-metabolic measures were evaluated in 13 highly trained cyclists to determine their relationship to performance in a 17 km time trial. Critical power, determined from the nonlinear power-time model, was also evaluated to determine its relationship to performance in a 17 km time trial. Results indicate that the traditional indicators of V02max and ventilatory anaerobic threshold were well correlated to TT performance (r=-0.86, r=-0.79, respectively). The principal finding from this study was that performance in a bicycle time trial is related to CP at least as well as to cardiorespirator-ymetabolic measures. In fact, the results fromthis study suggest that the relationship between performance and CP is stronger (r=-0.89). Use of the critical power concept is attractive because testing requires only a cycle ergometer and a stopwatch to estimate a parameter of aerobic fitness.
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Effects of Music on Vividness of Movement Imagery

Effects of Music on Vividness of Movement Imagery

Date: December 1994
Creator: Tham, Edgar Kok Kuan
Description: The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effects of music on self reported vividness of movement imagery. Eighty-four undergraduate kinesiology majors (42 males; 42 females) were subjects. Based on identical perceptions of precategorized music (classical and jazz), selected subjects were randomly assigned to one of three music treatment conditions (sedative, stimulative, and control) and administered the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire. A 3 x 2 x 2 (Treatment x Gender x Perspective) ANOVA with repeated measures on the last factor was employed. The results revealed that the two music conditions significantly enhanced the vividness of internal and external imagery perspectives when compared to the no music condition, and that music facilitated the vividness of males and females equally.
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Measurement of Mood State Changes Throughout a Competitive Volleyball Season

Measurement of Mood State Changes Throughout a Competitive Volleyball Season

Date: May 1995
Creator: Schultes, Bruce A. (Bruce Anthony)
Description: Mood state changes have been assessed in endurance sport athletes such as swimmers, distance runners and rowers. However, much less is known about the psychological changes that occur in team sport athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess mood state changes of intercollegiate female volleyball players across a competitive season.
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Temporal Specificity in Exercise Training

Temporal Specificity in Exercise Training

Date: May 1995
Creator: Leiferman, Jennifer A.
Description: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of training at a particular time of day on anaerobic capacity in the morning and in the afternoon.
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Responses During Exercise at 90% and 100% of the Running Velocity Associated with VO2max (vVO2max)

Responses During Exercise at 90% and 100% of the Running Velocity Associated with VO2max (vVO2max)

Date: August 1995
Creator: Burt, Shane E. (Shane Eugen)
Description: Six male long-distance runners participated in this study to evaluate the responses to exercise at 90% and 100% vV02max. Subjects participated in five maximal exercise tests: one incremental, three tests at 90% vV02max, and one test at 100% vV02max. The results of this study demonstrate that V02max can be elicited in a constant-velocity test at 90% vV02max.
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Effects of Endurance Intensity and Rest Interval on Subsequent Strength Performance

Effects of Endurance Intensity and Rest Interval on Subsequent Strength Performance

Date: May 1996
Creator: Books, Gregory D. (Gregory Douglas)
Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of cycling exercise at different intensities and rest intervals on strength performance. Ten males, engaged in concurrent training for at least one month prior to testing, comprised the subject group for this study. Results show only leg press torque and leg press work to be decreased after cardiorespiratory exercise of moderate intensity. Leg extension average power, chest press torque, chest press power, and chest press work after cycling were not decreased from pre-exercise values. No significant effects were found for exercise intensity, testing times, or intensity by testing times. These results indicate that lower body strength is decreased by cycling and that one hour is not sufficient to restore leg strength.
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Effects of Maternal Aerobic Exercise on Selected Pregnancy Outcomes in Nulliparas

Effects of Maternal Aerobic Exercise on Selected Pregnancy Outcomes in Nulliparas

Date: August 1997
Creator: Melgar, Dian L. (Dian Louise)
Description: This study evaluated the effects of participation in aerobic exercise on pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancy outcomes included type of delivery, length of labor, gestational age, neonatal birth weight, and maternal weight gain. The 137 nulliparas were categorized as active (N=44) or sedentary (N=93) based on self-reported aerobic exercise. Findings from this study suggest that pregnant women who were active during pregnancy were more likely to have vaginal deliveries than sedentary women. No significant differences between active and sedentary women were found in neonatal birth weight, maternal weight gain, length of labor, or gestational age.
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Factors that Influence Men to Coach Women's NCAA Division II Basketball

Factors that Influence Men to Coach Women's NCAA Division II Basketball

Date: August 1997
Creator: Jackson, James Calvin
Description: This study identified factors that influenced men to coach women's basketball. The CCFQ, designed to determine relative importance of each of nine factors in career selection, was completed by 78 male head coaches of women's NCAA II basketball. Data was analyzed using univariate analysis with repeated measures, t-tests, and ANOVA. These coaches indicated fulfill need for competition, help female athletes reach full potential, and serve as role model as significant influences. Moderate influences included personal attributes of athletes, job attributes, and career advancement. Job availability, belief in own success, and income were not considered influential in career selection. Few differences were indicated between demographic sub-groups on any factor. Factors associated with well being of athletes had the greatest influence.
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Muscular Differences Between Female Power and Endurance Athletes

Muscular Differences Between Female Power and Endurance Athletes

Date: August 1997
Creator: Akers, Allen (Roy Allen)
Description: The purpose of this study was to compare the torque generating capabilities and fatigue responses of female power athletes, female endurance athletes, and age-matched female non-athletic controls.
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The Effect of Running Speed on VO2 Kinetics in the Severe Exercise Domain

The Effect of Running Speed on VO2 Kinetics in the Severe Exercise Domain

Date: December 1997
Creator: Williams, Christine Suzanne
Description: There has been an interest in the kinetics of the V02 response during exercise at various intensities. However, most studies focus on the response of submaximal intensities whereas few studies have examined V02 kinetics at severe intensities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise intensity on V02 kinetics over a range of severe intensities.
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The Significance of Time to Exhaustion at the Velocity at VO2Max

The Significance of Time to Exhaustion at the Velocity at VO2Max

Date: May 1998
Creator: Ehler, Karen
Description: There were two primary goals in this investigation. The first goal was to determine if inter-individual variability in time to exhaustion at the velocity associated with V02max (Tlim at Vmax) was explained by anaerobic capacity (AC), Vmax, anaerobic threshold (AT), and/or a combination variable in the form [AC • (Vmax - vAT)^-1]. The second goal was to determine if AC could be predicted from Tlim at Vmax, AT, and/or a combination variable in the form [Tlim • (Vmax - vAT)].
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Do American Adults Know How to Exercise for a Health Benefit?

Do American Adults Know How to Exercise for a Health Benefit?

Date: December 1998
Creator: Krzewinski-Malone, Jeanette A. (Jeanette Aileen)
Description: Approximately 950,000 Americans die annually from cardiovascular disease. Physical activity is a major risk factor for the development of CVD and a risk factor for stroke. The purpose of this research was to determine whether American adults know how to exercise to achieve health benefits and whether this knowledge is a function of demographics. Items included knowledge of exercise guidelines and knowledge of traditional and non-traditional exercise activities. This information was obtained from 22 questions that were a part of a larger national survey of 2,002 American households. Statistical analyses of this sample, indicate American adults have knowledge which varies by demographic groups. Data revealed that overall the 61+, Less than High School, African-American, Hispanic-American, and Male groups have the least amount of knowledge about exercise. These data can provide health educators with important aspects of exercise knowledge for future health promotions/interventions.
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The Effects of Video-Computerized Feedback on Competitive State Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, Effort, and Baseball Hitting-Task Performance

The Effects of Video-Computerized Feedback on Competitive State Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, Effort, and Baseball Hitting-Task Performance

Date: December 1998
Creator: Leslie, P. Jason
Description: This study examined the effects of frame-by-frame video-computerized feedback on competitive state anxiety, self-efficacy, effort, and baseball performance of high school players. Players were randomly assigned to one of three feedback conditions: (a) Hitting score, (b) Hitting score and frame-by-frame analysis of a mechanically correct swing, (c) Hitting score and frame-by-frame analysis of participant's swing and a mechanically correct swing. Once per week for six weeks, the players completed three questionnaires: (a) Hitting Self-Efficacy Scale, (b) Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2C, and (c) Performance Effort Scale, and performed a hitting task. Results of the 3 (Group) x 6 (Trials) ANOVAs revealed no significant effects. This study does not support previous confidence-baseball hitting research.
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Goal Setting Strategies, Locus of Control Beliefs, and Personality Characteristics of NCAA Division IA Swimmers

Goal Setting Strategies, Locus of Control Beliefs, and Personality Characteristics of NCAA Division IA Swimmers

Date: December 1999
Creator: Stout, Joel T.
Description: The purpose of the present study was to examine goal setting strategies, locus of control beliefs and personality characteristics of swimmers (108 males and 111 females) from top twenty 1999 NCAA Division IA programs. Three questionnaires were completed: (a) Goal Setting in Sport Questionnaire (GSISQ: Weinberg, Burton, Yukelson, & Weigand, 1993), (b) the Internal, Powerful Others, Chance Scale (IPC: Levenson, 1973), and (c) the compliance subscale and six conscientiousness subscales from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R: Costa & McCrae, 1985). Descriptive statistics from the GSISQ indicated that most of the swimmers set goals to improve overall performance (51%) and set moderately difficult goals (58%). Results associated with the IPC scale revealed that most of the swimmers attributed their sport performance to internal factors. Results pertaining to the NEO-PI-R indicated that most swimmers were highly conscientious, disciplined, purposeful, and determined.
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The Effect of Mode and Intensity on Vo2 Kinetics in the Severe Intensity Domain

The Effect of Mode and Intensity on Vo2 Kinetics in the Severe Intensity Domain

Date: May 2000
Creator: Updyke, Rhonda S.
Description: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mode and intensity on VO2 kinetics in the severe intensity domain. Seventeen participants completed 3-7 tests each on a cycle ergometer and treadmill. For each test, Tfatigue, VO2max, Tmean response, VO2GAIN, TVO2max and T@VO2max were determined. Linear regression techniques were used to describe the relationship between TVO2max and Tfatigue . VO2max values were higher in running. The VO2 response profile was faster for running than cycling and faster at higher intensities. The faster VO2 response in running may be associated with larger active muscle mass or differences in muscle activation patterns. The faster response at higher intensities may suggest that VO2 response is driven by O2 demand.
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Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in Severe Intensity Exercise

Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in Severe Intensity Exercise

Date: May 2000
Creator: Blumoff, Sonja
Description: The purpose of this study was to describe mathematically the oxygen uptake kinetics during cycle ergometry, and to examine the effect of intensity on the kinetic responses within the severe domain. Sixteen volunteers performed a series of exercise tests at a range of intensities selected to elicit fatigue in ~3 to 10 min. A simple mono-exponential model effectively described the response across all intensities. There was a positive correlation between the response time and the time to fatigue, demonstrating that the maximal oxygen uptake was achieved faster at higher intensities within the severe domain. Models incorporating two components effectively described the responses only in tests lasting 8 min or more. It was concluded that there is a second, slow component in the oxygen uptake response only at the lower intensities within the severe domain.
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Factors related to cycling performance

Factors related to cycling performance

Date: May 2001
Creator: Naukkarinen, Vesa
Description: There were two primary goals in this investigation. The first goal was to determine if results from field tests (time-trials and a Conconi incremental test) are related to performance in mass-start long-distance bicycle races. The second goal was to investigate inter-relationships among field test variables. The testing variables measured were critical velocity (CV), Conconi anaerobic threshold (AT) velocity, 4mM AT velocity, fatigue index, peak blood lactate, and anaerobic work capacity. Participants were USCF 30 category 1 through 5 cyclists. Participants performed one 20.75 km and two 10.37 km all-out tests in the field. They also performed an incremental test. The tests were performed at one-week intervals. Results from the field tests were compared to recent mass-start racing performance. Results indicated that Conconi AT velocity was related to performance in a 161-km race. There was also a relationship between 4mM AT velocity and CV and between Conconi AT velocity and 4mM AT velocity. It was concluded that field tests might provide information about performance ability in mass-start long-distance bicycle races.
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Coaching Behavior Preferences of Interscholastic Athletes

Coaching Behavior Preferences of Interscholastic Athletes

Date: May 2003
Creator: Kravig, Seth Dayton
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether coaching behavior preferences of interscholastic athletes differ as a function of gender and type of sport. The Coaching Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ; Martin & Barnes, 1999) was administered to 372 interscholastic athletes. The mean scores of the participants' responses to each subscale on the CBQ were the dependent variables and gender and type of sport were the independent variables. Descriptive statistics revealed that female and male interscholastic athletes who perform on coactive, mixed, and interactive sport teams preferred coaches who engage in supportive and instructional behaviors, as opposed to non-responses or negative responses. A 2 (Gender) X 3 (Type of Sport) MANOVA and discriminant function analyses indicated that gender and the degree of interdependency between group members affects preferred coaching behavior. Thus, coaches should consider situational factors and personal characteristics when working with interscholastic athletes.
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Attentional Focus Strategies of Multi-Sport Athletes.

Attentional Focus Strategies of Multi-Sport Athletes.

Date: August 2003
Creator: Werner, Sara M.
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the attentional focus strategies used by triathletes during the three stages of an Olympic distance triathlon, (b) if level of experience influences the attentional focus strategies used by triathletes, and (c) whether there is a relationship between athletes finishing times and the attentional strategies used in each stage of the race. Triathletes (N = 160) completed the Triathlon Attentional Focus Inventory, which measured association and dissociation during the swim, bike, and run. One-way ANOVAs revealed significant differences between the athletes' level of experience and the attentional strategies used, as well as differences between the athletes overall race time and the attentional strategies used during each stage of the triathlon. Athletes with more experience associated more during the race, whereas athletes with less experience dissociated more throughout the race.
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NCAA Division I Athletes Preferences for Coaching Behaviors

NCAA Division I Athletes Preferences for Coaching Behaviors

Date: December 2003
Creator: Barnes, Kelly A.
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether coaching behavior preferences of NCAA Division I athletes differ as a function of gender and type of sport. The Coaching Behavior Questionnare (CBQ; Martin & Barnes, 1999) was administered to 195 NCAA Division I athletes. Gender and sport type were the independent variables and the participant's mean scores for the subscales on the CBQ were the dependent variables. Descriptive statistics revealed that, overall, NCAA Division I athletes prefer positive and instructional behaviors more than non-responses or negative behaviors. A 2 (gender) x 3 (type of sport) MANOVA and follow-up discriminant function analysis indicated that coaching behavior preferences differed as a function of gender and type of sport played. Thus, NCAA Division I coaches should consider both individual and situational characteristics when working with their athletes to achieve the desired outcome.
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Exploring flow among Division I and intramural athletes.

Exploring flow among Division I and intramural athletes.

Date: May 2004
Creator: Peterson, Ryan J.
Description: This study explores the flow experiences of collegiate athletes. NCAA Division I athletes and intramural athletes (N = 180) completed a series of measures on their flow experiences. Comparisons were made regarding the characteristics of flow, the perceived facilitators of flow, the frequency of flow experiences, and explored the role of perceived ability. Using a person by situation interaction framework, this study singles out perceived ability as a person factor and competitive level as a situational factor to more clearly examine flow experiences. Results indicated distinctions between the two groups. Mainly, the intramural athletes reported experiencing the merging of action and awareness, autotelic experience, transformation of time and having clear goals more frequently than the NCAA Division I athletes. No group differences were found for flow frequency or flow facilitators. Perceived ability was found to have a weak, but significant relationship with specific flow facilitators and characteristics.
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Primary Caregiving Father's Perceptions of Leisure

Primary Caregiving Father's Perceptions of Leisure

Date: May 2004
Creator: Hall, Rebecca
Description: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact the primary caregiving role had on men's perceptions of leisure. The Assessment of Leisure and Recreation Involvement (Ragheb, 2002) was used to examine men's leisure. Twenty-five stay-at-home dad groups were solicited via e-mail; 81 men submitted usable responses to an online survey. Respondents considered themselves the primary caregiver for children in the household and at least one child was younger than 12. Descriptive data were collected about the experience of being a primary caregiving father, demographics, and how the caregiving role affects the men's perceptions of leisure. Caregiving fathers in the sample resembled the perceptions of many primary caregiving mothers. Perhaps the "caregiving" role, rather than gender, is a more distinct variable explaining perceptions of leisure by parents.
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