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Laying the foundation for successful non-academic writing: Professional communication principles in the K-5 curricula of the McKinney Independent School District.
Traditionally, K-5 students' writing has had a primarily academic aim-to help students master concepts and express themselves. Even if students take a professional writing course later, they typically do not have the opportunity to practice-over the long period of time mastery requires-the non-academic writing skills they will be required to use as part of their jobs and in their civic life. Based on a limited K-5 study, Texas' McKinney Independent School District is doing a good job of preparing students at the elementary-school level in the areas of collaboration and presentation. A fair job of helping elementary-school students understand the communication situation, define audience, clarify purpose, gather and evaluate resources, and test usability. [And] a poor job of helping elementary-school students with analysis and organization. With their teachers' help, K-5 students eventually grasp the communication situation and can broadly identify their audience and purpose, but they do not appear to select words, format, communication style, or design based on that audience and purpose. Their writer-based focus affects their presentations as well, although they do present frequently. If teachers routinely incorporated audience and purpose considerations into every aspect of communication assignments (format, communication style, design), students would be better prepared for non-academic communication. Texas pre-service teachers practice the types of documents they will write on the job but do not receive training in design or style. Likewise, they practice researching, collaborating, and presenting but receive little training in those skills. If Texas K-5 teachers are to supplement the curriculum with professional writing principles, as trends suggest they should, education programs need to focus on these principles in their pre-service teacher curriculum. Professional writing principles need to become part of ingrained writing patterns because these are the skills that will best serve students after they graduate, both in their careers and civic lives. Understanding how to tailor communication for audience and purpose; how to effectively collaborate; how to select, evaluate, analyze, and organize information efficiently and productively; and how to format presentations effectively requires practice over a long period of time. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12206/
A Layman's Interpretation of the Provisions of a 20-Year Pay Life Insurance Policy
This thesis presents an attempt to simplify the language used in life insurance provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33272/
Layout-accurate Ultra-fast System-level Design Exploration Through Verilog-ams
This research addresses problems in designing analog and mixed-signal (AMS) systems by bridging the gap between system-level and circuit-level simulation by making simulations fast like system-level and accurate like circuit-level. The tools proposed include metamodel integrated Verilog-AMS based design exploration flows. The research involves design centering, metamodel generation flows for creating efficient behavioral models, and Verilog-AMS integration techniques for model realization. The core of the proposed solution is transistor-level and layout-level metamodeling and their incorporation in Verilog-AMS. Metamodeling is used to construct efficient and layout-accurate surrogate models for AMS system building blocks. Verilog-AMS, an AMS hardware description language, is employed to build surrogate model implementations that can be simulated with industrial standard simulators. The case-study circuits and systems include an operational amplifier (OP-AMP), a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), a charge-pump phase-locked loop (PLL), and a continuous-time delta-sigma modulator (DSM). The minimum and maximum error rates of the proposed OP-AMP model are 0.11 % and 2.86 %, respectively. The error rates for the PLL lock time and power estimation are 0.7 % and 3.0 %, respectively. The OP-AMP optimization using the proposed approach is ~17000× faster than the transistor-level model based approach. The optimization achieves a ~4× power reduction for the OP-AMP design. The PLL parasitic-aware optimization achieves a 10× speedup and a 147 µW power reduction. Thus the experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed solution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271923/
Leader Developmental Readiness of Generation Y in the Training Industry
Members of Generation Y in the training and development industry will be required to assume leadership roles as Baby Boomers retire, yet little empirical research exists regarding how best to prepare them for leadership. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in leader developmental readiness between generational cohorts in the training industry, specifically Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. Leader developmental readiness provided a definition of developmental readiness for leaders using the five constructs (learning goal orientation, developmental efficacy, self-awareness, leader complexity, and metacognitive ability). A volunteer sample was compiled from members of the ASTD National LinkedIN group (n = 636). Results were analyzed using structured means analysis with maximum likelihood (ML) estimation. Generational cohorts demonstrated differences in leader developmental readiness. Baby Boomers indicated statistically and practically higher metacognitive ability and developmental efficacy than Generation Y. Results demonstrated statistically and practically higher leader complexity in Generation Y and both Generation X and Baby Boomers. These results should inform leader development practitioners as they continue to use existing methods in preparing the different generations for leader development interventions while pointing to possible needs to increase the metacognitive ability and developmental efficacy in Generation Y and ensure accurate perception of leader complexity in those individuals. Further research would be helpful to confirm or refute findings and expand on the target population for enhanced generalizability. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271816/
Leader Emergence and Effectiveness in Virtual Workgroups: Dispositional and Social Identity Perspectives
In today's global competitive environment, many organizations utilize virtual workgroups to overcome geographic and organizational boundaries. Research into their dynamics has received the attention of scholars within multiple disciplines, and the potential for an integrative approach to the study of virtual workgroups exists. This dissertation is a first step towards such an approach. The primary aim of this research is to examine antecedent and contextual factors that affect the emergence and effectiveness of leaders in virtual workgroups. To achieve this aim, an integrative model assembled from theory and empirical findings in leadership, management, social identity, and communications research is posited. Hypothesized relationships depicted in the model identify key dispositional and contextual variables linked to leader emergence, member behavior, and leader effectiveness within virtual workgroups. This study employed a nonexperimental research design, in which leader emergence and social identity manifest as naturally occurring phenomena. Data collection occurred via two web-based surveys administered at different points in time. Hypothesized relationships were tested utilizing correlational and hierarchical moderated multiple regression analyses. The findings of this dissertation suggest that traits, such as personality and cognitive ability, are not associated with leader emergence in virtual workgroups. In addition, the results indicate that the exhibition of relationship-oriented leader behaviors enhances group identity. In turn, identification is associated with increases in perceptions of leader effectiveness and decreases in counterproductive behavior exhibited by group members. This dissertation exposes an important limitation to the application of trait leadership theory. It also demonstrates the importance of relationship-oriented behavior and social identity in virtual contexts. Further, it advances an integrative theoretical model for the study of virtual workgroup phenomena. These contributions should assist and inform other researchers, as well as practitioners, interested in leadership and group member behavior in virtual workgroups. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11035/
Leadership and sustainable change: The relationship between leadership practices of principals and reculturing schools as professional learning communities.
This study examined the relationships between leadership practices of principals and strength of schools as sustainable professional learning communities. Strength of schools as professional learning communities was measured using the Professional Learning Communities Assessment; leadership practices were measured using the Leadership Practices Inventory both Self and Observer protocols. Findings indicated that neither principal's self-perceptions of their leadership practices nor teachers' assessments of their principals' leadership practices were related to strength of schools as professional learning communities. Findings did indicate ten specific leadership behaviors of principals that appear to be more highly related to strength of schools as learning communities. Further analysis which focused on the two strongest learning community schools and the two weakest learning community schools indicated that three specific leadership behaviors within Kouzes and Posner's practices of modeling the way and enabling others to act appear to be the most strongly related to reculturing schools as sustainable professional learning communities. Principals who set a personal example of what they expect of others are most likely to lead schools that function as strong learning communities. Additionally, principals who build consensus around a common set of values are also most likely to lead strong learning communities. Finally, principals who develop cooperative relationship with co-workers are most likely to lead schools that function as strong learning communities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9846/
Leadership, Ascendancy, and Gender
By the year 2000 women will constitute more than 50 percent of the workforce in the United States, yet their representation in top management and executive-level positions continues to hover in the single digits. This “glass ceiling,” which is conceptualized as limiting women's advancement into these roles, has been the subject of much debate and research over the last fifteen years. As both an equal rights and key competitive issue, the topic of women and leadership is gaining ever-increasing emphasis and momentum in American corporations. Although leadership skills have been advocated as a key human capital/person-centered variable leading to managerial ascendancy for women, the empirical research directly investigating this link is virtually non-existent. This longitudinal study proposed to measure the strength of this relationship using a matched sample of male and female managers. Eighty-five subjects, from the same U.S. based health-care products corporation, had previously participated in a multirater assessment process where seven different facets of their leadership skills were evaluated. Time two data were collected on four objective measures of ascendancy: percent change in salary, number of promotions (job moves) either offered or accepted, change in number of direct reports, and change in number of indirect reports. Multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that perceived leadership ability did lead to increased ascendancy, specifically in terms of percent salary change, for the female managers, but not for the males. Multiple regressions indicated that the female managers were not rewarded, necessarily, for gender congruent behavior in this organization, while male managers did appear to be rewarded more so on that particular dimension. Implications of these findings for female managers in the workplace were discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc2897/
Leadership Communication Among Kindergarten Children in a Structured Play Environment
This study examines the enactment of leadership communication during videotaped play sessions of thirty kindergarten children. Eighteen of the children demonstrated skills in a cluster of five specific leadership behaviors. All five coders agreed that these eighteen children were sometimes leaders of their individual triad. The coders further agreed that the leadership in the triads flowed from one child to another as the session progressed. The study concluded that leadership is a facilitative process that is fluid rather than statically centered in one or more participants. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278628/
Leadership Concepts of Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps Students
The purpose of this study is to determine the concepts held by college students in the Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps concerning leadership. An attempt will be made to indicate the relative importance of these concepts of leadership as determined by the college students. Also, the opinions of the different classes--freshmen, sophomores, juniors, and seniors concerning these concepts will be obtained. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc130425/
Leadership Effectiveness: Investigating the Influences of Leader Sex, Gender, and Behaviors on Self and Other Perceptions
Though increasing numbers of women are entering the workforce, a disproportionate number of women are placed into upper level management positions. Social role and role congruity theory both posit that women in leadership positions are likely to face more negative criticism than men in leadership positions. The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of gender roles on leader behaviors as well as leaders' self perceived effectiveness. The study also examined third party raters' views of female and male leaders. Videotapes of forty-seven mixed sex groups with randomly appointed male and female leaders were used to examine leader behaviors as well as raters' effectiveness ratings. Leaders' self perceived effectiveness ratings were also used. Gender roles of the leaders were assessed using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). Results of a MANOVA indicated that leader gender roles did not lead to differences in leader behaviors exhibited among those in feminine, masculine, and androgynous groups. For female leaders, femininity was not related to feminine behaviors. Unexpectedly, for male leaders, masculinity was inversely related to masculine behaviors. With regard to raters' effectiveness ratings of the leaders, no differences were found in ratings based on leader gender. Further, for female leaders, degree of femininity and masculinity was not related to raters' effectiveness ratings. However, exploratory analyses indicated a significant positive relationship to exist between raters' effectiveness ratings of female leaders and total time female leaders spoke. A significant inverse relationship was found between raters' effectiveness ratings and frequency of speech initiations used among female leaders. Significant correlations between male and female leaders' self perceived effectiveness ratings and self perceived gender roles were found. Specifically, masculinity was positively related to female leaders self perceived effectiveness while femininity was negatively related to male leader self perceived effectiveness. Overall, the results of the current study were not consistent with social role theory and role congruity theory. Implications for organizations and women's career development are discussed. Limitations and suggestions for future directions in research are presented. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4903/
Leadership Frames of Female Presidents of American Research Universities
This study used case studies to examine the leadership frames of female presidents of four-year, public and private, coeducational research institutions both from the Intensive and Extensive Carnegie classifications within the United States. The population (N=30) surveyed was sent the Leadership Orientation Questionnaire (Self) developed from the previous research conducted by Lee Bolman and Terrance Deal. The Bolman and Deal leadership frame theory condensed existing organizational theories into a four-frame perspective consisting of a structural, human resource, political, and symbolic frame. Bolman and Deal theorized that the ability to use more than one frame is considered to be critical to the success of leaders and intensify that leader's capacity for making decisions and taking effective actions. The Leadership Orientation Questionnaire (Self) contains five sections that include rating scales for personal demographics, the four frames, eight leadership dimensions, and management and leadership effectiveness. The research questions sought to identify the demographic characteristics and academic histories of the survey participants and the associations between these variables, the leadership frames represented among the survey participants, and how many, and which, of the four frames the survey participants use collectively. This study allowed its participants to examine their perceptions of their own leadership frames in order to analyze the frame that dominates the way certain universities communicate. Thirteen of the thirty presidents (43%) completed and returned the survey. Survey participants who had 20 or more years of experience were more likely to exhibit the human resource or symbolic frame as their dominant style; presidents whose years of experience numbered less than 20 years exhibited a mulitframe perspective in their decision-making process. Overall, this research found that the survey participants exhibited most often the human resource frame, followed by the symbolic, structural, and political frames. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3196/
The Leadership Path of R. Jan LeCroy
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Recent studies reveal that a considerable number of U.S. community college leaders will be retiring in the next several years. The concern is that with the large turnover, history, culture, and important lessons of leadership will be lost. The current research on the lives of presidents, their career paths, and experiences in community college leadership centers on approaches to the study of leadership at the macro level. Limited research exists in the published literature that reports and analyzes the development of individuals as community college leaders at the micro level. This results in a gap regarding understanding leadership development and strategies to prepare leaders. This study addresses this gap by providing a critical description of the leadership development of one individual who became a community college chancellor and who the literature on the community context indicates contributed to the local and national context for community colleges. Biography is gaining prominence as a legitimate and viable tool in the study of leadership. Few biographical studies currently exist which focus on leadership development in context at the micro level. This dissertation is a biographical, qualitative study of the leadership path and legacy of R. Jan LeCroy, a community college leader. The study combined two viable approaches to biographical inquiry: a scholarly chronicle and the realist approach. Data included the use of primary and secondary sources and included interviews, document analysis, and archival data such as newspaper articles, memos, and minutes of meetings. The data were analyzed and the findings discussed using the theoretical framework of Gronn's (1993) career model of leadership, Vaughan's (1986) study of the career paths of presidents, and Sullivan's (2001) study of four distinct generations of community college leaders. The leadership path of R. Jan LeCroy paralleled the four stages in Gronn's (1993) career model of leadership; he shared characteristics of the presidents surveyed in Vaughan's (1986) study; and he fit the profile of the second generation of community college leaders as described by Sullivan (2001). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5615/
Leadership preferences of a Generation Y cohort: A mixed methods study.
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Presently there are four generational cohorts in the workplace. Born from 1977 to 1997, the youngest cohort group, referred to as Generation Y (or Gen Y) in this study, has 81 million members, of whom over 29 million are already in the workplace. The importance of leader-subordinate relationships in the workplace has been confirmed; in recognizing this, leaders must identify and adapt to the changing era-shaped needs of employees, who cannot fully participate in organizational life if their most urgent needs are not being met. Because Gen Y employees are only now entering the workforce, little is actually known about the workplace needs of this cohort group. This study attempted to determine leadership needs of a Gen Y cohort as a means to enhance workplace relationships in the 21st century organization. A sequential, mixed methods study was employed to explore leadership preferences of a Gen Y cohort. Initially, focus group interviews were used to generate leadership themes. Based on these themes, an instrument was designed, and Gen Y business students from three higher education institutions were surveyed. Confirmatory factor analysis using LISREL software was used to test the themes. The driving force behind this research design was to build a foundation of understanding through inductive research (qualitative) and to test and enrich the foundation through deductive means (quantitative). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4735/
Leadership Styles and Cultural Sensitivity of Department Chairs at Texas Public Universities
As the U.S. population diversifies, so do its higher education institutions. Leadership at these institutions should be prepared for this diversification of students, faculty, and staff. The purpose of this study was to gain greater knowledge about the leadership styles and cultural sensitivity of department chairs. Survey research was used to determine if department chairs’ leadership styles correlated with their cultural sensitivity. The target population was department chairs from public universities in the state of Texas. The survey was distributed to 406 randomly selected department chairs. The participants completed three measures: Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire (LDBQ) for leadership style, the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale (ISS) for cultural sensitivity, and a demographic questionnaire (gender, age range, race/ethnicity, and years of service as department chair). The sample included 165 usable surveys (40% return rate). The department chairs were primarily male (72%), White (78%), and over 50 (71%) years of age. First, a statistically significant negative correlation (r = -.431, p < .0001) occurred between LBDQ overall scores and overall ISS scores: As chairs scored higher on leadership ability, they scored lower on intercultural sensitivity. Second, leadership style by demographic variable displayed mixed results. No significant difference was found for leadership style by age, gender, years of service, or region of service. For ethnicity, White participants scored significantly lower than Minority participants on the LBDQ scales of consideration (t [162] = -2.021, p = .045), structure (t [162] = -2.705, p = .008), and overall (t [162] = -2.864, p = .005). Minority participants might work more diligently to increase their leadership abilities based on their higher LDBQ scores. Third, findings on intercultural sensitivity by demographic variable were mixed. No statistical significance was observed between any of the ISS scales and age, gender, years of service, and region. For ethnicity, Minority participants’ scores showed significantly lower intercultural sensitivity than White participants scores on two of six ISS subscales: interaction enjoyment (t = -2.46, p = .015) and respect (t = 2.107, p = .037). It was concluded that the Minority and White department chairs’ leadership style and intercultural sensitivity differences could be due in part to differences in the chairs’ ethnic affiliations, associated cultural backgrounds, and views of dominant versus non-dominant cultures. Recommendations for study are included. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc499977/
Leaf elemental analysis and growth characteristics of mycorrhizal treated post oak seedlings via particle induced X-ray emission spectroscopy.
Growth and element assimilation was investigated in post oak seedlings exposed to four different treatment combinations of fertilization and ectomycorrhizal inoculation. Element concentration in excised leaves was analyzed via particle induced X-ray emission spectrometry with a 1.8 MeV proton macrobeam. Mean growth was significantly different across the treatment groups as well as mean concentration of Mg, Al, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn. The data suggest that fertilization rather than mycorrhizal inoculation had a stronger influence on plant growth and nutrient uptake. A follow up study was conducted with a 3 MeV microbeam. A 850 μm2 scanned area of a post oak leaf produced topographical maps of 11 elements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5295/
Learner-centered teacher beliefs and student-perceived teaching effectiveness
Following Barr and Tagg's formalization of the concept of learner-centered educational practice at the postsecondary level as described in their seminal article in Change in 1995, survey instruments have been developed to assess teachers' beliefs about their own learner-centeredness.. The research reported in this dissertation examined the connection between college students' perceptions of teacher effectiveness on each of four dimensions appearing as questions on the IDEA Survey of student reaction to instruction and courses (developed at the IDEA Center, Kansas State University, in the early 1970s) and the Assessment of Learner-Centered Practices (ALCP): Beliefs Portion of the Postsecondary Level Instructor Survey, College Level (developed in early 1999 by B. L. McCombs, University of Denver Research Institute; alpha reliabilities reported). Using scoring rubrics accompanying the ALCP instrument, instructors were identified as learner-centered or non-learner-centered based on their responses. Independent t-tests were performed to determine whether learner-centered instructors were perceived differently by students in terms of teaching effectiveness than non-learner-centered instructors on each of four dimensions: overall excellence of course, overall excellence of instructor, effectiveness of instructor in helping students achieve relevant objectives in the course, and effectiveness of course and instructor in improving students' attitude toward the field of study. Students rated learner-centered instructors higher in all dimensions, but results were not statistically significant. Instructors were also identified as possessing learner- or non-learner-centered beliefs to a greater degree than that necessary for an overall designation. Independent t-tests were performed to determine any differences in student perceptions of effectiveness between these two groups. Again, students rated learner-centered instructors higher in all dimensions, but results were not statistically significant. Recommendations for further research with the ALCP instrument are made, including research to determine whether specific factors and/or questions prove to be statistically significant in predicting student evaluations of effectiveness. Also recommended are replications of the study to investigate moderating variables influencing accurate faculty self-identification of beliefs about teaching and learning. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc2520/
Learner-to-Learner: Refocusing the Lens of Educational Immediacy
As the current body of instructional communication research focuses primarily on the relationship between teacher and learner, three studies investigating the relationship between learners were completed in order to better understand how student motivation and learning are influenced by learner-to-learner immediacy behaviors within the college classroom environment. Study I resulted in an extensive list of both positive and negative verbal and nonverbal immediacy behaviors commonly used by learners. Study II required the comparison of the behaviors identified in study one to existing measures of teacher to learner immediacy behaviors, producing a new measure focusing on learner-to-learner immediacy. Following a pilot survey, the reliability of this new measure was determined through face validity and factor analysis, producing the Learner-to-Learner Immediacy Behavior Scale. In Study III, the Learner-to-Learner Immediacy Behavior Scale was combined with Christophel's 1990 Immediacy Behavior Scale, Cognitive Learning Scale, Affective Learning Scale, and Trait and State Motivation Scales and administered to 273 undergraduate students to test the affects of common learner-to-learner immediacy behaviors on student state motivation, affective learning, and perceptions of cognitive learning loss. Multiple regression analyses indicated learner-to-learner immediacy as functioning similarly to teacher-to-student immediacy when mediated through state motivation in its influence on student affective learning and perceptions of cognitive learning loss. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc28372/
Learner use of French second-person pronouns in synchronous electronic communication.
This study analyzes students' use of the French second-person pronouns tu (T) and vous (V) in small-group (2-3 students) inter-learner online chat sessions. The influence of internal linguistic factors (i.e., turn type and morphosyntactic environment) on learners' appropriate vs. inappropriate use of these pronouns is considered. The study also investigates the influence of Instructional Level on tu-vous use and the extent to which students from different instructional levels provide various types of peer assistance (e.g., lexical, morphosyntactic, and sociolinguistic/pragmatic) . Pronoun use was extremely unstable for learners of all levels, and a Kruskal-Wallis analysis revealed that Instructional Level did not significantly affect appropriate T/V use overall. Instructional Level and Syntax did, however, significantly affect interrogative T/V use, as shown through multivariate analyses. Peer-assisted performance was limited to lexical retrieval. Pedagogical recommendations are presented for teaching and learning second-person pronouns in French. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9753/
E-Learning and In-Service Training: An Exploration of the Beliefs and Practices of Trainers and Trainees in the Turkish National Police
This targeted research study, carried out by an officer of the Turkish National Police (TNP), investigated the perceptions and beliefs of TNP trainers and trainees towards the potential adoption and implementation of e-learning technology for in-service police training. Utilizing diffusion and innovation theory (DOI) (Rogers, 1995) and the conceptual technology integration process model (CTIM) (Nicolle, 2005), two different surveys were administered; one to the trainers and one to the trainees. The factor analyses revealed three shared trainer and trainee perceptions: A positive perception towards e-learning, personally and for the TNP; a belief in the importance of administrative support for e-learning integration; and the belief in importance of appropriate resources to facilitate integration and maintain implementation. Three major recommendations were made for the TNP. First, the research findings could be used as a road map by the TNP Education Department to provide a more flexible system to disseminate in-service training information. The second is to establish two-way channels of communication between the administration and the TNP personnel to efficiently operationalize the adoption and integration of e-learning technology. The third is the administrative provision of necessary hardware, software, and technical support. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3895/
Learning from each other - Building a bridge between two unique cultural approaches to design education.
As China is opening its doors to the world and getting more involved in the global market, it is facing great challenges and competition with other countries and cultures. In order to make Chinese graphic design industry more competitive and help Chinese businesses and industries have better success in the global market, I believed Chinese college-level design educators and students should learn more from advanced American graphic design processes and marketing methods to achieve a better understanding of Western design culture and make communication more successful. At the same time, I believed American college-level graphic design educators and students should become aware of strengths and weaknesses that exist in their own design education and learn from Chinese formal tradition. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4511/
Learning From Each Other: Narrative Explorations of Art Museum Self-guided Materials
By engaging in collaborative arts-based and arts-informed narrative inquiry with my six-year-old daughter, we explored self-guided materials in art museums in the North Texas area. Though the field of art museum education is becoming increasingly participatory, most academic research related to self-guided materials has fallen short of exploring visitors' experiences with these materials. Furthermore, the perspectives of children have been long overlooked in academic and, at times, institutional research about family experiences in museums. Over the course of nine months, my daughter and I visited art museums and engaged with their self-guided materials, ranging from audio tours to interactive galleries. During this time we created collaborative works of art based on our experiences, which acted as both data collection and analysis in preparation for writing narratives. Our narrative explorations allowed us each to better understand our collective experiences. Though this research specifically targets self-guided materials in art museums, any educator interested in intergenerational or collaborative family learning may find both our methodologies and our conclusions to be helpful in better understanding how narratives are essential to this type of learning. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc283845/
Learning Resource Center Characteristics of the 25 Most Profitable U.S. Industrial Corporations: Implications for Business and Higher Education
This study is a descriptive analysis of corporate learning resource centers. The study was designed to incorporate historical background and current status, organization and personnel, types and amount of alternate delivery instruction, and selected cost considerations in the establishment and maintenance of a learning resource center. A functional definition was furnished, with a deliberative attempt to encompass related synonyms. Discussion included training types or instructional delivery medium distinctions. A contribution of this study was the development, field testing, and enhancement of a survey instrument, which reflects the steps to be followed by those planning implementation of any learning resource center. Findings of this study indicated that learning resource centers were young and transitioning to increased on-line individualized and self-paced learning. Training and learning will become much less interdependent. Training types will increasingly become nontraditional and technology driven. Courseware will be received and managed remotely. Partnerships and cooperative efforts are mandates for business and higher education. Learner mobility will become normative, not the exception. Internet training will rapidly increase, most quickly among small business. Learning resource centers will continue to become more cost effective. This study proposed the redefinition of both learner and educator roles within a changing learning resource center environment. It was suggested that the learner role must become more active and that the corporate educator role, as a result of technology, will increase in passivity, tending toward that of facilitation. Implications and recommendations were specifically noted for both business and higher education. Specified nomenclature of "learner centers" or clearly "learner centered" has been advocated, reflecting the continuing evolution of the learning resource center. Technology, instructional media, mobility, availability and sharing of resources, less formalization, life-long learning, fiscal issues, Internet access, information and knowledge explosion, and downsizing, all combine to provide the view and demarcation of the new "learner centers." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279038/
Learning Style and Preferred Mode of Delivery of Adult Learners in Web-Based, Classroom, and Blended Training
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between adult learners' preferred learning style and preference for delivery mode. The subjects (n=61) were technical and billing support call center employees from an Internet company in Dallas, Texas. The participants were randomly assigned to one of six groups and given Kolb's Learning Style Inventory to assess their preference for learning style. They received training on three modules of &#8220;Influencing Others Positively,&#8221; with each module delivered via one of three methods (web-based, classroom, and blended). Participants were also administered two surveys. The first survey collected demographic information and asked which method that they expected they would prefer. The second survey was administered after the course and asked them to rank their preferences for delivery method. It was hypothesized that learning style would be significantly associated with preference for delivery method. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and a chi-square test of independence for the variables learning style and preferred mode of delivery. Although the chi-square test of independence did not produce statistical significance, some interesting trends were identified in the data. Specifically, a majority of the participants preferred a blended approach to training delivery (a combination of self-paced web-based training and classroom group exercises). No Divergers preferred classroom training and no Accommodators preferred web-based training. Additionally, a logistic regression analysis indicated that Assimilators were six times more likely than Divergers to prefer a blended approach to training (p=.10). Further studies should utilize other learning style theories, explore different types of learning outcomes and delivery methods, and include a larger sample from different organizations. Training needs assessments should include learning style inventories as part of the audience analysis prior to training development. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3177/
Lease Purchase Financing: The Processes and Impact on New School Construction in Texas
The purpose of this study was to review and explore the concept of lease purchase financing for the construction of new facilities in Texas. It sought to determine the impact of lease purchase financing and the characteristics of those districts that have utilized lease purchase financing for the purpose of new school construction. A two pronged approach was used for the study, both quantitative and qualitative. The study examined all school districts that utilized lease purchasing and examined various traits of the districts. Data was acquired from the Texas Education Agency and the Texas Bond Review Board. The qualitative portion of the study included interviews with superintendents of nine different Texas school districts that have utilized lease purchase financing. The study concluded that lease purchase districts were generally small school districts that were property poor and have high property tax rates. The study also concluded that the major reason for districts to use lease purchase financing was to avoid having to hold an election in order to gain approval for the sale of traditional general obligation bonds. Another factor identified was the availability of state funds through the state Instructional Facility Allotment. The study also concluded that while districts sought to provide better programs for their students through better facilities, that students actually suffer due to instructional funds being used for the payment of long term debt. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4950/
The Lebesgue and Equivalent Integrals
The purpose of this thesis is to present a study of the Lebesgue definite integral, defined in four different ways. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc130387/
Lebesgue Linear Measure
This paper discusses the concept of a general definition of measure, and shows that the Lebesgue measure satisfies the requirements set forth for the ideal definition. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc75587/
Lebesgue-Stieltjes Measure and Integration
The purpose of the thesis is to investigate an approach to Lebesgue-Stieltjes measure and integration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc131612/
Leccioncitas Prácticas en Español Texto para Niños en la Escuela Primaria
This group of lessons is intended to help the child who does not speak Spanish to learn the language. The text is based on the interests of a child; in his dramatic attempts; in his love of the beautiful and the natural. It is not entirely complete, but the author hopes that it serves to give an idea how these materials can be used. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83497/
The Legacy of Purgatory: The Continuing English Eschatological Controversy
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This work examines particular attributes of the purgatorial phenomena from pre-Christian history of the Indo-European world to the Early Modern Period of England. An attempt has been made to identify and concentrate attention upon examples which provide the most significant and penetrating look into this evolution. For example, a portion of this paper attempts to determine just how widespread purgatorial customs were throughout England and the various types of community that supported these beliefs pre and post Reformation. By comparing life before and after the reigns of Henry and Edward a conclusion is reached that reveals the Protestant Reformation in England stripped the laity of a fundamental instrument they needed to support their religiosity and custom. This becomes evident in further years as some of those same customs and rituals that had been considered anathema by Protestants, slowly crept back into the liturgy of the new religion. Strong evidence of this is provided, with a strong emphasis placed upon late seventeenth and early eighteenth century death eulogies, with a section of this paper being devoted to the phenomena of the Sin-Eater. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5315/
The Legacy of Theodore Leschetizky as Seen through His Pedagogical Repertoire and Teaching Style
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Theodore Leschetizky's singular pianistic legacy survives to this day because of his revolutionary pedagogical methods and his compositions for the piano repertory. The amalgamation of these two aspects formed his distinctive contributions to the fields of piano and piano pedagogy and left an indelible mark on the history of the instrument. His students lead an impressive list of the greatest artists of the previous century, each influencing the evolution of pianism with their own remarkable style and personality. While Leschetizky was arguably without peer as a pedagogue, many pianists today are unaware of the vast number of compositions that he wrote. These pieces were intended not only for the concert stage, but also as a very specific pedagogical repertoire that he used within his own teaching studio. This repertoire comprises a vital component of the Leschetizky legacy, albeit one which is often slighted in comparison. It is imperative that the pianists of our current generation understand the dual aspects of his contribution to our art form, in order to fully grasp the way in which he has changed the face of pianism. The purpose of this dissertation and lecture recital is to enumerate the various aspects that constitute the dual components of Leschetizky's pianistic legacy. For pedagogues of the current generation, it is of vital importance that we understand not only our own personal pedagogical lineage, but the various other individuals that, through their contributions, have led us to where we are in our understanding of the instrument. What is needed in the current research on this subject is one individual source that not only documents the characteristics of a pedagogical genius, but explores the legacy he left for future generations through documented accounts of his students and the examination of his own unfamiliar, pedagogical repertoire for the piano. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc28474/
A Legal Analysis of Litigation Against Mississippi Educators and School Systems Under the Mississippi Tort Claims Act
This dissertation analyzes court cases involving tort claims filed against Mississippi public schools and their employees under the Mississippi Tort Claims Act. The question addressed was: How have the Mississippi courts interpreted the Mississippi Tort Claims Act in litigation against Mississippi school districts and their employees? The intent of this dissertation is to add to the understanding of the legal concept of sovereign immunity as it has been applied to public schools and their employees. This study's focus centers on litigation in the state of Mississippi involving school districts. Chapter 2 provides a historical summary of sovereign immunity (also known as governmental immunity) in the United States and the state of Mississippi up to the enactment of the Mississippi Tort Claims Act as well as an overview of general legal concepts involved in tort claims. Chapter 3 explains the research design and methodology used. This dissertation relied on legal principles of research and document analysis used in the legal profession. Chapter 4 consists of a thorough analysis of published case law brought before the Mississippi courts pertaining to the Mississippi Tort Claims Act and public school systems and their employees. Finally, chapter 5 describes the key findings of the analysis of case law involving Mississippi school districts and their employees under the Mississippi Tort Claims Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271847/
A Legal Analysis of Litigation Against Oklahoma Educators and School Districts under the Oklahoma Governmental Tort Claims Act
This dissertation analyzed public court decisions in cases against Oklahoma school districts and their employees involving sovereign immunity claims filed under Oklahoma's Governmental Tort Claims Act. The questions addressed were: (1) How have the Oklahoma courts interpreted the Governmental Tort Claims Act, (Okla. Stat. tit. 51 § 151 et seq.) in litigation against school districts and their employees? (2) What are the limits of immunity protection for Oklahoma school districts and their employees? (3) How has the statute of limitations in Okla. Stat. tit. 51 § 156 and Okla. Stat. tit. 51 § 157 been applied to Oklahoma educators in tort litigation? This dissertation utilized legal research as the methodology to answer the research questions. Chapter II provides a review of existing literature regarding sovereign immunity in the United States. Chapter III is a comprehensive study of Oklahoma sovereign immunity cases filed against Oklahoma school districts and educators under the Governmental Tort Claims Act with regard to negligence, corporal punishment and the statute of limitations. Chapter IV discusses the findings of the analysis of cases in Oklahoma and the amount of protection afforded to Oklahoma school districts and educators. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc28446/
The Legal Authority and Limitations of Teachers Contracts
The purpose of this study is to determine the nature and characteristics of the contractual relathionship between boards of education and public school teachers. The purpose is also to determine by analysis of a group of contract forms the nature of the stipulations found in the average contract. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29907/
Legal Principles and Practices in the Consolidation of School Districts in Texas
The writer in this study seeks to do two things: (1) to make clear the fundamental principles underlying the relation of the state and the local school officials to the school district in regard to school district consolidation, and (2) to reduce to a systematic organization the principles derived from cases which are applicable to this problem of consolidation of school districts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83658/
The Legal Status of Certain Public School Officials in Texas
The purpose of this study is to determine the exact power that public school officials may exercise and yet remain within the limits of the law. Associated with this purpose is the effort to show that the legal status of their public school officials is not static. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc75474/
Legal Status of Labor in Great Britain and the United States
An investigation of the legal status of labor in Great Britain and the United States. The basis of labor legislation is considered, and the development of labor legislation traced in both countries. A comparison of the legal status of labor at the present time in both countries is made. - Abstract digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31296/
The Legal System and Political Development in Communist China, 1949-1969
This study deals with the legal system of Communist China from 1949 to 1969 with three purposes: to discuss the role of law in Communist China's political development; to discuss the patterns of Communist China's political development as reflected in the patterns of her legal development; and to discuss some aspects of development theories on the basis of the findings of this study. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164621/
A Lego Mindstorms Nxt Based Test Bench for Multiagent Exploratory Systems and Distributed Network Partitioning
Networks of communicating agents require distributed algorithms for a variety of tasks in the field of network analysis and control. For applications such as swarms of autonomous vehicles, ad hoc and wireless sensor networks, and such military and civilian applications as exploring and patrolling a robust autonomous system that uses a distributed algorithm for self-partitioning can be significantly helpful. A single team of autonomous vehicles in a field may need to self-dissemble into multiple teams, conducive to completing multiple control tasks. Moreover, because communicating agents are subject to changes, namely, addition or failure of an agent or link, a distributed or decentralized algorithm is favorable over having a central agent. A framework to help with the study of self-partitioning of such multi agent systems that have most basic mobility model not only saves our time in conception but also gives us a cost effective prototype without negotiating the physical realization of the proposed idea. In this thesis I present my work on the implementation of a flexible and distributed stochastic partitioning algorithm on the Lego® Mindstorms’ NXT on a graphical programming platform using National Instruments’ LabVIEW™ forming a team of communicating agents via NXT-Bee radio module. We single out mobility, communication and self-partition as the core elements of the work. The goal is to randomly explore a precinct for reference sites. Agents who have discovered the reference sites announce their target acquisition to form a network formed based upon the distance of each agent with the other wherein the self-partitioning begins to find an optimal partition. Further, to illustrate the work, an experimental test-bench of five Lego NXT robots is presented. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc500196/
Lenin : Theorist and Politician
This thesis is a study of Lenin and his ideas and actions during the first five months that he was political leader of Russia. Its primary purpose is to discover the particular relationships between theory and expediency as roles in influencing Lenin's actions as head of state for that period, hoping that a basic understanding of the mind of Vladimir I. Lenin will evolve. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc130847/
The Lessons of Arnold Schoenberg in Teaching the Musikalische Gedanke
Arnold Schoenberg's teaching career spanned over fifty years and included experiences in Austria, Germany, and the United States. Schoenberg's teaching assistant, Leonard Stein, transcribed Schoenberg's class lectures at UCLA from 1936 to 1944. Most of these notes resulted in publications that provide pedagogical examples of combined elements from Schoenberg's European years of teaching with his years of teaching in America. There are also class notes from Schoenberg's later lectures that have gone unexamined. These notes contain substantial examples of Schoenberg's later theories with analyses of masterworks that have never been published. Both the class notes and the subsequent publications reveal Schoenberg's comprehensive approach to understanding the presentation of the Gedanke or musical idea. In his later classes especially, Schoenberg demonstrated a method of analyzing musical compositions using illustrations of elements of the Grundgestalt or "basic shape," which contains the technical aspects of the musical parts. Through an examination of his published and unpublished manuscripts, this study will demonstrate Schoenberg's commitment to a comprehensive approach to teaching. Schoenberg's heritage of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century music theory is evident in his Harmonielehre and in his other European writings. The latter include Zusammenhang, Kontrapunkt, Instrumentation, Formenlehre (ZKIF), and Der musikalische Gedanke und die Logik, Technik, und Kunst seiner Darstellung (the Gedanke manuscripts), written over the course of several years from the 1920s to the early 1930s. After emigrating to the United States in 1933, Schoenberg immediately began teaching and writing in an attempt to arrive at a comprehensive approach to his pedagogy. The remainder of Schoenberg's textbook publications, with the exception of Models for Beginners in Composition, were left unfinished, were edited primarily by Leonard Stein and published after Schoenberg's death in 1951. Preliminary Exercises in Counterpoint, Fundamentals of Musical Composition, and Structural Functions of Harmony complete his ouevre of theory publications. An examination of the Stein notes offers contributing evidence to Schoenberg's lifelong pursuit to find a comprehensive approach for teaching an understanding of the musikalische Gedanke. With the addition of an analysis of the first movement of Mozart's G minor Symphony, K. 550, which Schoenberg used often to illustrate examples of basic concepts as liquidation, transition, neutralization in the minor key, the role of the subordinate theme, retransitions, codettas, melodic and harmonic overlapping, and motivic analysis, this study focuses on Schoenberg's comprehensive approach to both analyzing the musical work and teaching methods of composing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9855/
Lester Walton’s Champion: Black America’s Uneasy Relationship with Jack Johnson
In 1908 Jack Johnson became the first black heavyweight boxing champion of the world. His reign would be rife with controversy, leading to widespread racial violence and draconian government intervention. Lester Walton, theater critic for the New York Age, became obsessed with Johnson; his extensive writing on the boxer powerfully reveals not just Walton’s own struggle with issues of race in America, but sheds light on the difficulties the black community at large faced in trying to make sense of a figure who simultaneously represented hope for the positive change Reconstruction failed to produce and, ironically, also threatened to intensify the hardships of Jim Crow era oppression. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc500142/
Let His Conscience be her Guide: Ethical Self-Fashionings of Woman in Early-Modern Drama
Female characters in early-modern drama, even when following the dictates of conscience, appear inextricably bound to patriarchal expectations. This paradoxical situation is explained by two elements that have affected the Renaissance playwright's depiction of woman as moral agent. First, the playwright's education would have included a traditional body of philosophical opinion regarding female intellectual and moral capacities that would have tried to explain rationally the necessity of woman's second-class status. However, by its nature, this body of information is filled with contradiction. Second, the playwright's education would have also included learning to use the rhetorical trope et utramque partem, that is arguing a position from all sides. Learning to use this trope would place the early-modern dramatist in the position of interrogating the contradictory notions of woman contained in the traditional sources. Six dramas covering over a sixty-year period from the mid-sixteenth to the early seventeenth centuries suggest that regardless of the type of work, comedy or tragedy, female characters are shown as adults seeking recognition as autonomous moral beings while living in a culture that works to maintain their dependent status. These works include an early comedy Ralph Roister Doister, a domestic tragedy A Woman Killed With Kindness, a closet drama The Tragedy of Mariam: The Fair Queen of Jewry, two romances, Cymbeline and The Winter's Tale, and a tragedy The Duchess of Malfi. What these plays suggest is that throughout early-modern drama, the female character is often depicted as resisting patriarchal demands that are inherently irrational, especially when these demands contradict ethical behavior that the culture ostensibly supports. The Renaissance playwright's depiction of woman as moral agent is encouraging in that even though the female character may not be successful within the parameters of the drama, nevertheless, the fact that her moral dilemma is described in ways that question the validity of patriarchal expectations indicates a certain level of dissatisfaction with the status quo. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4254/
"Let the End be Legitimate": An Analysis of Federal District Court Decision Making in Voting Rights Cases, 1965-1993.
Integrated process models that combine both legal and extralegal variables provide a more accurate specification of the judicial decision making process and capture the complexity of the factors that shape judicial behavior. Judicial decision making theories borrow heavily from U.S. Supreme Court research, however, such theories may not automatically be applicable to the lower federal bench. The author uses vote dilution cases originating in the federal district courts from the years 1965 to 1993 to examine what motivates the behavior of district and circuit court judges. The author uses an integrated process model to assess what factors are important to the adjudication process and if there are significant differences between federal district and appellate court judges in decision making. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279170/
Letters from Jack and Other Cadavers
My dissertation, Letters from Jack and Other Cadavers, developed out of my interest in using persona, narrative forms, and historical details collected through thorough research to transform personal experience and emotions in my poems. The central series of poems, "Letters from Jack," is written in the voice of Jack the Ripper and set up as a series of poems-as-letters to the police who chased him. The Ripper's sense of self and his motivations are troubled by his search for a muse as the poems become love poems, contrasting the brutality of the historical murders and the atmosphere of late 19th century London with a charismatic speaker not unlike those of Browning's Dramatic Monologues. The dissertation's preface further explores my desire for a level of personal removal while crafting poems in order to temper sentimentality. Drawing on Wallace Stevens's notion that "Sentimentality is failed emotion" and Tony Hoagland's assessment that fear of sentimentality can turn young poets away from narrative forms, I examine my own poems along with those of Scott Cairns, Tim Seibles, and Albert Goldbarth to derive conclusions on the benefits distance, persona, narrative, and detail to downplay excessive emotion and the intrusion of the personal. Poems from the manuscript have appeared in The Beloit Poetry Journal, Sybil's Garage, The North Texas Review, and The Sheridan Edwards Review. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc28449/
Letters, Liberty, and the Democratic Age in the Thought of Alexis de Tocqueville
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When Alexis de Tocqueville observed the spread of modern democracy across France, England, and the United States, he saw that democracy would give rise to a new state of letters, and that this new state of letters would influence how democratic citizens and statesmen would understand the new political world. As he reflected on this new intellectual sphere, Tocqueville became concerned that democracy would foster changes in language and thought that would stifle concepts and ideas essential to the preservation of intellectual and political liberty. In an effort to direct, refine, and reshape political thought in democracy, Tocqueville undertook a critique of the democratic state of letters, assessing intellectual life and contributing his own ideas and concepts to help citizens and statesmen think more coherently about democratic politics. Here, I analyze Tocqueville's critique and offer an account of his effort to reshape democratic political thought. I show that through his analyses of the role of intellectuals in democratic regimes, the influence of modern science on democratic public life, the intellectual habits that democracy fosters, and the power of literary works for shaping democratic self-understanding, Tocqueville succeeds in reshaping democratic language and thought in a manner that contributes to the preservation of intellectual and political liberty within the modern democratic world. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12120/
Level Curves of the Angle Function of a Positive Definite Symmetric Matrix
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Given a real N by N matrix A, write p(A) for the maximum angle by which A rotates any unit vector. Suppose that A and B are positive definite symmetric (PDS) N by N matrices. Then their Jordan product {A, B} := AB + BA is also symmetric, but not necessarily positive definite. If p(A) + p(B) is obtuse, then there exists a special orthogonal matrix S such that {A, SBS^(-1)} is indefinite. Of course, if A and B commute, then {A, B} is positive definite. Our work grows from the following question: if A and B are commuting positive definite symmetric matrices such that p(A) + p(B) is obtuse, what is the minimal p(S) such that {A, SBS^(-1)} indefinite? In this dissertation we will describe the level curves of the angle function mapping a unit vector x to the angle between x and Ax for a 3 by 3 PDS matrix A, and discuss their interaction with those of a second such matrix. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc28376/
Level of Manifest Anxiety as a Predictor of Attitude Change Through Group Vocational Counseling
This study was conducted to compare changes in self-concept and dogmatism among high school subjects at three levels of manifest anxiety following group vocational counseling. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277628/
Levels of Psychological Health Related to the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Test
The purpose of the present study is to develop an operationally defined standard of psychological health which will be proposed as: 1) one of the goals of psychotherapy; 2) a device for aiding in the evaluation of psychotherapy, and 3) a tool for screening those individuals in the general population who are in need of counseling in order to maintain their mental health. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc130504/
Levels of Questioning Used by Student Teachers and its Effect on Pupil Achievement and Critical Thinking Ability
The purposes of this study were: 1. To determine the effect of levels of questioning used on secondary public school students in social studies, as measured by (a) their achievement scores, and (b) their critical thinking ability; 2. To determine the effect of feedback to student teachers on their patterns of asking convergent and divergent questions, as measured by coding frequencies of each type on an Observation Schedule and Record form? 3. To draw conclusions from the findings--and develop implications concerning levels of questioning used by teachers and the use of feedback from college supervisors to student teachers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164567/
Levels of resourcefulness and motivation as they relate to sales force success: An examination of correlates using the hope theory.
This study sought to determine whether a relationship existed between individual salesperson's levels of goal-directed cognition and motivation and their professional success as determined by the percentage of sales goals achieved. Salespersons represented two companies with national sales forces: one from the financial services industry and one from the apparel manufacturing industry. Both groups of salespeople were responsible for complex selling tasks. The skill sets for these professionals included high levels of communication skills, extensive product knowledge, and competitive market knowledge. Survey research, both paper and pencil and online, was conducted using the Hope Scale developed by C. R. Snyder and associates (1991). Hope is defined as a two-dimensional construct of goal-directed thinking: resourcefulness, thoughtful planning to overcome obstacles to goals, and motivation, cognition to sustain momentum toward goal achievement. Theoretically, upon assessing salespersons' Hope scores, organizations would be better prepared to assist those with low Hope Scale Scores (HSS) in one of the two areas. Those with low resourcefulness scores could be trained in cognitive techniques to overcome obstacles to goal achievement. Those with low motivational scores would be identified for further analysis, from a developmental perspective, to better determine what personally initiates and sustains motivation to attain their goals (Snyder, 1991). This study affirmed two of three parts of the hope theory with regard to salespeople. High Hope scores showed significant correlations with high goal achievement, as did one of the subset scores, motivation. The resourcefulness subset score did not correlate significantly with high goal achievement, and also produced low reliability scores. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3323/