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- Analyzing the Financial Condition of Higher Education Institutions Using Financial Ratio Analysis
- The problem concerned the financial indicators used to evaluate the financial condition of the six sister higher education institutions under the authority of the Board of Regents of Oklahoma Colleges. The purposes were to determine the financial ratios that best indicate financial condition; to calculate those financial ratios for the six designated Oklahoma higher education institutions; and to evaluate and compare the financial condition of the six institutions. This study attempted to further the use of financial ratio analysis as an objective addition to subjective studies that examine an institution's definition of its mission, objectives, and goals and its own assessment of the degree to which its resources allow it to attain those goals. The data were obtained from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System; the financial reports were audited by independent certified public accountants and presented to the Board of Regents of Oklahoma Colleges; and John Minter Associates, Inc., provided the national norms. The set of financial ratios identified provides a means to study a single higher education institution through trend analysis and in comparison to national norms. It also works well with a sample of homogeneous institutions with interinstitutional comparison. The techniques are intended to provide a general profile of an institutions financial health. Cause-and-effect ratio analysis has been proposed as another technique to aid administrators in determining changes in their financial statements and what may have caused them. The study identified a set of financial ratios that summarize the financial condition of a higher education institution. The ratios helped to analyze the financial solvency and viability of the six Oklahoma higher education institutions and focused on the ability of the institutions to meet current and future financial requirements. The importance of financial statement analysis should not be underestimated. The understandable format of financial ratios allows virtually any stakeholder to acquire a basic comprehension of the most critical financial policies of institutions and their financial condition.
- Mentoring in Nursing Doctoral Education: Processes, Perceptions, Problems and Prospects
- This study described the mentoring relationship between doctoral nursing students and their committee chairs. Twenty-two public university doctoral programs responded to a request for names and addresses of their doctoral candidates. The Major Professor Mentoring Scale was used to measure the mentoring relationship. The survey also included demographic and open-ended questions regarding the student-committee chair relationship. Surveys were mailed to 269 doctoral students with an 86% return rate. A principal components analysis was performed to identify the structure underpinning the relationship. The typical doctoral student in this sample was found to be a 44 year old Caucasian female, married with children, working full or part time while pursuing a PhD degree. Students traveled an average of 85 miles each way to campus and nearly half had selected their program based on its location. The typical committee chair was a Caucasian, tenured, associate or full professor between 46 and 69 years of age. The majority of chairs were married and had funded research projects. The students in the study reported knowing their chairs for an average of five years. The study revealed that mentoring is occurring in the majority of relationships between doctoral nursing students and their committee chairs. Students identified many strengths and weaknesses in their relationships with their chairs although the relationship appears to be largely positive. The mentoring relationship is composed of four principal components, the largest of which is psychosocial support. Dissertation support, role modeling and scholarly collaboration comprise the other three components. The factor receiving the most positive rating was role modeling, suggesting that students see their chairs as intelligent and hard-working. Students also report positive feelings about both the psychosocial and dissertation support they have received from their chairs. Students reported more neutral feelings about scholarly collaboration suggesting that this is not a frequent occurrence in the relationship. Demographic variables including age, sex, race, geographic distance and family status were not predictors for mentoring scores.
- Academic Lineage and Student Performance in Medical School
- This research investigated the association between academic lineage and student performance in medical school. The purposes of the study were to: (1) determine whether the Carnegie classifications of medical school applicants' institutions of origin are associated with academic performance in medical school; (2) consider the relationship between the admission selectivity of the schools of origin and the academic performance of medical school students; (3) compare the performance of medical students from institutions under public governing control with students from privately controlled institutions; and (4) establish a model by which the relative academic strengths of applicants from a variety of undergraduate institutions can be understood more clearly based on the previous performance of medical students from schools with similar institutional characteristics. A review of the literature on medical school admissions was completed and used to develop this research. Medical students from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas who enrolled between the years 1990 and 1994 and graduated or were dismissed between the years 1994 and 1998 were selected as the sample for the study (n=933). The undergraduate institution of origin for each student was coded based on its Carnegie classification, admissions selectivity group, and whether its governing control was public or private. Because the sample was not randomly selected and the data likely would not meet the assumptions of equal means and variance with the population, nonparametric analyses of variance and multiple comparison tests were completed to compare the groups of the independent variables over each dependent variable. The analyses revealed that for the sample of medical students selected for this study there was an association between academic lineage and student performance in medical school. Differences were found among Carnegie classifications on the dependent variables of cumulative medical school grade point average, class rank, failure rate, and score on Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensure Examination. Further, it was found that admission selectivity was also associated with student performance in medical school for each dependent variable except failure rate. Finally, the study results indicated no association between public or private governing control and student performance in medical school.
- A Descriptive Study of Students Who Were Accepted for Admission at West Texas A&M University But Did Not Enroll
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Each year, institutions of higher education devote valuable financial and personnel resources in the hope of enhancing student recruitment and matriculation. The purpose of this study was to examine the demographic characteristics, the factors that influenced students decisions to apply for admission to a university, their educational intentions, and their reasons for not enrolling after they had been admitted. The subjects of the study were first-time freshmen accepted for admission to a mid-size, public, southwestern university who did not enroll for the fall 1997 semester. Statistically significant differences were found when comparing no-shows and enrolled students by gender, ethnicity, age, ACT/SAT score, and distance of their hometown from the university. There were more female no-shows, and more males enrolled than females; a greater percentage of no-shows reported the distance of their hometown to be more than 200 miles; and the mean test score for no-shows was higher. Factors important in the college selection process found to be statistically significant among the groups were: a greater percentage of Minorities than Caucasians reported the importance of the financial aid award or a scholarship offer; students living within 100 miles of the campus reported the proximity of the university as important, advice received from current or former students and high school counselors was more important to those living more than 100 miles from the campus. Cost of attendance and scholarships were important to students with the higher test scores. Statistically significant reasons cited by the no-shows for not enrolling were more Minorities than Caucasians reported financial difficulties and job demands; students living farther from the campus reported attending other universities while those living within 100 miles reported attending a community college. Recommendations the university studied could pursue include: developing a program to follow-up on the no-shows, directing more energy at recruiting students living within 200 miles of the university, and increasing the availability of scholarships.
- A Qualitative Study of the Use and Value of Financial Performance Indicators in Selected Community Colleges in the State of Texas as Perceived by their Chief Executive Officers
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Throughout the United States, colleges and universities are faced with an increasing need for financial funding, while at the same time resources continue to diminish. With the limitations of available funds, community colleges must exhibit efficiencies in the operations of their institutions. External interests, such as governing boards and legislatures, require demonstration of efficient financial management. This evidence is then used to make decisions concerning future financial support for the community college. This study determined if community college chief executive officers use financial performance indicators as provided by the State Auditor's Office and if the chief executive officers of the community colleges value the compilation and the distribution of the financial performance indicators. In the selected colleges, many of the chief executive officers depend on their chief financial officer for understanding and application of financial performance indicators. The performance indicators distributed by the Auditor's Office captured only a snapshot of the college's performance, and failed to fully describe the whole college performance or specific financial events captured by the indicators. Though the indicators had flaws, either through incorrect data or lack of explanation, the CEOs did value their compilation because they provided a means for ‘getting the community college story' to decision makers external to the college.The State Auditor's performance indicators were developed using a university model. Because of the distinct difference in mission between the community college and the university, several of the indicators were not applicable to the community colleges. The CEOs suggested that another set of indicators be developed, using community college input, that would better capture the financial performance of the colleges. The new set of indicators should be simplified and measure only those areas, such as revenues and expenditures, that are truly comparable from one institution to another.
- Benchmarks in American Higher Education: Selected Approaches for Distance Education Copyright and Intellectual Property Policies
- An evaluation of American higher education distance education programs was conducted to explore how they approach intellectual property, copyright and information sharing/antitrust policy concerns for Internet-based programs. An evaluation of the current status of distance education and Internet-based training in higher education was conducted through a pilot study that included a random sample of 223 accredited institutions. Seventy-seven institutions responded to a survey, of which there were 14 Research I&II, 17 Doctorate I&II, and 46 Master's I&II institutions included in this study. A review of institutional policy approaches for these 77 institutions was conducted via Internet Web site and bulletin review. A multiple-case study was also conducted which included 10 of the top 30 accredited distance education institutions in America. Policy approaches were examined for all institutions and differences were discussed for public and private institutions as well as the following Carnegie Class institutions- Research I&II, Doctorate I&II and Master's I&II. Ten percent of all institutions that responded to the pilot study developed a written policy addressing antitrust/information-sharing concerns. Additionally, the data indicated that 22% of institutions in these Carnegie Class ranges published copyright and intellectual property policy on their institutions' Internet Web site. Ninety percent of the institutions in the case study advised of central control for the distance education program, as well as central control for copyright and intellectual property policy.
- Use of the College Student Inventory to Predict At-Risk Student Success and Persistence at a Metropolitan University
- Using Tinto's longitudinal model of institutional departure as the theoretical basis for this research, the purpose was to determine what extent selected motivational factors measured by the College Student Inventory (CSI) predict academic success and persistence of at-risk students at the University of North Texas (UNT). The study focused on United States citizens and permanent residents entering UNT as at-risk first-time freshmen admitted via individual approval for the fall 1994 semester. The 409 subjects were enrolled in a developmental course titled Personal and Academic Effectiveness where the CSI was administered during the first 2 weeks of class. Selected predictor variables were tested in relation to the separate criterion variables of grade point average and enrolled status during the 2nd and 4th years of the study. Grade point averages and enrollment data for the 1995-96 and 1997-98 academic years were extracted from the student information management system. The research design employed appropriate multiple regressions, multiple correlations, multiple discriminant analyses, and bivariate correlations. Findings confirmed the ability of five CSI factors to predict grade point average (p < .05) of at-risk students over the time frames used in this study. Nine factors predicting enrolled status were also significant at the .05 level; however, results were not meaningful in the 2nd year as factors classified 95% of all subjects as persisters. By the end of the 4th year, the factors were able to predict correct classification of both persisters and nonpersisters approximately 24% better than chance. This research provides support for Tinto's institutional departure model, particularly associated with pre-entry attributes and goals/commitments over time. The CSI is a viable instrument for use with at-risk first-time freshmen at a metropolitan university; however, required enrollment in a developmental course likely confounded the ability of selected variables to meaningfully predict enrolled status during the 2nd year.
- Learner-Centered Teacher Beliefs and Student-Perceived Teaching Effectiveness
- Following Barr and Tagg's formalization of the concept of learner-centered educational practice at the postsecondary level as described in their seminal article in Change in 1995, survey instruments have been developed to assess teachers' beliefs about their own learner-centeredness.. The research reported in this dissertation examined the connection between college students' perceptions of teacher effectiveness on each of four dimensions appearing as questions on the IDEA Survey of student reaction to instruction and courses (developed at the IDEA Center, Kansas State University, in the early 1970s) and the Assessment of Learner-Centered Practices (ALCP): Beliefs Portion of the Postsecondary Level Instructor Survey, College Level (developed in early 1999 by B. L. McCombs, University of Denver Research Institute; alpha reliabilities reported). Using scoring rubrics accompanying the ALCP instrument, instructors were identified as learner-centered or non-learner-centered based on their responses. Independent t-tests were performed to determine whether learner-centered instructors were perceived differently by students in terms of teaching effectiveness than non-learner-centered instructors on each of four dimensions: overall excellence of course, overall excellence of instructor, effectiveness of instructor in helping students achieve relevant objectives in the course, and effectiveness of course and instructor in improving students' attitude toward the field of study. Students rated learner-centered instructors higher in all dimensions, but results were not statistically significant. Instructors were also identified as possessing learner- or non-learner-centered beliefs to a greater degree than that necessary for an overall designation. Independent t-tests were performed to determine any differences in student perceptions of effectiveness between these two groups. Again, students rated learner-centered instructors higher in all dimensions, but results were not statistically significant. Recommendations for further research with the ALCP instrument are made, including research to determine whether specific factors and/or questions prove to be statistically significant in predicting student evaluations of effectiveness. Also recommended are replications of the study to investigate moderating variables influencing accurate faculty self-identification of beliefs about teaching and learning.
- The Correlation Between a General Critical Thinking Skills Test and a Discipline Specific Critical Thinking Test For Associate Degree Nursing Students
- In 1997, NLNAC added critical thinking as a required outcome for accreditation of associate degree nursing (ADN) programs. Until recently general critical thinking tests were the only available standardized critical thinking assessment tools. The emphasis has shifted to discipline specific tools. This concurrent validity study explored the correlation between two critical thinking tests, a general skills test, the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) and a discipline specific test, the Arnett Critical Thinking Outcome Evaluation (CTOE). Both tests are based on the same definition of critical thinking. The CCTST, developed in 1990, covers discipline neutral content in multiple choice items. The CTOE, a free entry, written response test developed in 1998, assesses critical thinking in nursing situations using a partial credit model. A convenience sample of 434 sophomore ADN students from 9 programs in Texas completed the demographic survey and critical thinking tests in 1999. The sample was 87.9% female and 74.2% Caucasian, with a mean age of 31, mean GPA of 3.13, mean 3.7 years healthcare employment experience, mean CCTST score of 15.0023 and mean CTOE of 82.69. The sample also included 22.4% current LVNs, 15.7% with prior degrees and 53.5% in the first generation of their family to go to college. With Pearson correlation, three of four hypotheses concerning correlation between CCTST and CTOE scores were accepted, showing weak but significant correlation. GPA positively correlated but healthcare employment experience, first generation and minority status negatively correlated with CCTST scores. GPA correlated positively with CTOE scores. Stepwise multiple linear regression with CCTST scores retained GPA, healthcare employment experience, prior degree, and first generation in college status. The significant, positive correlation between CCTST and CTOE scores was weaker than expected. This may be due to the different formats of the tools, or a fundamental difference between a general critical thinking skills test and a discipline specific tool. Critical thinking is highly contextually sensitive and disciplines emphasize skills differently. Both tests may be useful in a critical thinking assessment program since they measure different aspects and contribute to a composite picture of critical thinking. Research should continue on discipline specific tools.
- Student Services in Bible Colleges and Universities Accredited by the Accrediting Association of Bible Colleges (AABC)
- This study attempted to determine the types, extent, and quality of student personnel services in colleges and universities accredited by the Accrediting Association of Bible Colleges (AABC). The Basic Services Questionnaire (BSQ) was adapted for use among Bible colleges and universities and mailed to chief student affairs officers representing 69 Bible colleges in the United States accredited by the AABC. Of the 71 surveys mailed (two institutions employed both a Dean of Men and Dean of Women), 46 were returned for a response rate of 65 percent. Chi-square tests of goodness-of-fit were performed on the data in order to categorize the types, extent, and quality of student services provided by the institutions. The Mueller-Schuessler Index of Qualitative Variation was used to determine the homogeneity, or heterogeneity, of the chief student affairs officers when grouped according to specific variables (gender, ethnic origin, major for highest degree earned, and highest degree earned). Frequency counts and percentage distributions were used on demographic data to present a profile of chief student services administrators at AABC schools. The results of the study point to four conclusions. First, the types of student personnel services provided by American Bible colleges and universities accredited by the AABC closely match those offered by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) as essential to student services divisions within colleges or universities. Second, the extent of the student personnel services provided by American Bible colleges and universities accredited by the AABC was average to broad. Student services such as student development and financial aid were rated as broad to very broad. Third, quality of student personnel services at AABC institutions was fair to good. Financial aid services and student activities were rated as very good. Fourth, the chief student affairs officers at American Bible colleges and universities accredited by the AABC were homogeneous in regard to gender, ethnicity, and education.
- Attitudes toward Research and Teaching: Differences Between Faculty and Administrators at Three Saudi Arabian Universities
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This study is an investigation of the perceived attitudinal differences between administrators and faculty toward research and teaching at three Saudi Arabian universities, King Saud University (KSU), King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), and the Islamic University (IU). The researcher also investigated the effect of several variables, such as rank, university, and academic field on administrators and faculty members' attitudes toward teaching and research. Little Attention has been given to studies that examine the differences between faculty and administrators with regard to their attitudes toward the priorities of teaching and research in Saudi Arabian institutions. Also, little research has been conducted regarding the effects of rank and academic field on faculty attitudes in Saudi Arabian institutions. The author used a mail survey and collected 518 useable responses from a total of 710 questionnaires distributed. Factor analysis, MANCOVA, MANOVA, and ANOVA were the statistical methods employed in data analysis. Five attitudes were identified as a result of factor analysis: (a) attitudes toward teaching; (b) attitudes toward research; (c) mission; (d) promotion; and (e) interest. Results indicated that there was a significant difference between faculty and administrators regarding teaching and resea4rch. Administrators showed stronger attitudes toward teaching than faculty at all three universities. There were also significant differences regarding these attitudes in terms of rank, academic field, and university. Full professors had the strongest attitude toward a research emphasis compared to assistant professors. Assistant professors had the strongest teaching orientation. In addition, faculty members in the humanities had stronger teaching orientations preferences than did those in the natural and social sciences. Regarding the universities, faculty members at IU had the strongest teaching orientation preferences, whereas faculty members at KSU had the strongest research orientation preferences.
- Virginia Carter Smith: Her Career and Contributions to Advancement in Higher Education
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Most research studies of women in the college and university advancement profession measure the number of women in advancement positions, report their corresponding salaries and reflect on the differences between male and female employees in the same position. Little research explores how women achieve high ranking advancement positions and very few provide an analysis of the characteristics, influences and careers of successful female advancement professionals. This dissertation describes the life and work of Virginia Carter Smith, founding editor of the Council for Advancement and Support of Education's award winning publication CURRENTS. The career and contributions of Virginia Carter Smith are relevant and helpful to advancement professionals in colleges, universities and K-12 institutions. This study explores Smith's formative years as a child, describes her educational and extra-curricular preparation and identifies individuals who influenced her life and provided direction for her future. It also examines Smith's role in the formation and direction of CASE and CURRENTS. Smith successfully launched CURRENTS in 1975 when few women held senior-level positions in advancement-related fields. With Smith's contributions, CASE became the dominate professional organization for advancement professionals working in educational institutions, and CURRENTS continues to be an exemplary professional development periodical for individuals working in advancement. This study also examines how Smith promoted qualified individuals, particularly women, to senior-level positions in colleges and university advancement offices. Hundreds of women and men in the profession claim that Smith's served as a role model or mentor to them. Smith contributed to the increase of women in advancement offices nationally over the last twenty years. Her high standards for herself and for other development officers helped professionalize the field for everyone.
- Enrollment Management in Higher Education: From Theory to Practice
- This study investigated enrollment management practices found in higher education. The research identified enrollment management and retention practices described in the higher education literature. These suggested practices were incorporated into a sixty-six question survey that was distributed to a random sample of colleges and universities taken from the 1999 US News and World Report of college rankings. The survey data were used to identify which of the suggested enrollment management practices were of greatest utility. First, the sixty-six items were grouped into 14 categories of enrollment management strategies. Second, the institutional responses for each category were averaged and then correlated with each institution's graduation rate. Finally, each institution's "yes" responses for the entire survey were totaled and correlated with each institution's graduation rate. This study developed a list of the 26 most frequently used enrollment management practices in higher education, and as well, identified the 10 least used enrollment management practices. Given the results of this study graduation rate is not a sufficient criterion to assess enrollment management practices at a college or university. Enrollment management strategies contribute to many institutional and student outcomes; thus, multiple indicators are required to accurately evaluate enrollment management practices.
- The Importance of Leadership: An Investigation of Presidential Style at Fifty National Universities
- Leadership has been studied as an essential component for success in business, government, and military environments. However, the optimal style of leadership in university settings remains unclear. Transformational leadership style has been proposed as efficient for universities, however some experts have argued that transformational leadership is actually counterproductive at academic institutions. Increasing public scrutiny of university leaders has also raised the question of presidential leadership style. One manifestation of this scrutiny is the U.S. News & World Report (USNWR) annual college ranking. To resolve the uncertainty regarding effective leadership style the present study was designed to address the following research questions: 1. Is there any relationship between a top tier ranking in the USNWR and a particular leadership style? 2. Is there agreement among top administrators at the ranked institutions regarding the style of leadership exhibited by their university president? The proposed study answers these questions through the analysis of data gathered utilizing the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. The survey instrument was sent to three top administrators at the top 50 ranked national universities according to USNWR. A score was derived which provided a quantitative assessment of transformational, transactional or laissez-faire leadership styles. In addition, a satisfaction score was determined. The key results of the study show: 1) transformational leadership was found in 56% to 74% of the rated presidents; 2) transformational leaders were found to induce the greatest satisfaction; 3) transactional leadership style was exhibited 24% of the time, and laissez-faire leadership was found among 8% of the presidents; 4) laissez-faire leadership was noted significantly more frequently among universities ranked from 40 - 50 according to the USNWR; and 5) there was no statistical agreement among the administrators surveyed.In conclusion, the findings of this study indicate that transformational leadership is the most satisfactory style of leadership among these national universities. The rating of transformational university presidents as highly satisfactory demonstrates the success of presidents with these leadership skills.
- Retention and Attrition of Doctoral Candidates in Higher Education
- A number of studies have been conducted on the attrition rates of undergraduate and graduate students. However, the body of knowledge concerning attrition for doctoral students, especially those who have attained the level of “all but dissertation” (ABD), is limited. The purpose of this research was to examine retention and attrition factors of doctoral candidates from a typical Higher Education Doctoral Program (Research II Public Institution) who were admitted to candidacy from 1991 through July 2000. Participation of the subject population was limited to those who had attained the level of ABD--those who had previously fulfilled the residency, coursework, foreign language or tool-subject requirements, and successfully completed the comprehensive/qualifying exams. This population included current ABDs, previously attrited ABDs, and graduates of the degree program. The research study was qualitative and intended to identify the effect of specific, predetermined factors that may have influenced or affected the progress of current, previous, and graduated students towards the doctoral degree in higher education. This study obtained responses to questions from the questionnaire/survey instrument concerning factors that affected program completion or attrition. Students had the opportunity to elaborate on factors from their dissertation, advisement, and personal, financial, and employment experiences that affected their ability to complete the program through open-ended question responses. By examining key factors in the doctoral degree experience from the three sample groups (current ABDs, previous ABDs, and graduated Ed.Ds), this study was able to draw some conclusions about doctoral attrition. Reconstructing and comparing the experiences of ABDs from the point of candidacy to the point of attrition or completion of the program determined trends, commonalities, and issues affecting achievement. Results of this study add to the limited research concerning ABD attrition and provide an insight from the student perspective as to the obstacles and support variables in the quest for the doctoral degree.
- Academic Dishonesty: Attitudes and Behaviors of Fundamentalist Christian College Students
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This study was designed to examine: (1) the extent to which cheating occurs in fundamentalist Christian colleges; (2) the attitudes of fundamentalist Christian college students toward cheating; (3) attitudes of fundamentalist Christian college students toward cheating among their peers; (4) the kinds of cheating practices of fundamentalist Christian college students; (5) the degree to which students engage in neutralizing behavior to justify cheating; (6) differences in cheating behaviors according to gender; (7) differences in cheating behaviors according to ethnicity; and (8) differences in cheating behaviors according to the length of duration of Christian commitment. Based upon the responses of 337 students attending 3 different Christian colleges, it was concluded that: (1) most Christian fundamentalist students do not engage in cheating; (2) respondents believe that each of 17 self-reported cheating behaviors are serious forms of cheating; (3) respondents are unlikely to report cheating among peers; (4) plagiarism is the most common cheating behavior; (5) most respondents justify cheating on the basis of the workload at school and the pressure to obtain good grades; (6) there are no differences in cheating behavior according to gender; (7) there are differences in cheating behavior according to groups; and (8) most respondents do not cheat regardless of the self-reported duration of Christian commitment.
- High-Temperature Corrosion of Aluminum Alloys: Oxide-Alloy Interactions and Sulfur Interface Chemistry
- The spallation of aluminum, chromium, and iron oxide scales is a chronic problem that critically impacts technological applications like aerospace, power plant operation, catalysis, petrochemical industry, and the fabrication of composite materials. The presence of interfacial impurities, mainly sulfur, has been reported to accelerate spallation, thereby promoting the high-temperature corrosion of metals and alloys. The precise mechanism for sulfur-induced destruction of oxides, however, is ambiguous. The objective of the present research is to elucidate the microscopic mechanism for the high-temperature corrosion of aluminum alloys in the presence of sulfur. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies were conducted under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions on oxidized sulfur-free and sulfur-modified Al/Fe and Ni3Al(111). Evaporative deposition of aluminum onto a sulfur-covered iron surface results in the insertion of aluminum between the sulfur adlayer and the substrate, producing an Fe-Al-S interface. Aluminum oxidation at 300 K is retarded in the presence of sulfur. Oxide destabilization, and the formation of metallic aluminum are observed at temperatures > 600 K when sulfur is located at the Al2O3-Fe interface, while the sulfur-free interface is stable up to 900 K. In contrast, the thermal stability (up to at least 1100 K) of the Al2O3 formed on an Ni3Al(111) surface is unaffected by sulfur. Sulfur remains at the oxide-Ni3Al(111) interface after oxidation at 300 K. During annealing, aluminum segregation to the g ¢ -Al2O3-Ni3Al(111) interface occurs, coincident with the removal of sulfur from the interfacial region. A comparison of the results observed for the Al2O3/Fe and Al2O3/Ni3Al systems indicates that the high-temperature stability of Al2O3 films on aluminum alloys is connected with the concentration of aluminum in the alloy.
- Faculty Use of the World Wide Web: Modeling Information Seeking Behavior in a Digital Environment
- There has been a long history of studying library users and their information seeking behaviors and activities. Researchers developed models to better understand these information seeking behaviors and activities of users. Most of these models were developed before the onset of the Internet. This research project studied faculty members' use of and their information seeking behaviors and activities on the Internet at Angelo State University, a Master's I institution. Using both a quantitative and qualitative methodology, differences were found between tenured and tenure-track faculty members on the perceived value of the Internet to meet their research and classroom information needs. Similar differences were also found among faculty members in the broad discipline areas of the humanities, social sciences, and sciences. Tenure-track faculty members reported a higher average Internet use per week than tenured faculty members. Based on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with seven tenured and seven tenure-track faculty members, an Internet Information Seeking Activities Model was developed to describe the information seeking activities on the Internet by faculty members at Angelo State University. The model consisted of four basic stages of activities: "Gathering," "Validating," "Linking" with a sub-stage of "Re-validating," and "Monitoring." There were two parallel stages included in the model. These parallel stages were "Communicating" and "Mentoring." The Internet Information Seeking Activities Model was compared to the behavioral model of information seeking by faculty members developed by Ellis. The Internet Model placed a greater emphasis on validating information retrieved from the Internet. Otherwise there were no other substantive changes to Ellis' model.
- Evaluation of a Master of Divinity Program in a Theological Seminary
- The objective of this research project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the M.Div. program of Alliance Bible Seminary, Hong Kong. The research was designed for evaluation based solely upon the perceptions of the participant (graduate). The research identified and described the graduates enrolled, assessed perceived career development and attainment, and measured the degree of satisfaction experienced by the graduates who have matriculated from the degree program. A questionnaire was mailed to obtain the necessary data from the graduates of the M.Div. program of Alliance Bible Seminary. The questionnaire which was used was adapted from a previously used one used in the study of graduate educational programs. It has been tested in two other previous studies and was deemed effective. In order to verify its effectiveness in the Eastern context, a pilot test was conducted before the formal research, and the adapted questionnaire was found effective. Responses to the questionnaire were coded and the SPSS system was used to analyze the data. Tables and figures were constructed showing frequencies and significant differences where they occurred. Generally, the graduates at Alliance Bible Seminary were very satisfied with their educational experiences. Both males and females indicated that they would choose the same path again, and would recommend the program to others. The graduates were having full-time employment in the field of Christian ministry, and were positively attaining their career goals. The steps leading to the degree at Alliance Bible Seminary were perceived as very helpful and useful, not just the course work and independent reading, but also extre-curricular activities such as voluntary work on campus, Student Evangelistic Band, and interaction with faculty. Some aspects of the program need improvement and consolidation, such as freshmen advising in the majors, course work in the core, quality of instruction, varieties of course offered, and access to computing resources. A special concern should be made on spiritual formation activities. Over half of the respondents (55%) were not satisfied with this. This evaluation was the first of its kind in the history of the seminary. It emphasized the importance of keeping the institution responsive to the rapidly changing conditions of the society, especially in Hong Kong and China, where the focus of Christian ministry will be in the new century. Hopefully, this research project will kindle a series of research efforts that in the end will help the seminary creating an evaluation system within the institution, so that the institution is kept sensitive to the changing environment and can improve its programs accordingly.
- The Four Major Education GI Bills: A Historical Study of the Shifting National Purposes and Accompanying Changes in Economic Value to Veterans
- Benefits for soldiers follow the formation of ancient and present day armies raised for the purpose of extending the national or state will. Veterans' benefits for defenders of the U.S. emerged during the American colonial period. College benefits began after WWII with the GI Bill of Rights. This study examines the variations in purpose for nationally established educational benefits for veterans and the singular value to the veterans of these 5educational benefits. The study begins with an overview of the history of veterans' benefits. Primary emphasis is then placed on the educational portion of the World War II Servicemen's Readjustment Act and the current educational benefit, the Montgomery GI Bill. As the purpose of awarding educational benefits changed from World War II to the latest U.S. war, the Gulf War of 1990-1991, the economic value to the individual veteran also changed. The WWII GI Bill featured an educational provision intended to keep returning veterans out of the changing economy whereas current GI Bills is intended as a recruiting incentive for an all-volunteer force. Correspondingly, the economic value to the individual veteran has changed. Data supporting this study were extracted from historical documents in primary and secondary scholarly studies and writings, government documents, national newspapers and periodicals, Veterans Administration publications, service newspapers, and anecdotal writings. The study offers conclusions regarding the shifting purposes and economic value and recommends changes to current and future GI Bills. The conclusions of this study are: (a) the purpose of the Montgomery GI Bill is to serve as a recruitment tool for the armed force, whereas the WWII GI Bill emphasized concern over the return of millions of veterans to a changing wartime economy unable to offer full employment and, (b) the present GI Bill funds less than 50% of the costs for a 4-year degree while the first GI Bill fully funded a college degree, including tuition and living expenses.
- Hardiness, stress, and coping strategies among mid-level nurse managers: Implications for continuing higher education.
- This study investigated relationships among hardiness, stress, and coping strategies among mid-level nurse managers in hospitals. Coping strategies were hypothesized to be positively related to stress. In addition, hardiness and its components were hypothesized to be positively related to stress and coping strategies. Demographics were hypothesized to be unrelated to stress, hardiness, and coping strategies. Both hardiness and coping strategies were hypothesized to be predictors of stress. Pearson correlation coefficients, multiple regression, and linear regression were used in data analysis. Stress was associated with specific coping strategies viz., confrontation, selfcontrolling, accepting responsibility, and escape-avoidance. High hardiness, particularly commitment and challenge, was associated with low levels of stress and with problemfocused coping strategies. By contrast, low hardiness was associated with high stress and use of emotion-focused strategies. Significant demographics, when compared to study variables, included age, experience, time with supervisors, number of direct reports, highest degrees obtained, and formal or informal higher education in management. Young nurse managers who were less experienced in nursing and management, and who had fewer direct reports, reported the highest stress levels among nurse managers. High hardiness, particularly commitment, was a strong predictor of low levels of stress; use of escape-avoidance was a significant predictor of occupational stress. This study supported the theoretical suppositions of lower stress if hardiness and specific coping strategies are high among mid-level nurse managers. Potential exists for work-related stress to be reduced by increasing hardiness and adaptive coping strategies. Implications for higher education research and practice are discussed.
- The message and ministry of Howard G. Hendricks in Christian higher education
- Howard G. Hendricks influenced generations of leaders in Christian education during the last half of the 20th century through the practical communication of his unique message and the personal nature of his teaching ministry. This study explored his life through interpretive biography, compared his message with current models of secular and religious education, and evaluated his ministry through case study research. Hendricks has contributed to the field of Christian higher education through the publication of several books and periodical articles, as well as film series, audiotapes, and videotapes. He has presented thousands of messages across America and in over 75 countries worldwide. Hendricks has spent his entire 50-year educational career at Dallas Theological Seminary, teaching in the classroom, mentoring his students, and modeling positive values of Christian leadership. Chapter 1 introduces the study, explains the purpose and significance of the project, and defines key terms. Chapter 2 describes the methodology employed for the study. Chapter 3 provides an interpretive biography of Hendricks, and chapter 4 compares the educational philosophy of Hendricks with secular and Christian models. Chapter 5 examines the ministry of Hendricks in a case study approach. Chapter 6 summarizes the study and offers conclusions and implications for future research.
- Career Paths of Female Chief Academic Officers in the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities
- This study examined the career paths of women administrators serving as chief academic officers in Christian colleges and universities which belong to the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities (CCCU). The CCCU is a professional association of evangelical Christian institutions dedicated to integrating faith and learning. The exploration included each administrator's demographic information; her early, adolescent, college, and graduate school experiences; early vocational experiences; the effect of marriage and motherhood on her career; critical factors she identified as important in achieving her current position; and the importance of spiritual convictions or Christian faith in career decision making. Sixteen of the eighteen identified women holding the rank of chief academic officer agreed to participate in the study. The typical woman administrator was 50, married, and the mother of one or more children. She most likely had received her education in the humanities, with the terminal degree of choice being a Ph.D. She had served at her current institution for more than five years, but in her current administrative position for less than five. As an adolescent she excelled in the humanities, less so in math and science, and was involved in many extracurricular activities, including music endeavors, leadership, and her local church. She had received the most encouragement from her mother, although both parents expected her to do her best in school. For post secondary education, she had benefited from a mentor, had excelled easily, and had taken no time off between her bachelor's and master's degrees or between her master's or doctoral degrees. Although she had aspired to teach and received most of her early vocational experience in the professoriate, she had not aspired to be an administrator. As an adult, she had married in her 20's and had children before the age of 30. She had an unusually supportive spouse and believed her marriage to be a key factor in her career success. Her family and professional roles were potentially conflicted and required her to "juggle" her responsibilities. She believed the influence of her mentors, faith influences, and chairing an academic department were critical experiences that had led to her position in administration. Regarding her spiritual convictions and disciplines, she adamantly believed both affect her daily work and personal life. CCCU women administrators are deeply committed to their Christian higher education callings, highly educated, persistent, spiritually minded, and devoted to their families.
- istance-Mediated Christian Higher Education: Student Perceptions of the Facilitative Nature of Selected Instructional Development Factors
- A national survey was conducted to assess student perceptions of the helpfulness of specific instructional development factors in a distance education print-based program. Participants were all students who had successfully completed at least one distance education correspondence course with Global University or were currently enrolled in their first course. Instructional development factors studied included lesson openers, lesson outlines, lesson artwork, written objectives, amount of information presented before a study question is asked, typographical features, graphic art, study questions, answers to study questions, self tests, and unit progress evaluations. Basic demographic information was collected and survey respondents located their perceptions of instructional development factor helpfulness both on a Likert scale and on a rank-order scale. Respondents also were asked for comments on the instructional development factors studied. Differences among respondent groups were examined. Major findings include a tiered ranking by all groups showing formative evaluation factors to be the most helpful, content organization and presentation factors next most helpful, and visual enhancement features (graphic art, typographical design) the least helpful. Overall, perceptions of the facilitative nature of the instructional development factors were similar among most groups. Older students seem to focus more on organization while younger students exhibit a balance between their perceptions of the facilitative nature of content and testing. Students enrolled in their first course perceive several of the formative evaluation factors to be less helpful than do more experienced students while at the same time perceiving content pacing to be more helpful than do more experienced students.
- The Effect of Faculty Development on Active Learning in the College Classroom
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This study examined the effect of active learning seminars and a mentoring program on the use of active learning teaching techniques by college faculty. A quasi-experimental study was conducted using convenience samples of faculty from two private Christian supported institutions. Data for the study were collected from surveys and faculty course evaluations. The study lasted one semester. Faculty volunteers from one institution served as the experimental group and faculty volunteers from the second institution were the comparison group. The experimental group attended approximately eight hours of active learning seminars and also participated in a one-semester mentoring program designed to assist faculty in application of active learning techniques. Several individuals conducted the active learning seminars. Dr. Charles Bonwell, a noted authority on active learning, conducted the first three-hour seminar. Seven faculty who had successfully used active learning in their classrooms were selected to conduct the remaining seminars. The faculty-mentoring program was supervised by the researcher and conducted by department chairs. Data were collected from three surveys and faculty course evaluations. The three surveys were the Faculty Active Learning Survey created by the researcher, the Teaching Goals Inventory created by Angelo and Cross, and the college edition of Learner-Centered Practices by Barbara McCombs. The use of active learning techniques by the experimental group increased significantly more than the use by those in the convenience sample. No statistical difference was found in the change of professors' teaching beliefs or the course evaluation results.
- A study of freshman interest groups and leadership practices at Texas Woman's University
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This study investigated the level of leadership practices and retention rates of freshman students at Texas Woman's University. The data for the study were collected using the Leadership Practices Inventory, Student Version. The sample for the study consisted of 151 freshman students. The students were each placed in one of three control groups. Group A students (the treatment group) were in the Neighbors Educated Together Program (NET). Group B students (control group) were in one of two university-sponsored programs (COLORS or University 1000), and Group C students (control group) were the residual group of first-time college freshmen. These three groups were surveyed prior to their participation in the NET program or a university-sponsored program and again at the end of 14 weeks. In addition, retention rates were examined on the 12 class day of the spring semester. The study found statistically significant differences (p <. 05) on the pretests and posttests between Group C, residual students, and the other two groups on the Enabling the Followers to Act subscale, the Inspiring a Shared Vision subscale, and Encouraging the Heart subscale. Group A, NET students, and Group B, COLORS/University 1000 students, showed no statistically significant differences between groups. The difference from the residual group could indicate that students who self-select into programs such as NET, COLORS, and University 1000 are more likely to engage in practices measured by the subscale prior to enrollment in the respective programs. No statistically significant differences were found on the Challenging the Process or Modeling the Way subscales. The lack of significance shows that there are no differences in practices for any of these groups prior to enrollment at the university or as a result of participation in a university-sponsored program such as NET, COLORS, or University 1000. A chi-square test was performed following the 12 class day for the Spring 2001 th semester. Approximately 89% of the students in Group C Residual, 97% of Group B COLORS/University 1000, and 91% of Group A NET were retained. The chi- square frequency test revealed no statistically significant differences in level of retention between groups.
- Burnout Among Student Affairs Professionals at Metropolitan Universities
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The purpose of this study was to determine the level of burnout among student affairs professionals at the 52 U.S. member institutions of the Coalition of Urban and Metropolitan Universities. Packets containing the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the Moos Work Environment Scale (WES), and a demographic survey were mailed to 371 senior student affairs administrators at the member institutions, with a completed response rate of 58.22%. The senior student affairs administrators surveyed included the chief student affairs officers and the professional staff who reported to them. The research design employed t-tests, analyses of variance, and Pearson's Product Moment correlations. The scores obtained from the MBI and WES subscales were compared overall and along 9 independent variablestitle of position, size of institution, appointment, salary, years in current position, years in profession, age, gender, and highest degree attained. Average levels of burnout were found on each of the MBI subscores. Contrary to earlier studies, women did not suffer from statistically significant higher levels of burnout than men, and burnout levels decreased with age and years in the profession for both sexes. Lower scores on the MBI depersonalization subscale were found in employees in mid-career and in professionals from smaller schools. Emotional exhaustion was not a factor. Environmental factors relating to burnout and job satisfaction were also explored. Statistically significant differences on the WES were found on all of the independent variables except the years in the current position variable. The metropolitan environment may have been effective in reducing the amount of burnout felt by this group of student affairs professionals. The study underscored the need for continuing research in burnout for student affairs professionals and for continued professional development throughout the career span.
- The Assessment of Cognitive Development and Writing Aptitude Within Learning Communities
- Learning communities have emerged as an efficient and effective paradigm for improving undergraduate education, especially for entering freshmen. The academy has become increasingly interested in learning outcomes and student retention, especially as they are related to the assessment of various approaches to educating the whole student. Learning community pedagogy has developed through rigorous research. However, little is known about the impact of this pedagogy upon college students' cognitive development and writing aptitude. Cognitive development theory has been most significantly influenced by the work of William G. Perry, Jr. Though no theory exists which would address the stages of writing development in university students, many composition theorists suggest a correlation between cognitive development and writing aptitude. This study measured cognitive development and writing aptitude in learning community students and non-learning community students, matching them for SAT scores, high school grade point averages, gender, and ethnicity. The research questions of interest were: 1) How does participation in a learning community affect students' cognitive development; and 2) How does participation in a learning community affect students' writing aptitude? The participants were pre- and post-assessed for cognitive development, using the Measure of Intellectual Development (MID). Additionally, participants were preand post-assessed for writing aptitude, using a diagnostic essay and exit exam. Results of this study indicate no statistically significant differences in cognitive development and writing aptitude for learning community students and non-learning community students as measured by the Measure of Intellectual Development (MID) and the diagnostic essay and exit exam. These findings may have been influenced by the small sample size. It is suggested that this research be replicated, ensuring a larger sample size, to determine the efficacy of this pedagogy on these variable sets.
- Perceptions of assurance service services performed by certified public accountants: Accounting education assessment applications
- The overall purpose of this study was to examine how Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) perceive the potential use of assurance services to assess quality in accounting education programs. Survey questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of 250 CPAs in the north central Texas area. The questionnaire was designed to obtain demographic information and information relating to the respondents' perceptions of quality assessment of accounting education programs. An analysis of the results of this study suggest the following: CPAs consider (1) certain established criteria, such as SAT scores and faculty-to-student ratios, as effective measures for assessing quality attributes in accounting education programs and (2) traditional measures currently used for quality assessment in accounting education programs as only moderately effective by CPAs. CPAs are apparently seeking increased involvement with accounting education quality assessment and formulation of educational standards. They view the potential application of assurance services to accounting education quality as a way to offer a wider range of services to the public. CPAs perceive assurance services as a type of quality assessment that can be used to complement, but not replace, some of the more effective traditional methods, and as a way of enhancing the quality assessment process for accounting education.
- Christian Higher Education at Dallas Theological Seminary: An Assessment of Doctor of Ministry Programs
- This study involved non-experimental research to identify alumni perceptions of the strengths and weaknesses of the Doctor of Ministry degree program at Dallas Theological Seminary. An international survey was conducted to collect data from 165 Doctor of Ministry degree holders from Dallas Theological Seminary; 131 usable questionnaires were returned. A response rate of 79.4 percent was achieved. The intent of the study was to ascertain (a) the extent to which D.Min. alumni perceive that the objectives and goals of Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary are being met, (b) alumni-perceived strengths of Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary, (c) alumni-perceived weaknesses of Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary, (d) compare the findings of this case study assessment with a 1987 national study of Doctor of Ministry programs, and (e) make recommendations for the improvement of D. Min programs at Dallas Theological Seminary. The pattern that emerged from the data indicates that the D.Min. alumni believe objectives and goals of the Doctor of Ministry program at Dallas Theological Seminary are being met. In the opinion of the alumni, Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary has its strengths. The overall opinion of the D.Min. faculty and curriculum are strong indicators of its strength. The D.Min. program has had a positive impact on the lives of its alumni and on their ministries. In the opinion of the alumni, Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary also has its weaknesses. A casual comparison of the findings of this case study assessment with a similar 1987 national study of Doctor of Ministry programs revealed more similarities than differences. The alumni provided a number of suggestions to be implemented into the Doctor of Ministry curriculum, structure, faculty, administration, overall image of the program, its purpose and objectives.
- Technology Standards for the Improvement of Teaching and Learning in Community College Music Programs
- Providing standards for music technology use in community college music programs presents both challenges and opportunities for educators in American higher education. A need exists to assess the current use of technology at the community college level for the purpose of improving instruction. Although limited research has been done on the use of technology to support music education K- 12 and in four-year universities, little research on the problem in the community college setting was found. This research employed a Delphi study, a method for the systematic solicitation and collection of professional judgments on a particular subject, to examine existing criteria, “best practices”, and standards, in an effort to develop a set of standards specifically for the community college level. All aspects of a complete music program were considered including: curriculum, staffing, equipment, materials/software, facilities and workforce competencies. The panel of experts, comprised of community college educators from throughout the nation, reached consensus on 50 of the 57 standards. Forty-one or 82%, were identified as minimal standards for the application of music technology in music education. Community college music educators, planning to successfully utilize music technology to improve teaching and learning should implement the 41 standards determined as minimal by the Delphi panel. As the use of music technology grows in our community college programs, the standards used to define the success of these programs will expand and mature through further research.
- An investigation of the current status of fund raising activities and training within student affairs divisions in Texas colleges and universities.
- The primary focus of this study was to discover the depth of involvement with fundraising by student affairs professionals in Texas. It sought to determine the predominance of chief student affairs officers trained in development and the types of training that they received. Cooperation between student affairs divisions and development offices was also studied and whether there was a correlation between a cooperative relationship and the number of successful fundraising goals. This study includes a review of related literature on student affairs fundraising, a description of the methodology, results of the survey, conclusions, implications, and recommendations that may assist in future decision-making concerning future involvement in fundraising. The surveys were mailed to 149 four-year (public and private) institutions and two-year public institutions in Texas. The senior staff members of both the student affairs office and development office were asked to complete a survey. There was a 60.7% return rate consisting of responses from 72 development offices and 95 student affairs offices for a total of 167 usable responses. The study found that 59% of the student affairs officers had some formal training and/or on the job training. Involvement in fundraising was reported by 62.1% of the chief student affairs officers. Eighteen percent reported that they employed a development officer exclusively for student affairs fundraising, and another 30% had a development officer assigned to student affairs. Most development officers and student affairs officers perceived the other officer as cooperative rather than competitive in raising funds. Recommendations from this study include studying community college fundraising structures separately for more depth, conducting qualitative interviews with student affairs development officers, making a comparison of student affairs offices that have full-time development officers, and comparing the differences in fundraising success between development officers and chief student affairs officers. Recommendations for the professions include resource development training for student affairs officers and student affairs education for development officers.
- Graduate Professional Training in Christian Education at Dallas Theological Seminary and Alumni Perceptions of Program Quality
- This study assessed the quality of graduate professional training in Christian education at Dallas Theological Seminary (DTS) in terms of the perceptions of program alumni. The subjects of the investigation were 780 alumni who graduated from DTS between 1984 and 2000. The Christian Education program was assessed utilizing Daniel Stufflebeam's CIPP model and alumni data collected from a survey instrument. A response rate of 65% (N=504) was achieved. The research procedure employed a non-experimental design methodology for the quantitative component and open-ended questions for the qualitative component. Most results were statistically significant at the .05 alpha level utilizing chi-square goodness-of-fit tests.
- Occupational Therapy Academic Program Faculty Attitudes Toward Tenure as Measured by the Tenure Attitude Scale
- This study explored attitudes of occupational therapy faculty toward tenure and selected alternatives to tenure. A survey method was employed, and the Tenure Attitude Survey Instrument, (TASI), was created for use in the study. Additionally, a questionnaire sought information regarding respondents' rank, tenure and administrative status, institutional type, and years in academia. Participants were accredited occupational therapy professional program faculty who identified their primary work setting as "Academic" on the 2000-2001 American Occupational Therapy Association membership survey. Factor analysis of 577 surveys examined the structure of scores on the TASI, and the instrument consisted of 4 scales, and 18 items, as follows: Scale One: Attitude toward academic freedom and job security protection, 7 items; Scale Two: Attitude toward tenure in general, 6 items; Scale Three: Attitude toward stop-the-tenure clock provisions, 2 items; and Scale Four: Attitude toward post-tenure review, 3 items. Cronbach's alpha was conducted, as follows: TASI overall alpha = .7915; Scale 1 alpha = .7884; Scale 2 alpha = .8420; Scale 3 alpha = .7020; Scale 4 alpha = .4229. Proportional analysis showed that most respondents were full time faculty (88.1%); taught full time at public institutions (52.8%); were tenured or tenure-track (55.5%); had no administrative duties (70.5%); with a rank of instructor or lecturer (17.5%), or assistant professor (45.7%). Time in academia ranged from 1-40 years, with a mean of 11.27 years, median of 9.25 years, and mode of 4 years. Attitudes toward, and support for, the continuation of tenure and for selected proposed alternatives to tenure were analyzed according to the following: faculty rank, administrative status, and tenure status. Respondents held generally favorable attitudes toward tenure as measured by Scales 1 and 2 of the TASI, and the best predictors of faculty attitude toward tenure were tenure status and rank. Due to low reliability scores on Scales 3 and 4, no conclusions can be drawn regarding respondents' attitudes toward alternatives to tenure.
- Alcohol and Other Drugs: Attitudes and Use Among Graduate/Professional Students at a Health Science Center
- Alcohol and other drug use continue to be a major issue on college and university campuses. Few studies have examined alcohol and other drug related issues for a graduate or professional student population. This study examines attitudes, incidents, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use among students enrolled at an academic heath science center. This study incorporated a descriptive research design and utilized the CORE Alcohol and Drug Survey for the collection of data. The data were then analyzed using descriptive statistics and represented in tables as frequencies and percentages. The survey was mailed to all students enrolled in didactic course work at the University of North Texas Health Science Center (UNTHSC) during the fall 2001 semester. This included master's students in physician assistant studies, master's and doctoral students in the biomedical sciences, master's and doctoral students in public health, as well as first and second year medical students. Of the 565 students enrolled in didactic course work, 321 responded to the survey for a return rate of 56.8 %. Statistically significant findings are reported for students at UNTHSC in relation to perceptions of use, actual use, reasons for use, and consequences for use. Similar findings are shown relative to age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, and academic program. Additionally, the UNTHSC students reported statistically significant lower levels of alcohol and drug use, as well as consequences of use than the students represented in the CORE Institutes 2000 national data set. This study identifies the need to investigate alcohol and drug related attitudes, behaviors, and consequences among students studying for professions in health related fields. However, the findings are only relevant to UNTHSC and cannot be generalized to any other population. The study provides personnel at UNTHSC a guide for the development of prevention and intervention programs.
- Ethics of Teaching: Beliefs and Behaviors of Community College Faculty
- This study examines the ethical beliefs and behaviors of full-time community college faculty. Respondents report to what degree they practice sixty-two behaviors as teachers and whether they believe the behaviors to be ethical. Survey participants engaged in few of the behaviors, and only reported two actions as ethical: (1) accepting inexpensive gifts from students and (2) teaching values or ethics. The participants reported diverse responses to questions about behavior of a sexual nature, but most agreed that sexual relationships with students or colleagues at the same, higher or lower rank were unethical. Additional findings relate to the presence of diversity among the faculty, using school resources to publish textbooks and external publications, selling goods to students, and an expansive list of other behaviors. Findings of this study are compared to results from earlier studies that utilized the same or similar survey instrument with teaching faculty. The study has implications for organizational policy and procedure, for faculty training and development, the teaching of ethics or values in the classroom and for future research.
- Chief Student Affairs Officers in 4-Year Public Institutions of Higher Education: An Exploratory Investigation Into Their Conflict Management Styles and Praxis
- This study investigated the conflict management styles of chief student affairs officers in 4-year public institutions of higher education in the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. The data for the study were collected using Hall's Conflict Management Survey. The sample for the study consisted of 25 chief student affairs officers. The purpose of the study was to identify the conflict management style preferences of chief student affairs officers. The other variables studied to ascertain if they had an impact on the style preferences were age, gender, number of years of experience as a chief student affairs officer, ethnicity, and the size (enrollment) of their employing institution. The study found statistically significant associations (p<.05) between ethnicity and conflict management style, specifically the synergistic and win-lose styles, and between the synergistic style and age. The association between ethnicity and conflict management style could be attributed to the fact that the Caucasian group of chief student affairs officers comprised 66.7 % of the synergistic styles and 100 % of the win-lose styles. The association between the synergistic style and age could be due to the fact that the majority of the chief student affairs officers had a synergistic style, and of that group, 66.7 % were in the 50-59 age range. No statistically significant associations were found for correlations between conflict management style and gender; conflict management styles and number of years of experience as a chief student affairs officer; or conflict management styles and size (enrollment) of their employing institutions. The lack of significance shows that there are no associations between the conflict management styles of chief student affairs officers stratified according to gender, number of years of experience, and size (enrollment) of their employing institutions.
- Leadership Frames of Female Presidents of American Research Universities
- This study used case studies to examine the leadership frames of female presidents of four-year, public and private, coeducational research institutions both from the Intensive and Extensive Carnegie classifications within the United States. The population (N=30) surveyed was sent the Leadership Orientation Questionnaire (Self) developed from the previous research conducted by Lee Bolman and Terrance Deal. The Bolman and Deal leadership frame theory condensed existing organizational theories into a four-frame perspective consisting of a structural, human resource, political, and symbolic frame. Bolman and Deal theorized that the ability to use more than one frame is considered to be critical to the success of leaders and intensify that leader's capacity for making decisions and taking effective actions. The Leadership Orientation Questionnaire (Self) contains five sections that include rating scales for personal demographics, the four frames, eight leadership dimensions, and management and leadership effectiveness. The research questions sought to identify the demographic characteristics and academic histories of the survey participants and the associations between these variables, the leadership frames represented among the survey participants, and how many, and which, of the four frames the survey participants use collectively. This study allowed its participants to examine their perceptions of their own leadership frames in order to analyze the frame that dominates the way certain universities communicate. Thirteen of the thirty presidents (43%) completed and returned the survey. Survey participants who had 20 or more years of experience were more likely to exhibit the human resource or symbolic frame as their dominant style; presidents whose years of experience numbered less than 20 years exhibited a mulitframe perspective in their decision-making process. Overall, this research found that the survey participants exhibited most often the human resource frame, followed by the symbolic, structural, and political frames.
- Faculty Practice Among Commission of Collegiate Nursing Education Accredited Nursing Schools
- This descriptive survey study investigated the value of faculty practice among Commission of Collegiate Nurse Education (CCNE) Accredited Nursing Schools. The sample included all CCNE accredited schools that offered a Masters degree. Subjects from the 66 schools in the sample the dean and three Nurse Practitioner faculty who are teaching a clinical course. Response rate was 51% for the deans and 35% for the faculty. The opinions of deans were compared to the opinions of faculty on the views of faculty practice as research and the incorporation of faculty practice in the tenure and merit review system. The results showed faculty and deans differed on the value of faculty practice as research. However, only 6.5 % of statistically significance difference was contributable to whether the response was from a dean of a faculty. There was no significant difference to the inclusion of faculty practice in the tenure and merit review system. Boyer's expanded definition of research was used as a theoretical background. Deans viewed faculty practice more important as compared to the traditional faculty expectation of research than faculty did. The operational definition of faculty practice was that it required scholarly outcomes from the practice. Deans were more willing than faculty to acknowledge there were scholarly measurable outcomes to evaluate faculty practice than faculty were. The greatest difference in opinion of outcomes was the deans were more willing to accept clinically focused articles as an outcome than faculty were. Faculty were asked how the money from faculty practice was distributed. Faculty overwhelmingly reported that money generated from faculty practice most often goes to the individual faculty member. Suggested areas for future research involve investigation of the role of tenure committees in tenure decisions relating to research and faculty practice.
- An Assessment of the Parent Orientation Program at the University of North Texas
- Although most institutions offer a parent program option to the orientation program, there has been little formalized research into the quality, planning or programming of parent orientation. There has been very little research into the impact parent orientation has on parents and whether or not they feel that such programs have met their needs, particularly by gender, minority status, educational background, or by geographic distance from the institution. This study seeks to determine the effectiveness of the parent orientation program at the University of North Texas to the parents who participate in this program. The study attempts to measure whether parents feel that they have adequate information about the institution to adequately support their student through the college transition; if parents feel welcomed by the UNT campus community; and if they feel that they have developed resources and institutional contacts that may be useful in the future in assisting their child to have a successful college experience at UNT. The study, conducted in the summer of 2002, had 736 respondents. An instrument developed to determine parent's perceptions of the effectiveness of the parent orientation program consisted of 31 questions using a Likert scale. A t-Test was utilized to analyze the data because it is designed to compare the means of the same variable with two different groups. Generally, all aspects of the parent orientation program were found to be positive by each subgroup. Parents found value in the orientation program and how it prepared them to support their new college student. In all four components studied, women had a stronger feeling than the males. Minority status had no significant impact on the outcomes of orientation according to the participants. Educational background proved not to be a significant factor. Distance parents lived from UNT revealed significant difference in three of the four categories. The farther a parent resides from UNT, the more valuable the orientation experience was for them.
- College Student Adaptability and Greek Membership: A Single Institution Case Study
- Since the birth of the United States in 1776, Greek-letter societies have been an integral part of American higher education. Research on the impact of Greek membership varies at best, and often is in conflict from study to study. This study surveyed students affiliated with Greek-letter organizations at the University of North Texas. The research examined the college adaptability of Greek students by gender in five areas: Overall adjustment, academic adjustment, personal-emotional adjustment, social adjustment, and attachment to the institution. The study, conducted in the spring of 2006 at the University of North Texas had 80 respondents. The Student Adaptability to College Questionnaire (SACQ) consisted of 67 items on a 9-point scale. The SACQ is designed to assess how well students adapt to the demands of the college experience. Raw scores and percentile rankings were determined by t-test calculations. Test scores were expressed through t-scores in relation to the standardized sample. Data show no statistical significance in any of the five areas studied: Overall adjustment, academic adjustment, personal-emotional adjustment, social adjustment, or attachment to the institution. Female participants scored higher on all scales than male participants, indicating a slightly higher level of adjustment, though not enough to be significant. Both males and females scored highest in attachment to the institution and social adjustment, while both scored lowest in personal-emotional adjustment.
- For-profit higher education programs in the United States.
- This study examined the extent of research and teaching on higher education programs in the United States that focuses on for-profit higher education. This descriptive study used a 30-item questionnaire to gather the information reported here. This survey instrument was sent to the entire population of interest. This population was made up of all of the programs in higher education that are listed in the ASHE Higher Education Program Directory, which is produced by the Association for the Study of Higher Education. The results of this research show that little research and teaching is being done that has a primary focus on for-profit higher education. Recommendations on how to address this are provided.
- Latino success stories in higher education: A qualitative study of recent graduates from a health science center.
- This study used qualitative research, particularly life history analysis, to determine the personal pathways of success for Latino students who chose to enter a health science center for graduate study and who graduated. By giving voice to individual success stories of Latino students, some of the influences on the life pathways of these graduates were determined. For the purposes of this study, success was defined as graduation from a health science center with either a doctor of philosophy, doctor of public health or doctor of osteopathic medicine degree. Four research subjects agreed to participate in this study from a possible 11 students from the graduating class of 2004-2005 at this health science center. Data were gathered through multiple in-depth interviews of the students themselves over a period of no more than one month for each participant. Data were analyzed using the mind mapping technique and Padilla's unfolding matrix. Findings indicate that each participant traveled a different pathway to achieve educational success although similarities did exist across participants. The influences of family background, cultural background, educational background and personal perceptions and goals did affect the pathways of these four Latino graduates. While three of four participants indicated that family was the most important influence on their academic success, all participants related the importance of family to their success, although their definitions of family seemed to vary and included the concepts of education, culture, and personal perceptions and goals. The concepts of family support of education and a culture of education within the family unit emerged as similar themes among study participants. Other similarities among participants were a high academic self-concept, a strong internal locus of control, the ability to create academic community, and a positive view of potentially negative situations. Individual themes emerged from the narratives within each category for each participant. The impact of previous studies on student success, using undergraduate models, was reviewed, and one influence was found among the study participants that had not been used in previous models - health. Implications of findings from this study for educational policy, programs, and practice are discussed.
- History and Demise of The University Foundation in St. Augustine, Florida: An Institutional Autopsy
- This is an historical study of an institution of higher education that existed in St. Augustine, Florida from 1942-1949. The name of the institution was The University Foundation, founded by George J. Apel, Jr. This institution had several higher education divisions functioning under its umbrella. These divisions were the St. Augustine Junior College, the Graduate Division, the American Theological Seminary and the University Extension College with evening courses and Home Study courses for vacation study. The information collected for this study was accomplished primarily by the process of studying archives and conducting personal interviews. Since this is a qualitative research study, the collected information was processed through the use of multiple data-collection methods, data sources and analyses which insured the validity of the findings of the study. This process is known as information triangulation. The results of this study provide answers to the circumstances and identities of the key players which led to the formation of The University Foundation. Issues relating to the mission, revenue streams, faculty, curricula, and the ultimate demise of The University Foundation were also addressed in this study. Recommendations are included for higher education administrators, faculty, researchers, fund-raisers, and others whose efforts may be directed toward the launching and operation of new Christian institutions of higher learning.
- Resiliency and the successful first-generation community college student: Identifying effective student support services.
- This study examined what differences in resiliency traits, if any, exist between successful and non-successful first and continuing-generation college students through the use of a survey. For the purposes of this study, first-generation students were those students whose parents have never attended college and continuing-generation college students were those students whose parents have attended some college. For the purposes of this study, the term successful was defined as those students who after being enrolled during fall 2005 re-enrolled for the spring 2006 semester and the term non-successful is defined as those students who after being enrolled fall 2005 semester failed to re-enrolled for the spring 2006 semester. A sample of 164 students was surveyed by collecting demographic data, resiliency traits, attitudinal characteristics, level of familial support, and reasons for dropping out of college. A sub-sample of 40 students participated in a face-to-face, in-depth interview. This study found that successful first-generation community college students possessed certain common qualities or resilient characteristics that include: 1) social competence, 2) problem-solving skills, 3) critical consciousness, 4) autonomy, and 5) sense of purpose. Through the face-to-face interviews common themes emerged. Many of the students used similar words to describe their feelings and experiences about beginning, continuing and withdrawing from college. Many of the first-generation college students expressed the lack of familial support once they enrolled. Common themes emerged for the continuing-generation college students in that each student was comfortable with the process of selecting a major, selecting courses to enroll in, and the amount of time they expected to devote to studying. The return rate for each of the four groups studied was limited and rigorous follow up efforts failed to increase the return rate. This is a fundamental limitation of the study, and the results can only be generalized to the institution studied. However, the findings in this study are consistent with the literature on retention and dropout rates for these students.
- Determining the Relationship Between Motivation and Academic Outcomes Among Students in the Health Professions.
- Admissions processes for health professions programs result in students entering these programs academically homogeneous. Yet some students have great difficulty with the programs. Research has shown a limited ability of traditional academic indicators to predict successful outcomes for health professions education. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between learning motivation and academic outcomes for students in health professions programs. The Modified Archer Health Professions Motivation Scale (MAHPMS) and a demographic survey were administered at orientation to 131 medical and 29 physician assistant students at the University of North Texas Health Science Center in the fall of 2005. At the end of the semester, the same version of the MAHPMS was administered, and final course grades and semester averages were collected. Descriptive statistics were analyzed for all the study variables. Analysis of variance was utilized to examine within subjects and between subjects differences for the learning motivation scores among programs and demographic categories. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between learning motivation scores and end-of-semester grades. And finally, logistic regression was performed to explore the ability of the motivation scores to predict academically high-risk students. Approximately three-fourths of the students indicated a preference for mastery learning and an internal locus of control. For the PA students, alienation to learning and performance goal scores statistically related to semester grades, and alienation to learning scores predicted high-risk academic performance almost 90% of the time. For the medical students, mastery goal scores statistically related to semester grades, but no motivation score predicted high-risk performance. External locus of control scores predicted high-risk performance 81% of the time for the total group of students at the end of the semester. Students in this study exhibited learning motivation preferences similar to those of other health professions students reported in the literature. The findings of this study agreed with the literature on achievement motivation theory and raised questions regarding the effect of health professions curricula on student learning goals. Similar studies, measuring larger samples longitudinally need to be conducted in order to further validate or elucidate the results of this study.
- Reflections on diversity: Graduate perceptions of campus climate at Dallas Theological Seminary, 1996-2005.
- The purpose of this study was to determine how graduates of master's degree programs perceived the ethnic and cultural climate at Dallas Theological Seminary (DTS) during their enrollment there. The population (N=2,223) consisted of graduates of master's degree programs who attended Dallas Seminary from 1996-2005. The study utilized a non-experimental design methodology using a mailed survey questionnaire. A 37.2 % response rate was achieved. Most results were statistically significant at the .05 alpha level utilizing chi-square goodness-of-fit tests.
- John Nelson Darby: His Contributions to Contemporary Theological Higher Education
- This study investigated the contributions of John Nelson Darby to selected institutions of contemporary theological higher education. A qualitative approach to the investigation was employed. Archival foraging occupied a greater part of the research data and yielded rich returns as evidenced in the literature review. Purposeful sampling was also utilized. The faculty and administration of three institutions, Moody Bible Institute, Dallas Theological Seminary, and Emmaus Bible College, were mailed questionnaires comprising 22 questions to ascertain their opinions of Darby's contributions to their institutions. Of the 22 questions, 21 were of a Likert type scale offering 5 options: Strongly agree, Agree, Not sure, Disagree, and Strongly disagree; and 1 open-ended question. A response rate of 45% (N=27) was achieved. All results were statistically significant at the p=.05 level utilizing chi-square goodness-of-fit tests.
- Christian Liberal Arts Higher Education in Russia: A Case Study of the Russian-American Christian University
- This is a case study of the historical development of a private Christian faith-based school of higher education in post-Soviet Russia from its conception in 1990 until 2006. This bi-national school was founded as the Russian-American Christian University (RACU) in 1996. In 2003, RACU was accredited by the Russian Ministry of Education under the name Russko-Americansky Christiansky Institute. RACU offers two state-accredited undergraduate academic programs: 1) business and economics, and 2) social work. RACU also offers a major in English language and literature. The academic model of RACU was designed according to the traditional American Christian liberal arts model and adapted to Russian higher education system. The study documents the founding, vision, and growth of RACU. It provides insight into the academic, organizational, and campus life of RACU. The study led to the creation of an operational framework of the historical development of RACU. The study also provides recommendations for the development of new Christian liberal arts colleges and universities based on the experience and the underlying structure of RACU.
- Hardiness and public speaking anxiety: Problems and practices.
- This study explored the relationship between the personality construct of hardiness and public speaking anxiety. Although hardiness has been widely explored in a variety of anxiety-arousing life events, its relationship with communication anxiety had not been previously studied. Therefore, hardiness, public speaking trait anxiety, and public speaking state anxiety were measured in a course requiring an oral presentation assignment. One hundred fifty students enrolled in a basic speech communication course participated in the study. A statistically significant correlation was revealed between hardiness and trait communication anxiety. Students higher in hardiness reported lower trait communication apprehension in three contexts: 1) meeting, 2) interpersonal, and 3) group. Overall, students did not differ on measures of hardiness and a fourth communication context: public speaking anxiety. Likewise, on measures of hardiness and state public speaking anxiety, students did not differ.