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 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Sex and Gender Differences in Perceived and Actual Leadership Performance: Self- and Subordinate Views

Sex and Gender Differences in Perceived and Actual Leadership Performance: Self- and Subordinate Views

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Date: May 2003
Creator: Rivero, Arlene Jean
Description: The purpose of this study was to examine how male and female leaders view their own effectiveness as compared to their objective performance. This study also examined sex and gender differences in subordinate's views of male and female leaders. Forty-two mixed-sex groups led by appointed male and female leaders were observed to assess objective and perceived leader effectiveness. Gender role of participants was assessed using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). No sex or gender differences were found in objective leadership effectiveness. An unexpected finding was that male and female leaders perceived themselves accurately as leaders. Significant differences were found in the way male subordinates rated men and women leaders when taking into account gender role. Results indicated that the study of gender bias in leadership is complex and should be examined in conjunction with gender role. Social role theory helps to explain this bias.
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Sex and Older Americans: Exploring the Relationship Between Frequency of Sexual Activity and Happiness

Sex and Older Americans: Exploring the Relationship Between Frequency of Sexual Activity and Happiness

Date: August 2010
Creator: Jackson, Adrienne
Description: The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to examine the correlation between frequency of sexual activity and general happiness among older Americans and (2) to examine the correlation between frequency of sexual activity and marital happiness among older married Americans. This study employed quantitative data drawn from the 2004-2008 General Social Surveys. Two samples were used. The first sample included all respondents 65 years of age and older with valid responses for the dependent, independent, and control variables. The second sample was a subset of the first and included only the married respondents. Both bivariate cross-tabulations and binary logistic regression analyses were conducted. As expected, the data support a positive association between sexual activity and general happiness in both the total elder sample and the married elder sample (p < 0.05). Also, as expected, the data support a positive association between frequency of sexual activity and marital happiness in the married elder sample (p < 0.05). Even with the introduction of control variables, frequency of sexual activity was found to be a significant predictor of both general and marital happiness (p < 0.05). This study suggests that sexual activity does indeed contribute the happiness and well-being of older Americans.
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Sex Differences and the Relationship Between the Need for Social Approval and Conservative-Liberal Sexual Attitudes

Sex Differences and the Relationship Between the Need for Social Approval and Conservative-Liberal Sexual Attitudes

Date: May 1973
Creator: Vilet, Jacquelyn
Description: This study investigated sex differences and the relationship between need for approval and liberal-conservative attitudes regarding sex. The test measures used were the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (M-C SDS) and a questionnaire measuring liberal-conservative sexual attitudes taken from a research survey published in Psychology Today.
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Sex Differences in the Prediction of Academic Success in High School

Sex Differences in the Prediction of Academic Success in High School

Date: August 1964
Creator: Russell, Dwane, 1927-
Description: The problem of the study is to investigate the effect of sex differences in the use of the California Achievement Tests and the California Test of Mental Maturity in predicting academic success in high school. The specific predictors which are analyzed for sex differences are verbal intelligence quotient from the California Test of Mental Maturity and reading vocabulary, reading comprehension, arithmetic achievement, and language achievement from the California Achievement Tests.
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The Sex Offender Registry in Collin County, Texas: a Descriptive Analysis of Sex Offenders

The Sex Offender Registry in Collin County, Texas: a Descriptive Analysis of Sex Offenders

Date: December 2012
Creator: Valenzuela, Priscilla
Description: The primary goal of this study was to analyze the characteristics of current registered sex offenders in Collin County, Texas, as well as to compare age and gender of the victims of these offenders in order to know who sex offenders primarily target in these crimes. The study also sought to discover geographic patterns of where the registered sex offenders reside for the purpose of keeping communities aware. Participants consisted of 175 registered sex offenders (N = 175) in Collin County, Texas, found on Collin County's and the Texas Department of Public Safety's online public registries. The findings demonstrate that there were significant trends among the sex offenders, their victims, location of residence, and housing complications as a result of progressing sex offender laws. Treatment programs and the reintegration of offenders in the community were also addressed. The meaning of the results in this study can aid in the development of safety and prevention strategies, provide an understanding about the utilization of sex offender registries, and can benefit law enforcement to predict the movement of current sex offenders, along with knowing where to find other potential offenders.
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Sex-Role Identification as a Determinant of Choice on the Bonney-Fessenden Sociograph

Sex-Role Identification as a Determinant of Choice on the Bonney-Fessenden Sociograph

Date: June 1961
Creator: Robertson, John R.
Description: It is the purpose of this study to utilize three psychometric measures in order to quantitatively assess the group of subjects on the basis of the trait heterosexuality, as measured by the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule, and in turn make predictions on the basis of these data as to choices made on the Bonney-Fessenden Sociograph.
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Sex-Typed Occupational Aspiration of College Students

Sex-Typed Occupational Aspiration of College Students

Date: May 2006
Creator: Hafer, Myra Wyatt
Description: This study examines occupational aspiration and choice of traditional first-time college students utilizing longitudinal data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP). Focus is given to beliefs about the importance of family and money in relation to selection of an occupation that is classified as sex-typed. Change from one occupational category to another is also considered. The dissonance between students' beliefs about the importance of family and money as associated with their sex-typed occupational choice is explored. Understanding students' occupational plans that subsequently determine future prestige, wealth, and status is vital to higher educational professionals who facilitate students in their career selection and major. Therefore, environmental factors of satisfaction with career counseling and academic advising are examined. The U.S. Census Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) data is applied in the classification of sex-typed occupations. Race and ethnicity is investigated to determine if the same gender patterns exist among cultural groups with regards to their occupational selection. The results indicate that students' occupational aspirations were influenced by their belief regarding the importance of family or money. In addition, their beliefs regarding family and money changed after four years of college with family increasing in importance. Strong beliefs that were, either concordant or ...
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Sexual harassment: Do gender and organizational status of harasser really matter?

Sexual harassment: Do gender and organizational status of harasser really matter?

Date: December 2007
Creator: Barnett, Michelle L.
Description: The research investigated the impact of sexual harassment on withdrawal behaviors and attitudes toward harassment by examining the gender composition of the harassment dyad and the organizational status of the perpetrator in relation to the victim. Archival data from the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research at the University of Michigan was used to obtain surveys in which participants rated their attitudes and experiences related to sexual harassment. Only individuals who reported experiencing sexual harassment within the 24 months prior to data collection are included in the current research. A MANOVA was conducted to determine if withdrawal behaviors and attitudes of victims varied by the gender dyad and/or the organizational status of the perpetrator. Results indicated that individuals harassed by people with higher organizational status displayed more withdrawal behaviors in the form of decreased productivity and increased use of sick, annual, and unpaid leave. Individuals harassed by a member of the same gender also used more unpaid leave. Interestingly, individuals harassed by members of the opposite gender, tended to disagree more strongly with the attitude index measuring cautious awareness of sexual harassment.
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Sexual Identity Development and Heterosexual Mistrust: an Exploratory Study

Sexual Identity Development and Heterosexual Mistrust: an Exploratory Study

Date: August 1999
Creator: Shepard, William D., 1965-
Description: The sexual identity development process in gay men was the focus of this study. It was theorized that, as a result of negative experiences with the dominant heterosexual culture, gay men might feel mistrustful of heterosexuals in various settings. A new theoretical construct, that of heterosexual mistrust, was identified and explored. A new scale, the Heterosexual Mistrust Inventory (HMI), was created to measure this construct. Gay male subjects' stage of homosexual identity formation (HIF) was also determined. Results indicated that heterosexual mistrust existed to a significantly stronger degree among gay men than among heterosexual men. Heterosexual mistrust was strongly related to stage of HIF. The various settings in which heterosexual mistrust was found to occur were discussed. Implications for current knowledge about HIF and about cultural belief systems unique to gay men were identified and explored.
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Sexual orientation self-label, behavior, and preference: College students in Taiwan and the USA

Sexual orientation self-label, behavior, and preference: College students in Taiwan and the USA

Date: August 2002
Creator: Roberts, Mary Kathryn
Description: The relationships among self-labeled sexual orientation, sexual preferences, and sexual behaviors were examined in samples from Taiwan and the USA. Subsamples matched on gender, age, and marital status were created to reduce sexual orientation cell size discrepancies and demographic differences. Sexual orientation self-label, the Kinsey Scale of Sexual Orientation, and a modified version for preference were used to assess participants' sexual orientation, behavior, and preference, respectively. Additional measures included an adaptation of the Early Sexual Experiences Checklist, and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist for psychological distress. For both Taiwan and USA subsamples, heterosexual participants reported significantly greater congruence between sexual orientation identity and preference than did nonheterosexual participants. A high proportion of the Taiwan sample were celibate, precluding analyses of congruence between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior. Congruence between sexual behavior and preference in the USA sample was negatively correlated with psychological distress. In a cross-cultural comparison between the Taiwan and USA women (n = 176), the two samples reported similar congruence between sexual orientation identity and preference. Exploratory analyses revealed that heterosexual participants' sexual orientation label was more &#8220;public, &#8221; (more categories of people who knew the participants' sexual orientation), than was nonheterosexuals' in both Taiwan and the USA. ...
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