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An NMR Study of 2-Ethylbutyllithium/Lithium 2-Ethyl-1-butoxide Mixed Aggregates, Lithium Hydride/Lithium 2-Ethyl-1-butoxide Mixed Aggregates, n-Pentyllithium Aggregates, and n-Pentyllithium/Lithium n-Pentoxide Mixed Aggregates

An NMR Study of 2-Ethylbutyllithium/Lithium 2-Ethyl-1-butoxide Mixed Aggregates, Lithium Hydride/Lithium 2-Ethyl-1-butoxide Mixed Aggregates, n-Pentyllithium Aggregates, and n-Pentyllithium/Lithium n-Pentoxide Mixed Aggregates

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Date: December 2005
Creator: Sellers, Nicole
Description: A 13C and 6Li variable temperature NMR study of 2-ethylbutyllithium/lithium 2-ethyl-1-butoxide mixed aggregates formed from reacting 2-ethyl-1-butanol with 2-ethylbutyllithium in two O/Li ratios of 0.2/1 and 0.8/1. The 0.2/1 sample resulted in two 2-ethylbutyllithium/lithium 2-ethyl-1-butoxide mixed aggregates and seven lithium hydride/lithium 2-ethyl-1-butoxide mixed aggregates. The lithium hydride mixed aggregates were also studied using selective 1H decoupling experiments. The 0.8/1 sample resulted in six 2-ethylbutyllithium/lithium 2-ethyl-1-butoxide mixed aggregates and five lithium hydride/lithium 2-ethyl-1-butoxide mixed aggregates. A low temperature 13C NMR spectroscopy study of n-pentyllithium indicated three aggregates, most likely a hexamer, an octamer, and a nonamer. A low temperature 13C NMR study of an 0.2/1 O/Li ratio sample of n-pentyllithium mixed with 1-pentanol resulted in three n-pentyllithium/lithium n-pentoxide aggregates mixed aggregates along with the three n-pentyllithium aggregates. 13C NMR data for this mixture gave inconclusive results whether or not lithium hydride/lithium alkoxide mixed aggregates were present in the sample.
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NMR study of 2-ethylhexyllithium aggregate and 2- ethylhexyllithium/lithium 2-ethyl-1-hexoxide mixed aggregates.

NMR study of 2-ethylhexyllithium aggregate and 2- ethylhexyllithium/lithium 2-ethyl-1-hexoxide mixed aggregates.

Date: December 2001
Creator: Petros, Robby A.
Description: A 1H, 13C, and 6Li NMR study of 2-ethylhexyllithium showed that 2- ethylhexyllithium exists solely as a hexamer in cyclopentane solution over the temperature range from 25 to -65 °C. Furthermore, 2-ethylhexyllithium and lithium 2- ethyl-1-hexoxide were shown to form mixed aggregates when the alkoxide was formed in situ by reacting 2-ethylhexyllithium with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. A multinuclear, variable temperature NMR study of a sample with an O:Li ratio of 0.2 led to the identification of at least four such aggregates, one of which was found to be a hexamer with the composition R5(RO)Li6. Studies of samples with higher O:Li ratios, up to 0.8, showed additional mixed aggregates present. All solutions containing mixed aggregates were also shown to contain hydrocarbon soluble lithium hydride. A study of lithium 2-ethyl-1- hexoxide indicated that it aggregates in solution as well.
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NMR Study of n-Propyllithium Aggregates

NMR Study of n-Propyllithium Aggregates

Date: December 2002
Creator: Davis, James W.
Description: A variable temperature 1H, 13C, and 6Li NMR study of n-propyl-6Li-lithium showed five different aggregates, similar to that in the literature as (RLi)n, n= 6, 8, 9, 9, 9. There were also a number of additional new species, identified as lithium hydride containing aggregates. Unexpectedly, a series of 13C{1H} 1-D NMR experiments with selective 6Li decoupling showed evidence for 13C-6Li spin-spin coupling between the previously reported (RLi)n aggregates and various hydride species.
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An NMR Study of Trimethylsilylmethyllithium Aggregates and Mixed Trimethylsilylmethyllithium/Lithium trimethylsilylmethoxide Aggregates

An NMR Study of Trimethylsilylmethyllithium Aggregates and Mixed Trimethylsilylmethyllithium/Lithium trimethylsilylmethoxide Aggregates

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Date: December 2004
Creator: Medley, Marilyn S.
Description: An NMR spectroscopy study of trimethylsilylmethyllilthium, TMSM-Li, indicates that TMSM-Li exists as two different aggregates in cyclopentane solution. Using previously reported colligative properties of TMSM-Li in different solutions in connection with new 13C and 6Li NMR data collected in this study, aggregation states were assigned as octamer and hexamer. Low temperature 13C and 6Li NMR peak intensities indicated an equilibrium exists between the two aggregates that shifts toward the octamer as the temperature decreases. ΔH was calculated to be 5.23 + 0.15 kcal/mol and ΔS was calculated to be 17.9 + 0.6 eu for the hexamer/octamer equilibrium system. Samples of TMSM-Li were mixed with TMSM-OH in attempts to form mixed alkyllithium/lithium alkoxide aggregates. 13C NMR data for these mixtures gave inconclusive results whether or not these compounds formed, which is different from other primary alkyllithium compounds studied in the past. A study of neopentyllithium, NpLi, indicates only one aggregate in solution with the aggregation state unknown using low temperature 13C NMR spectroscopy.
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NNS Use of Adverbs in Academic Writing

NNS Use of Adverbs in Academic Writing

Date: August 2011
Creator: Heidler, Linda E.
Description: Recent studies have begun to redefine the idea of accuracy in second language acquisition to include not only grammatical correctness, but also native-like selection. This is an exploratory study aimed at identifying areas of nonnative-like selection of adverbs, such as sentence position, semantic category preferences, frequency of use and breadth of word choice. Using corpus-linguistic methods it compares the writing of nonnative English speakers at an intermediate and advanced level to both American college students’ writing and published academic writing. It also conducts in-depth case studies of three of the most commonly used adverbs. It finds that while advanced students are grammatically accurate, there are still several ways in which their use of adverbs differs from that of native speakers.
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No Fairy Godmothers: Essays on Life, Love, and Feminism

No Fairy Godmothers: Essays on Life, Love, and Feminism

Date: August 1998
Creator: Behnken, Julie A. (Julie Ann)
Description: Heterosexual romance and marriage are institutionalized ideals in our society, set forth, in part, through the portrayal of stereotyped gender roles in fairy tales, such as Cinderella, and by the mainstream media. This thesis explores the cultural messages aimed at women, which impose the necessity of altering oneself to achieve marriage, and offers feminist viewpoints. Using the form of the personal essay, I discuss the ideals of Cinderella, Prince Charming, marriage, and Happily Ever After as unrealistic, though still prevalent, given the popularity of books like The Rules: Time-tested Secrets for Capturing the Heart of Mr. Right, and Princess Diana as Cinderella icon. Essays on my own experience of marriage and divorce supplement the cultural issues, juxtaposing the personal and political toward a new paradigm for relationships.
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No Greater Error: Negotiated Agreements and Their Effects on the Conclusion of Interstate War

No Greater Error: Negotiated Agreements and Their Effects on the Conclusion of Interstate War

Date: December 2012
Creator: Kendall, David F.
Description: Negotiated settlements, formal treaties to unilateral cease-fires, are often accepted to be the preferable method to end war. When negotiated agreements are used in the normal business of international politics they can be potentially helpful devices; however, when they are relied upon for a nation's security or war prevention and conclusion they can prove disastrous. It is the presence of force variables, and not the formality of an agreement which effectively concludes a war. I recategorize success of an agreement to not only mean failure of a return to war, but also whether the tenets of an agreement are actually followed. I utilize a modified version of Fortna's conflict dataset and run three separate logit analyses to test the effectiveness of settlements in a medium n quantitative analysis. If politicians and policy makers realize that it is not treaties that establish peace but the costs of war and military might then perhaps the world will be a more peaceful place.
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No place to call home: Cultural homelessness, self-esteem and cross-cultural identities.

No place to call home: Cultural homelessness, self-esteem and cross-cultural identities.

Date: May 2009
Creator: Hoersting, Raquel Carvalho
Description: The study examined relations between a cross-cultural geographically mobile childhood and adult cultural identity, attachment to cross-cultural identities (CCIs) and self-esteem. CCIs are loosely defined identities (e.g., third culture kids [TCKs], military brats, missionary kids) that describe some individuals' childhood cross-cultural experience. The 475 participants spent at least two years before age 18 in a culture different from their parents' and completed an online survey including childhood cross-cultural experiences, Cultural Homelessness Criteria, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and Self Label Identity Measure (SLIM) that captured strength of affirmation, belonging and commitment to any CCI. Cultural homelessness (CH) was related to lower self-esteem; higher SLIM scores was related to higher self-esteem and lower CH. TCKs reported lower self-esteem than non-TCKs and older participants experienced less CH and higher self-esteem. SLIM scores buffered the CH-self-esteem relationship, whereas a TCK CCI and having more cross-culturally experienced social networks did not.
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No Slip-Shod Muse: A Performance Analysis of Some of Susanna Centlivre's Plays

No Slip-Shod Muse: A Performance Analysis of Some of Susanna Centlivre's Plays

Date: May 2000
Creator: Herrell, LuAnn R. Venden
Description: In 1982, Richard C. Frushell urged the necessity for a critical study of Susanna Centlivre's plays. Since then, only a handful of books and articles briefly discuss herand many attempt wrongly to force her into various critical models. Drawing on performativity models, my reading of several Centlivre plays (Love's Contrivance, The Gamester, The Basset-Table and A Bold Stroke for a Wife) asks the question, "What was it like to see these plays in performance?" Occupying somewhat uneasy ground between literature and theatre studies, I borrow useful tools from both, to create what might be styled a New Historicist Dramaturgy. I urge a re-examination of the period 1708-28. The standard reading of theatre of the period is that it was static. This "dry spell" of English theatre, most critics agree, was filled with stock characters and predictable plot lines. But it is during this so-called "dry spell" that Centlivre refines her stagecraft, and convinces cautious managers to bank on her work, providing evidence that playwrights of the period were subtly experimenting. The previous trend in scholarship of this cautious and paranoid era of theatre history has been to shy away from examining the plays in any depth, and fall back on ...
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No-thought Shopping: Understanding and Controlling Nonconscious Processing in Marketing

No-thought Shopping: Understanding and Controlling Nonconscious Processing in Marketing

Date: December 2012
Creator: Fabrize, Jr., Robert O.
Description: This dissertation explores how nonconscious thought processing might be affected and activated in ways that influence consumer decision making. To activate nonconscious thought processes, this dissertation relies on priming—the unobtrusive activation of mental representations by stimuli in a social context, which occurs without participants' conscious awareness. Three dimensions of consumer decision making are investigated: purchase intention, product evaluation and arousal. The dissertation is based on the auto-motive model of nonconscious goal pursuit and somatic marker hypothesis. The dissertation is driven by three experiments, which respectively explore crucial areas in priming effects and addresses the following research question: can primes be shaped or controlled by marketers? Specifically, the dissertation examines whether shopping behavior can be primed. Second, the dissertation also examines how facial primes displaying basic emotions (happiness, anger, contempt, disgust, fear, sadness, and surprise) can prime emotion and arousal. Finally the dissertation examines the effect of the interaction of the buying prime with the primes of faces displaying basic emotions on the dependent variables of purchase intention, product evaluation, emotion, and arousal. Results from three experimental studies show that shopping behavior can be primed, and primed participants will exhibit higher product evaluation than those exposed to a control prime. Second ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries