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Masculine Gender Role Conflict and Psychological Well- Being: A Comparative Study of Heterosexual and Gay Men

Masculine Gender Role Conflict and Psychological Well- Being: A Comparative Study of Heterosexual and Gay Men

Date: August 2001
Creator: Shepard, William D.
Description: Masculine gender role conflict (MGRC) occurs when externally-imposed male gender role expectations have a negative impact on and consequences for men. The purpose of this study was to examine how men in a homogeneous setting (i.e., a college campus) compare on MGRC and psychological well-being, based on their self-identified sexual orientation. Utilizing canonical correlation analysis, 96 heterosexual men and 102 gay men were compared on four factors of MGRC (conflict between work and family, restrictive emotionality, restrictive affectionate behavior between men, and success, power, and competition) and five factors of psychological well-being (anger, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, and attitudes toward seeking psychological help). Findings for the heterosexual men were highly consistent with previous studies on MGRC and psychological well-being in a college-age population. Findings for the gay men indicated they had more problems with MGRC and psychological well-being than college-age and older gay men surveyed in the one published study on gay men and MGRC. Gay men who were single also reported more problems with restrictive emotionality, anger, anxiety, and depression, and had lower self-esteem, than gay men who were in a relationship. Between group differences were few, with gay men reporting significantly less restrictive affectionate behavior between men than heterosexual ...
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Masculine Role Conflict in Gay Men: Mediation of Psychological Well-Being and Help-Seeking Behaviors

Masculine Role Conflict in Gay Men: Mediation of Psychological Well-Being and Help-Seeking Behaviors

Date: August 1998
Creator: Simonsen, Gregory
Description: Gender role issues have been an integral part of psychology since the 1970s. More recently, theories and research have surfaced concerning the issues of maleness in our society. Most of these theories focus on masculine gender role and how it affects men in various ways, e.g., their psychological well-being, substance use, relational abilities, and help-seeking behaviors. One area of maleness that has consistently been left out of the Masculine Role Conflict (MRC) debate is that of homosexuality. As a gay man develops, he finds himself at odds with society over something that he experiences biologically as normal and appropriate. It is the contention of this paper that MRC is an issue related to psychological distress among gay men and not psychological weakness in gay men, per se.
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The Masculinity Masquerade: the Portrayal of Men in Modern Advertising

The Masculinity Masquerade: the Portrayal of Men in Modern Advertising

Date: August 2013
Creator: Harper, Savannah
Description: The depiction of gender in advertising is a topic of continuous discussion and research. The present study adds to past findings with an updated look at how men are represented in U.S. advertising media and the real effects these portrayals have on the male population under the theoretical framework of hegemony and social cognitive theory. This research is triangulated with a textual analysis of the ads found in the March 2013 editions of four popular print publications and three focus group sessions separated by sex (two all-male, one all-female), each of which is composed of a racially diverse group of undergraduate journalism and communications students from a large Southwestern university. The results of the textual analysis reveal little ethnic or physical diversity among male figures in advertising and distinguish six main profiles of masculinity, the most frequent of which is described as the "sophisticated man." The focus groups identify depictions of extreme muscularity and stereotypical male incompetence as the most negative representations, while humorous and hyperbolic portrayals of sexual prowess and hyper-masculinity are viewed positively as effective means of marketing to men.
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Mask-Veil Imagery in Hawthorne's Fiction

Mask-Veil Imagery in Hawthorne's Fiction

Date: August 1969
Creator: Wyatt, Doris Chapman
Description: The purpose of this study is to determine, by a chronological review, the evolution of the mask-veil symbol as a device in Hawthorne's fiction and to ascertain its relevancy as a concrete manifestation of the abstract idea it betokens.
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Masking Meaning

Masking Meaning

Date: May 2003
Creator: Allee, Jake R.
Description: Chapter I describes the purpose of the project, which was to develop a body of work that exhibits my current thought process. The questions presented to myself consisted of the following: 1. How effective was the expression of my ideas socially and politically after the change to the work? 2. Was the minimal approach a tool that contributes or detracts from this effectiveness? 3. Did an increase in scale successfully act as an element of confrontation? Chapter II describes the inspiration behind the making of my work it also discusses problems encountered with an understanding of the viewer concerning imagery. Chapter III summarizes the methodology behind the execution of the new body of work. It also discusses how simplification of imagery works as a solution to my problems.
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Mass for AILM by Geonyong Lee: The Composer and the Elements of Asian Music

Mass for AILM by Geonyong Lee: The Composer and the Elements of Asian Music

Date: May 2009
Creator: Kim, Hong Soo
Description: Geonyong Lee, the composer of Mass for AILM, is a well-known composer in Asia whose main interest lies in choral music. He has composed numerous choral works which are highly diverse in their nature. This study introduces the choral composer Geonyong Lee to the West. The significance of Geonyong Lee's Mass for AILM is the display of Asian inflection in a traditional setting of the mass ordinary. Lee's Mass for AILM employs melodic and rhythmic aspects of traditional Philippine folk songs, a Japanese mode, traditional Korean music, and various Asian percussion instruments. This study explicates these Asian influences and how Lee utilized them in his Mass for AILM.
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Mass media in the writing process of English as a second language kindergarteners: A case study examination

Mass media in the writing process of English as a second language kindergarteners: A case study examination

Date: August 2001
Creator: Melton, Janet Moody
Description: Mass media such as television, video players, video games, compact disks, and the computers are commonplace in current American culture. For English as a Second Language children, television may be the only source of English in the home serving as models of grammar, syntax, story structure. An investigation was made using English as a Second Language (ESL) kindergarteners, the classroom writing center, participant-observation, teacher as researcher, and case study methodology to investigate the following questions: Do ESL kindergarten children use media in their writing? If so, how do they use media in their writing? Upon examination of the data, it was found that all these ESL children did use media in the writing process. The function and form of the media references varied from child to child. Media was a cultural context for the childrenÕs social interactions. Oral language (with and without media references) not only informed the writing for some, but also served: to initiate, participate in, and sustain social relationships with peers. Findings indicated that two case study subjects used social dialogue as a separate operation from the production of a written story. Language informed the writing but it also had a socialization function in addition to what ...
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Massed and Distributed Practice in Beginning Gymnastics for College Women

Massed and Distributed Practice in Beginning Gymnastics for College Women

Date: August 1968
Creator: Dixon, Carolyn
Description: The study was undertaken to determine the effects of massed and distributed practice on the performance of beginning gymnastics skills, to secure data on these effects, and to evaluate these effects in acquiring the necessary components of motor fitness for basic gymnastics skills.
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Massed Group Desensitization in the Reduction of Anxiety

Massed Group Desensitization in the Reduction of Anxiety

Date: August 1972
Creator: Dawley, Harold H., 1940-
Description: The problem with which this investigation was concerned was that of determining the effectiveness of massed group desensitization in the reduction of anxiety. Thirty test-anxious nursing students who scored in the upper quartile on the Test Anxiety Questionnaire (TAQ) served as the subjects. The subjects were assigned by the use of a randomized block procedure to one of the following three groups matched on the basis of their pre-test TAQ scores: (1) desensitization, (2) placebo, and (3) control.
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Masters No More: Abolition and Texas Planters, 1860-1890

Masters No More: Abolition and Texas Planters, 1860-1890

Date: December 2010
Creator: Ivan, Adrien D.
Description: This dissertation is a study of the effects of the abolition of slavery on the economic and political elite of six Texas counties between 1860 and 1890. It focuses on Austin, Brazoria, Colorado, Fort Bend, Matagorda, and Wharton Counties. These areas contain the overwhelming majority of Stephen F. Austin's "Old Three Hundred," the original American settlers of Texas. In addition to being the oldest settled region, these counties contained many of the wealthiest slaveholders within the state. This section of the state, along with the northeast along the Louisiana border, includes the highest concentration of Texas' antebellum plantations. This study asks two central questions. First, what were the effects of abolition on the fortunes of the planter class within these six counties? Did a new elite emerge as a result of the end of slavery, or, despite the liquidation of a substantial portion of their estates, did members of the former planter class sustain their economic dominance over the counties? Second, what were abolition's effects on the counties' prewar political elite, defined as the county judge? Who were in power before the war and who were in power after it? Did abolition contribute to a new kind of politician?
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