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Mechanisms of rapid receptive field reorganization in rat spinal cord

Mechanisms of rapid receptive field reorganization in rat spinal cord

Date: August 2002
Creator: Vu, Hung
Description: Rapid receptive field (RF) reorganization of somatosensory neurons in the rat dorsal horn was examined using extracellular single unit recording. Subcutaneous injection of lidocaine into RFs of dorsal horn neurons results in expansion of their RFs within minutes. The expanded RFs appear adjacent to or/and proximal to original RFs. Out of 63 neurons tested, 36 (58%) show RF reorganization. The data suggest that dorsal horn of spinal cord is one of the initial sites for RF reorganization. The neural mechanisms of this effect are not well understood. We propose that changes in biophysical properties (membrane conductance, length constant) of the neurons resulting from lidocaine injection contribute to RF reorganization. Iontophoretic application of glutamate onto dorsal horn neurons that show lidocaine induced RF's expansion were used to test the model. Application of glutamate produced reduction of reorganized RFs in 9 of 20 (45%) tested cells. Application of NBQX produced no effect on either original or expanded RFs indicate that RF shrinkage effects of glutamate involve NMDA receptors. The results are consistent with the prediction of the proposed model. Subcutaneous injection of capsaicin into tactile RFs of low threshold mechanoreceptive dorsal horn neurons produced no effect on the RF sizes that are ...
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Mechanization of Aircraft Performance

Mechanization of Aircraft Performance

Date: 1956
Creator: Cotten, Frances Patterson
Description: The purpose of this paper is to describe the mechanization of the basic equations of motion for the performance and maneuver characteristics of an airplane with some simplifications which render solutions more practicable. The results of a study made to program these equations for calculation by the IBM MODEL 650 digital computer are presented as well as the steps to be taken in using this method of calculation.
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Media and Corporate Social Responsibility: How Leading Business Magazines Frame a Controversial Concept

Media and Corporate Social Responsibility: How Leading Business Magazines Frame a Controversial Concept

Date: August 2013
Creator: Riddell, Brad
Description: Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is an emerging concept that continues to play a controversial role in the business world. Different CSR theories and ethical foundations inform different approaches to embedding socially responsible behavior into today's business functions. As technology, globalization, and economic challenges change the corporate world, the meaning and application of CSR also changes. While no empirical evidence of CSR's impact on performance exists, many corporations operate under the assumption that CSR holds significant value. This study examines the framing of CSR in stories published by leading business magazines between 2008 and 2012. By examining the presentation of CSR concepts, the resulting analysis can provide important conclusions for corporations, public relations practitioners, mass media, and consumers. This study resulted in a hierarchical pyramid of frames that organizes the framing of CSR in business magazines into three layers: category, motivation, and classification as either responsible behavior or irresponsible behavior. These results lead to recommendations for future CSR research, including the need for quantitative evidence of a connection or disconnection between CSR and profitability.
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Media effects on the body shape ideal and bulimic symptomatology in males

Media effects on the body shape ideal and bulimic symptomatology in males

Date: December 1999
Creator: Barta, Jonna Lee
Description: This study investigates the impact of sociocultural mediators in relation to eating disorders among male undergraduates. Literature on eating disorders has demonstrated that a thin body shape ideal depicted in the media directly contributes to eating pathology among females, but little research has investigated the direct effects of ideal body shape images among men. The focus of the present investigation was to assess the direct effects of exposure to the ideal male body shape on men’s affect, self esteem, body satisfaction, and endorsement of U. S. societal ideals of attractiveness. In addition, the relation of these variables to bulimic symptomatology was examined. Modeling a study conducted on women (Stice & Shaw, 1994), male undergraduates between the ages of 18 to 25 participated in premeasure (N = 169) and post measure (N = 95) conditions. Participants in the post measure were randomly exposed to pictures from magazines containing either male models depicting the ideal body shape, an average body or pictures of clothing without models. Results from repeated mulitvariate analysis indicated that exposure to the ideal body shape condition did not demonstrate significant negative changes in men’s affect, self esteem, body satisfaction or endorsement of U. S. societal ideals of attractiveness. ...
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Media Influence on Executive Police Decision-Making: A Case Study of Police and Media Interaction During the Oklahoma City Bombing Investigation and Trials

Media Influence on Executive Police Decision-Making: A Case Study of Police and Media Interaction During the Oklahoma City Bombing Investigation and Trials

Date: May 2001
Creator: Bellew, Steven S.
Description: Because media influence public opinion, it is often surmised that media also influence the decisions of police executives. This exploratory case study examined the relationship between police and media during the Oklahoma City bombing investigation and subsequent trials of Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols. Findings indicate that media influence police executive decisions when police and media interact closely. It was found that during the Oklahoma City bombing investigation and trials, police on the outer perimeter were influenced most and police conducting the investigation or who were tasked to court room security were influenced the least. It was concluded, based on the consensus of respondents interviewed, that media do influence police executive decisions.
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Medial Medulla Networks in Culture: a Multichannel Electrophysiologic and Pharmacological Study

Medial Medulla Networks in Culture: a Multichannel Electrophysiologic and Pharmacological Study

Date: August 1998
Creator: Keefer, Edward W. (Edward Wesley)
Description: Spontaneously active primary cultures obtained from dissociated embryonic medial medulla tissue were grown on microelectrode arrays for investigating burst patterns and pharmacological responses of respiratory-related neurons. Multichannel burst rates and spike production were used as primary variables for analysis. Pacemaker-like neurons were identified by continued spiking under low Ca++/high Mg++conditions. The number of pacemakers increased with time under synaptic blocking medium. Sensitivity to CO2 levels was found in some neurons. Acetylcholine changed activity in a complex fashion. Curare, atropine and gallamine modified ACh effects. Eserine alone was ineffective, but potentiated ACh-induced responses. Norepinephrine caused channel-specific increases or decreases, whereas dopamine and serotonin had little effect at 30 μM. GABA and glycine stopped most spiking at 70 μM. Developmental changes in glycine sensitivity (increasing with age) were also observed. It is concluded that pacemaker and chemosensitive neurons develop in medial medulla cultures, and that these cultures are pharmacologically histiotypic.
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Mediated chameleons: An integration of nonconscious behavioral mimicry and the parallel process model of nonverbal communication.

Mediated chameleons: An integration of nonconscious behavioral mimicry and the parallel process model of nonverbal communication.

Date: May 2009
Creator: Beatty, Keturi D.
Description: This study explored the state of art education in Turkey as revealed by pre-service art education university instructors, and the potential of incorporating visual culture studies in pre-service art education in Turkey. The instructors' ideas about visual culture, and popular culture, the impact it might have, the content (objects), and the practices within the context of Turkey were examined. Visual culture was examined from an art education perspective that focuses on a pedagogical approach that emphasizes the perception and critique of popular culture and everyday cultural experiences, and the analysis of media including television programs, computer games, Internet sites, and advertisements. A phenomenological human science approach was employed in order to develop a description of the perception of visual culture in pre-service art education in Turkey as lived by the participants. In-person interviews were used to collect the data from a purposive sample of 8 faculty members who offered undergraduate and graduate art education pedagogy, art history, and studio courses within four-year public universities. This empirical approach sought to obtain comprehensive descriptions of an experience through semi-structural interviews. These interviews employed open-ended questions to gather information about the following: their educational and professional background; their definitions of art education and ...
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Mediated Generalization of the Effect of Reprimands Across Two Topographies of Self-Injury

Mediated Generalization of the Effect of Reprimands Across Two Topographies of Self-Injury

Date: May 2004
Creator: Kliethermes, Lana L.
Description: This study sought to assess the effects of pairing a neutral stimulus with a reprimand contingent on occurrences of two topographies of problem behavior. Using a multiple baseline withdrawal with a nested multi-element design, contingencies were first applied to eye poking and, subsequently, to a second behavior, skin picking. In each case, the participant wore wristbands (a previously neutral stimulus) during treatment sessions. Results indicated that the reprimands were effective in decreasing both behaviors. In addition, when skin picking resulted in reprimands, eye poking also decreased. However, when reprimands were contingent on eye-poking, the effects did not appear to generalize to skin-picking. Some possible accounts for this asymmetrical pattern of generalization are discussed.
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The mediating and moderating effects of women's attachment style on interrelationships among emotional abuse, physical aggression and relational stability.

The mediating and moderating effects of women's attachment style on interrelationships among emotional abuse, physical aggression and relational stability.

Date: December 2001
Creator: Weston, Rebecca
Description: This purpose of this study was to combine two bodies of literature on relationships, attachment and violence. Given the impact of men's physical aggression and emotional abuse on women, it is likely that these behaviors would also affect attachment. A model proposing that women's attachment style mediated and moderated the relationship between partners' physical and emotional abuse and the stability of women's relationships was tested. Archival data were used from two waves of interviews with a sample of lowincome, ethnically diverse community women. Most (89%) of the initial 835 participants of Project HOW: Health Outcomes of Women completed at least one additional interview providing information on the status of their initial relationships. Of these women, 39% were African American, 30% were Euro-American, and 31% were Mexican American. The effects of men's psychological abuse and physical violence on women's attachment style were tested with regression analyses. The interrelationships between partners' abuse, attachment and relational stability were tested with SEM. Attachment style was expected to moderate the associations among variables and mediate the impact of partners' negative behavior on relational stability. In regression analyses, partners' psychological abuse predicted avoidant and anxious, but not secure attachment ratings. Violence, although significant, explained less variance ...
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Mediation on XQuery Views

Mediation on XQuery Views

Date: December 2006
Creator: Peng, Xiaobo
Description: The major goal of information integration is to provide efficient and easy-to-use access to multiple heterogeneous data sources with a single query. At the same time, one of the current trends is to use standard technologies for implementing solutions to complex software problems. In this dissertation, I used XML and XQuery as the standard technologies and have developed an extended projection algorithm to provide a solution to the information integration problem. In order to demonstrate my solution, I implemented a prototype mediation system called Omphalos based on XML related technologies. The dissertation describes the architecture of the system, its metadata, and the process it uses to answer queries. The system uses XQuery expressions (termed metaqueries) to capture complex mappings between global schemas and data source schemas. The system then applies these metaqueries in order to rewrite a user query on a virtual global database (representing the integrated view of the heterogeneous data sources) to a query (termed an outsourced query) on the real data sources. An extended XML document projection algorithm was developed to increase the efficiency of selecting the relevant subset of data from an individual data source to answer the user query. The system applies the projection algorithm ...
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