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 Department: Department of Behavior Analysis
 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
The Role of a Point Loss Contingency on the Emergence of Derived Relations in the Absence of Original Relations

The Role of a Point Loss Contingency on the Emergence of Derived Relations in the Absence of Original Relations

Date: December 1997
Creator: Michniewicz, Leslie (Leslie A.)
Description: The role of point loss for symmetrical relations introduced simultaneously with probe trials in the absence of original relations on all probe trial performances was evaluated. Training was completed after six conditional discriminations were established in two contexts. Point loss was introduced simultaneously with probe trials in the absence of original relations in the first context. Probe trials with no point loss in the absence of original relations were introduced in the second context. The simultaneous introduction of probe trials and the point loss contingency may in some cases prevent the emergence of an equivalence class in the context that contained the point loss as well as in the context where no point loss occurred.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Examining the Relationship between Variability in Acquisition and Variability in Extinction

Examining the Relationship between Variability in Acquisition and Variability in Extinction

Date: December 1997
Creator: Neff, Bryon (Bryon R.)
Description: Using the "revealed operant" technique, variability during acquisition and extinction was examined with measures of response rate and a detailed analysis of response topography. During acquisition, subjects learned to emit four response patterns. A continuous schedule of reinforcement (CRF) for 100 repetitions was used for each pattern and a 30 min extinction phase immediately followed. One group of subjects learned the response patterns via a "trial-and-error" method. This resulted in a wide range of variability during acquisition and extinction. Only one subject emitted a substantial amount of resurgent behavior. A second group of subjects was given instructions on what keys to press to earn reinforcers. This group had less variability in acquisition and extinction and resurgent responding was prevalent.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Control over Therapist Interactions as a Reinforcer for a Child with Autism

Control over Therapist Interactions as a Reinforcer for a Child with Autism

Date: August 1999
Creator: Edwards, William Harrison
Description: This study evaluated whether therapist terminations of social interactions would decrease social terminations and increase social initiations during play activities with a child with autism. The assessment took place in two conditions. The first condition, instructed involved social interactions with instructions delivered, and the second, uninstructed, involved social interactions without instructions delivered. These conditions were analyzed with a multiple baseline across-conditions design. Interaction duration, initiations, instructions, and child terminations were recorded. This study showed that the therapist-removal procedure resulted in a complete decrease in child terminations, and an increase in the number of initiations and the duration of the child-therapist interactions during the uninstructed condition. Similar effects were seen in the instructed condition, but to a lesser degree.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Experimental Analysis of Self-injury With and Without Protective Equipment

Experimental Analysis of Self-injury With and Without Protective Equipment

Date: December 1998
Creator: Le, Duy D. (Duy Dang)
Description: Outcomes of experimental analyses during which protective equipment (PE) was placed on three participants were compared to those during which PE was not provided to them. Experimental analysis conditions were presented using a multielement format, and the effects of PE were evaluated using a withdrawal design. Results of experimental analysis without PE suggested that self-injurious behavior (SIB) was maintained by negative reinforcement for two participants and nonsocial mechanisms for the third participant. However, SIB was eliminated either immediately or eventually for all participants when PE was provided during experimental analysis. Thus, outcomes of assessments with PE did not match those without PE, and no conclusion about variables associated with SIB could be drawn from experimental analyses with PE alone. Therefore, the present findings do not support the use of PE as an alternative to standard methods for conducting experimental analysis (i.e., without PE).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Assessment and Treatment of Multiple Topographies and Functions of Self-injury

Assessment and Treatment of Multiple Topographies and Functions of Self-injury

Date: December 1998
Creator: Gonzalez, Angela M. (Angela Maria), 1970-
Description: Results of a functional analysis indicated that the self-injurious behavior (SIB) of an adult female with profound mental retardation occurred primarily in the alone and demand conditions. Graphs of the separate topographies (head slaps and head bangs) showed that head banging occurred in the alone condition and that both head banging and head slapping occurred in the demand condition. A data analysis procedure to identify within-session trends across sessions and fluctuations in rates of SIB by topography revealed that most of the demands escaped were escaped by head slaps and that over 80% of all head slaps were associated with escape, compared to less than 1%of all head bangs, indicating that head banging and head slapping were members of separate functional response classes. Treatment consisted of noncontingent availability of preferred leisure materials, and produced substantial decreases of both head banging and head slapping. Interpretation of the results are discussed, as well as some implications and limitations of the study.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Extinction Effects During Assessment and Treatment of Behavior Disorders in Applied Settings

Extinction Effects During Assessment and Treatment of Behavior Disorders in Applied Settings

Date: December 1998
Creator: Magee, Sandy K. (Sandy Kay)
Description: The main and side effects of extinction were evaluated in a multiple baseline design across the problem behaviors of two elementary school boys. For each subject, functional analysis procedures resulted in the occurrence and assessment of only one of several problem behaviors reported by teachers. Extinction treatment based on functional analysis outcomes was then applied to the assessed topography and resulted in the emergence of other inappropriate response forms. Each successive behavior was exposed to extinction and changes in previous and subsequent response forms were observed. Both main effects and indirect effects of extinction were examined. Findings are discussed regarding the covariation of responses and implications for the treatment of behavior disorders in applied settings.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
A Comparison of Points versus Sounds as Reinforces in Human Operant Research

A Comparison of Points versus Sounds as Reinforces in Human Operant Research

Date: August 1999
Creator: Rouse, Susan L.
Description: Research shows that human operant behavior typically differs from non-human operant behavior on schedules of reinforcement. These differences in performance may be related to differences between the experimental preparations used to study human and non-human operant behavior. One such difference is the type of reinforcer used. This experiment analyzed the differential effects of points alone, points backed up by money, and sounds on schedule performance of human subjects. Results show that sounds generated moderate rates of responding, capable of change in either direction. When points backed up with money were the reinforcers, however, high rates of behavior were generated, disrupting the previously established baseline performance. This suggests that while points may be effective in generating high rates of behavior, they may be ineffective in producing sensitive baselines needed to study human operant behavior on schedules of reinforcement.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
The Effects of Modeling, Roleplaying and Feedback on the Performance of Teachers of Children with Autism

The Effects of Modeling, Roleplaying and Feedback on the Performance of Teachers of Children with Autism

Date: August 1999
Creator: Edwards, Carla Ward
Description: Teachers providing treatment to children with autism are responsible for implementing numerous procedures. Teacher training has not been addressed extensively in the literature. This study employed a multiple baseline design to evaluate the effects of a training package incorporating modeling, roleplaying and feedback on teacher performance. Results indicated that the teacher implemented correct teaching episodes following training. Changes in teacher performance were only observed when the training package was applied to each setting and skill area. As a result of changes in teacher behavior, the child demonstrated an increase in the number of desired responses. Results are discussed in the context of generalization, training package components, cost-benefit of single-subject designs, and limitations of the study.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Second-Order Conditional Control of Members of an Equivalence Class

Second-Order Conditional Control of Members of an Equivalence Class

Date: August 1997
Creator: Cammilleri, Anthony Peter
Description: The conditional control of equivalence has received much attention in the analysis of verbal behavior. While previous research identified conditional control of relational responding and conditional control of equivalence class formation, this study investigated the possibility of conditional control of members of an equivalence class. Following baseline conditional discrimination training and equivalence testing, subjects were taught to select a particular member in the presence of a Green background screen and another member in the presence of a Red background screen.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Assessment and Treatment of Object Mouthing in the Classroom

Assessment and Treatment of Object Mouthing in the Classroom

Date: August 1997
Creator: Naftolin, Stacie (Stacie A.)
Description: The object mouthing of a developmentally delayed 8-year-old girl was assessed and treated in a classroom setting. Two pretreatment assessments were conducted: A functional analysis indicated that object mouthing occurred across test conditions and persisted in the absence of social contingencies, and assessment of stimulus preference identified reinforcers to be used during treatments. Based on assessment outcomes, two treatments were implemented. Noncontingent sensory reinforcement was implemented during free-time and group activities, resulting in a 74.3% decrease in object mouthing across three settings. During one-on-one educational activities, presentation of academic task-trials at a high rate decreased object mouthing by 85.7%, relative to a condition in which tasks were presented at a slower rate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
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