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The Interactions of Plasma with Low-k Dielectrics: Fundamental Damage and Protection Mechanisms
Nanoporous low-k dielectrics are used for integrated circuit interconnects to reduce the propagation delays, and cross talk noise between metal wires as an alternative material for SiO2. These materials, typically organosilicate glass (OSG) films, are exposed to oxygen plasmas during photoresist stripping and related processes which substantially damage the film by abstracting carbon, incorporating O and OH, eventually leading to significantly increased k values. Systematic studies have been performed to understand the oxygen plasma-induced damage mechanisms on different low-k OSG films of various porosity and pore interconnectedness. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy are used to understand the damage kinetics of O radicals, ultraviolet photons and charged species, and possible ways to control the carbon loss from the film. FTIR results demonstrate that O radical present in the plasma is primarily responsible for carbon abstraction and this is governed by diffusion mechanism involving interconnected film nanopores. The loss of carbon from the film can be controlled by closing the pore interconnections, He plasma pretreatment is an effective way to control the damage at longer exposure by closing the connections between the pores.
Interactions of Presentation Formats and Decision-Maker Characteristics upon Multiple Decision-Making Tasks: an Experiment Using Multiple Cognitive Assessments
Information systems research tends to ignore individual differences in users. This laboratory experiment sought to illuminate contributions of decision-makers' cognitive processes to decision outcome as reflected in four hypothesis sets: the impact of imagery preference and presentation format upon (HI) recall accuracy and upon hemispheric activation during (H2) encoding and (H3) recall, and (H4) to examine the relationship between hemispheric activation differences and accuracy differences. Point-value (specific values) and intraset-pattern (relationships between values) recall were considered. Thirty MBA students, grouped by imagery preference (cognitive style) as favoring verbal (textual) or visual (graphical) information presentation, performed computer-based recall tasks using tabular and graphical formats in a repeated measures design. Hemispheric activation (cognitive process) was assessed using ratios of EEG activity in six frequency bands captured from six pairs of homologous electrode sites during encoding and recall.
The Interactive Effect of Fund Balance and Revenue Diversification on Local Government Fiscal Sustainability
This dissertation explores how cities achieve fiscal sustainability—the financial capacity to consistently meet basic public service responsibilities regardless of economic conditions. Two research questions arise from the interplay between the local economy and fiscal sustainability. First, what management tools do cities use to achieve fiscal sustainability given that economic conditions are largely outside their control? Second, what explains the variation among cities in the financial management tools used to achieve fiscal sustainability? The financial management tools of interest in this study are revenue diversity and the size of the fund balance. It is conjectured that financial management tools interact with each other prompting the tools to function as policy substitutes for each other. Cities achieve fiscal sustainability by strategically choosing budget-balancing tools appropriate to their economic conditions. The study utilizes a cross-state comparison from 351 Massachusetts municipal governments using panel data from 2000 to 2009 and 993 New York municipal governments using panel data from 2001 to 2010. Using theories of fiscal sustainability and revenue diversification, several models are proposed that test the interactive effects of fund balance size and revenue diversity on fiscal sustainability. The results from the empirical analyses show that cities use various financial management tools to stabilize spending during economic downturns. Cities pursue strategies that help maintain fiscal sustainability. Furthermore, it is discovered that interaction of fund balance and revenue diversity on municipal expenditures is stronger as the level of revenue diversity decreases. This interaction has a large effect during periods of economic downturns as compared to periods of economic growth.
The Interactive Effects of Tax and Expenditure Limitations Stringency with Revenue Diversity and the Council-manager Form of Government on Municipal Expenditures
This dissertation examines the effects of tax and expenditure limitations (TELs) stringency and its interaction with revenue diversity and the council-manager form of government on municipal general fund expenditure. TELs are explicit rules that states impose to reduce local government spending. TELs stringency varies from state to state, leading to difficulties in assessing their impact across the nation. This dissertation proposes a new means for measuring the stringency of TELs imposed on local governments. Factor analysis is utilized, and then factor scores are calculated to identify degrees of TELs stringency. This study contends that higher levels of TELs stringency are associated with lower local government spending. However, the effectiveness of TELs is dependent on revenue diversity and the form of government. This study suggests that both revenue diversity and the council-manager form of government mitigate the impacts of TELs stringency on local government spending. Panel data from 2007 to 2011 from 1,508 municipalities are utilized. This study finds that higher levels of TELs stringency are associated with lower levels of municipal general fund expenditures per capita. However, TELs stringency is effective only when revenue diversity is low and when cities have a form of government other than council-manager. These results are generally consistent with the theory presented in this dissertation.
An Interactive Tool to Investigate the Inference Performance of Network Dynamics From Data
Network structure plays a significant role in determining the performance of network inference tasks. An interactive tool to study the dependence of network topology on estimation performance was developed. The tool allows end-users to easily create and modify network structures and observe the performance of pole estimation measured by Cramer-Rao bounds. The tool also automatically suggests the best measurement locations to maximize estimation performance, and thus finds its broad applications on the optimal design of data collection experiments. Finally, a series of theoretical results that explicitly connect subsets of network structures with inference performance are obtained.
Interest and Personality Patterns of Experienced Teachers
The purpose of this study is to determine and analyze interest and personality patterns of experienced teachers as measured by certain standardized tests.
Interest Differentiation and Profile Elevation: Investigating Correlates of Depression, Confidence, and Vocational Identity
Using a correlational design, this study examined relationships among and between differentiation, profile elevation, gender and educational level (predictors) and depression, confidence, and vocational identity (criterion). Clients presenting for counseling services (n = 90) with a career concern at a large, metropolitan university were included in the study. Six assumptions were examined using three single hierarchical regression analyses to reveal relationships among and between variables. Two research assumptions were confirmed at the .05 level of significance. Bivariate correlations were computed to examine the structure coefficients. Beta weights and structure coefficients were examined to determine the relative contribution of the predictors in the regression model. Results indicated that differentiation, profile elevation, gender and educational level did not predict significant variance in depression and vocational identity. However, differentiation, profile elevation, and educational level did significantly predict confidence (p< .0001).
Interesting the Disinterested School Child through Arts and Crafts
The problem is to determine why fifteen lower grade pupils were absent from school so many times during the previous year and to ascertain whether the pupils' attendance records could be improved in the present year through arts and crafts.
The Interests and Activities of the Seventh Grade, Huey School, Wichita Falls, Texas
Interest is a guiding force in helping an individual to realize the pattern he is making through his day by day experiences. All children have not had the same experiences. They may or may not be interested in the same activity. It has been said that behavior is caused. If behavior is caused, then, to know the interests of children may be very valuable in diverting or guiding their activities which are desirable to help them better fit themselves to the society in which they live. Thus, the problem of this thesis is to discover the interests and activities of a seventh-grade group of boys and girls attending Huey School, Wichita Falls, Texas.
Interests Eternal and Perpetual: British Foreign Policy and the Royal Navy in the Spanish Civil War, 1936 - 1937
This thesis will demonstrate that the British leaders saw the policy of non-intervention during the Spanish Civil War as the best option available under the circumstances, and will also focus on the role of the Royal Navy in carrying out that policy. Unpublished sources include Cabinet and Admiralty papers. Printed sources include the Documents on British Foreign Policy, newspaper and periodical articles, and memoirs. This thesis, covering the years 1936-37, is broken down into six chapters, each covering a time frame that reflected a change of policy or naval mission. The non-intervention policy was seen as the best available at the time, but it was shortsighted and ignored potentially serious long-term consequences.
The Interface of Personality Processes and Cognitive Abilities: A Comparative Study of Elderly and Young Adults
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Although research has shown that the complex constructs of intelligence and personality are necessarily intertwined, studies exploring this issue in elderly individuals are rare. The importance attached to this interface in older adults becomes particularly clear in light of the debate over the cause and extent of age-related decrements in cognitive performance as well as whether such losses can be ameliorated or not, especially given societal shifts toward increased life expectancies. The present study explored the basis for shifts in personality-ability relationships in adulthood by comparing two samples of older adults, one of which was assessed in 1975 (N = 102, M age = 68.4), and the second of which was assessed in 1995 (N = 100, M age = 72.0), and a sample of younger adults (N = 100, M age = 21.8), also assessed in 1995. Each participant was administered the Holtzman Inkblot Technique and the Gf-Gc Sampler, a measure of crystallized (Gc) and fluid (Gf) abilities. LISREL analyses of both age-related and historical shifts in personality-ability relationships suggested that not only were such shifts associated with cohort differences as reflected in factor loading (lambda) differences between the older samples and the younger sample, as well as between each of the older samples, but also that such connections were weaker among younger adults. These findings are important in revealing that sociocultural shifts in opportunities for continued cognitive growth influence the impact of noncognitive (personality) factors on intellectual functioning in later life. Limitations of the current study, implications of the results, and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Interfacial Characterization of Chemical Vapor Deposition (Cvd) Grown Graphene and Electrodeposited Bismuth on Ruthenium Surface
Graphene receives enormous attention owing to its distinctive physical and chemical prosperities. Growing and transferring graphene to different substrates have been investigated. The graphene growing on the copper substrate has an advantage of low solubility of carbon on the copper which allow us to grow mostly monolayer graphene. Graphene sheet of few centimeters can be transferred to 300nm silicon oxide and quartz crystal pre-deposited with metal like Cu and Ru. Characterization of the graphene has been done with Raman and contact angle measurement and recently quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) has been employed. The underpotential deposition (UPD) process of Bi on Ru metal surface is studied using electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) and XPS techniques. Both Bi UPD and Bi bulk deposition are clearly observed on Ru in 1mM Bi (NO3)3/0.5M H2SO4. Bi monolayer coverage calculated from mass (MLMass) and from charge (MLCharge) were compared with respect to the potential scanning rates, anions and ambient controls. EQCM results indicate that Bi UPD on Ru is mostly scan rate independent but exhibits interesting difference at the slower scan. Bi UPD monolayer coverage calculated from cathodic frequency change (ΔfCathodic) is significantly smaller than the monolayer coverage derived from integrated charge under the cathodic Bi UPD peak when scan rate is at least 5 mV/s. XPS is utilized to explore the detailed chemical composition of the observed interfacial process of Bi UPD on Ru.
Interfacial Electrochemistry and Surface Characterization: Hydrogen Terminated Silicon, Electrolessly Deposited Palladium & Platinum on Pyrolyzed Photoresist Films and Electrodeposited Copper on Iridium
Hydrogen terminated silicon surfaces play an important role in the integrated circuit (IC) industry. Ultra-pure water is extensively used for the cleaning and surface preparation of silicon surfaces. This work studies the effects of ultra-pure water on hydrogen passivated silicon surfaces in a short time frame of 120 minutes using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy – attenuated total reflection techniques. Varying conditions of ultra-pure water are used. This includes dissolved oxygen poor media after nitrogen bubbling and equilibration under nitrogen atmosphere, as well as metal contaminated solutions. Both microscopically rough and ideal monohydride terminated surfaces are examined. Hydrogen terminated silicon is also used as the sensing electrode for a potentiometric sensor for ultra-trace amounts of metal contaminants. Previous studies show the use of this potentiometric electrode sensor in hydrofluoric acid solution. This work is able to shows sensor function in ultra-pure water media without the need for further addition of hydrofluoric acid. This is considered a boon for the sensor due to the hazardous nature of hydrofluoric acid. Thin carbon films can be formed by spin coating photoresist onto silicon substrates and pyrolyzing at 1000 degrees C under reducing conditions. This work also shows that the electroless deposition of palladium and platinum may be accomplished in hydrofluoric acid solutions to attain palladium and platinum nanoparticles on a this film carbon surface for use as an electrode. Catalysis of these substrates is studied using hydrogen evolution in acidic media, cyclic voltammetry, and catalysis of formaldehyde. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) is used to ensure that there is little strain on palladium and platinum particles. Iridium is thought to be a prime candidate for investigation as a new generation copper diffusion barrier for the IC industry. Copper electrodeposition on iridium is studied to address the potential of iridium as a copper diffusion barrier. Copper electrodeposition is studied using a current-transient technique to obtain insight into the nucleation and growth mechanism. Copper on iridum was annealed up to 600 degrees C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and XRD confirm that electrodeposited copper exists in a metallic state. XRD shows that copper exists in the characteristic face-centered cubic (111) form. XRD also confirms the stability of the copper-iridium interface with no new peaks after annealing, which is indicative that no interaction occurs. Scanning electron microscopy, and Scotch ® Tape peel tests confirm the uniformity and strength of copper on iridium even after annealing to 600 degrees C.
Interfacial Electrochemistry of Copper and Spectro-Electrochemical Characterization of Oxygen Reduction Reaction
The first part of this dissertation highlights the contents of the electrochemical characterization of Cu and its electroplating on Ru-based substrates. The growth of Ru native oxide does diminish the efficiency of Cu plating on Ru surface. However, the electrochemical formed irreversible Ru hydrate dioxide (RuOxHy) shows better coverage of Cu UPD. The conductive Ru oxides are directly plateable liner materials as potential diffusion barriers for the IC fabrication. The part II of this dissertation demonstrates the development of a new rapid corrosion screening methodology for effective characterization Cu bimetallic corrosion in CMP and post-CMP environments. The corrosion inhibitors and antioxidants were studied in this dissertation. In part III, a new SEC methodology was developed to study the ORR catalysts. This novel SEC cell can offer cheap, rapid optical screening results, which helps the efficient development of a better ORR catalyst. Also, the SEC method is capable for identifying the poisoning of electrocatalysts. Our data show that the RuOxHy processes several outstanding properties of ORR such as high tolerance of sulfation, high kinetic current limitation and low percentage of hydrogen peroxide.
Interfacial Electrochemistry of Metal Nanoparticles Formation on Diamond and Copper Electroplating on Ruthenium Surface
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An extremely facile and novel method called spontaneous deposition, to deposit noble metal nanoparticles on a most stable form of carbon (C) i.e. diamond is presented. Nanometer sized particles of such metals as platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), gold (Au), copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) could be deposited on boron-doped (B-doped) polycrystalline diamond films grown on silicon (Si) substrates, by simply immersing the diamond/Si sample in hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution containing ions of the corresponding metal. The electrons for the reduction of metal ions came from the Si back substrate. The diamond/Si interfacial ohmic contact was of paramount importance to the observation of the spontaneous deposition process. The metal/diamond (M/C) surfaces were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffractometry (XRD). The morphology (i.e. size and distribution) of metal nanoparticles deposits could be controlled by adjusting the metal ion concentration, HF concentration and deposition time. XRD data indicate the presence of textured and strained crystal lattices of Pd for different Pd/C morphologies, which seem to influence the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde (HCHO). The sensitivity of electrocatalytic reactions to surface crystal structure implies that M/C could be fabricated for specific electrocatalytic applications. The research also presents electroplating of Cu on ruthenium (Ru), which a priori is a promising barrier material for Cu interconnects in the sub 0.13 μm generation integrated circuits (ICs). Cu plates on Ru with over 90% efficiency. The electrochemical nucleation and growth studies using the potentiostatic current transient method showed a predominantly progressive nucleation of Cu on Ru. This was also supported by SEM imaging, which showed that continuous thin films of Cu (ca. 400 Å) with excellent conformity could be plated over Ru without dendrite formation. Scotch tape peel tests and SEM on Cu/Ru samples both at room temperature (RT) and after annealing at 800 oC, showed no sign of delamination of the Cu film from Ru indicating strong adhesion. XRD patterns from Cu/Ru samples at RT through 800 oC indicated Cu in its characteristic face centered cubic (fcc) form with (111) phase dominating. Most importantly no new XRD peak emerged, even after annealing to 800 oC showing Cu and Ru did not interact much. The excellent adhesion and lack of metallurgical interactions between Cu and Ru underscored the potential application of Ru as a new Cu diffusion barrier in the next generation ICs.
Interfacial Studies of Bimetallic Corrosion in Copper/Ruthenium Systems and Silicon Surface Modification with Organic and Organometallic Chemistry
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To form Cu interconnects, dual-damascene techniques like chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) and post-CMP became inevitable for removing the "overburden" Cu and for planarizing the wafer surface. During the CMP processing, Cu interconnects and barrier metal layers experience different electrochemical interactions depending on the slurry composition, pH, and ohmic contact with adjacent metal layers that would set corrosion process. Ruthenium as a replacement of existing diffusion barrier layer will require extensive investigation to eliminate or control the corrosion process during CMP and post CMP. Bimetallic corrosion process was investigated in the ammonium citrate (a complexing agent of Cu in CMP solutions) using micro test patterns and potentiodynamic measurements. The enhanced bimetallic corrosion of copper observed is due to noble behavior of the ruthenium metal. Cu formed Cu(II)-amine and Cu(II)-citrate complexes in alkaline and acidic solutions and a corrosion mechanism has been proposed. The currently used metallization process (PVD, CVD and ALD) require ultra-high vacuum and are expensive. A novel method of Si surface metallization process is discussed that can be achieved at room temperature and does not require ultra-high vacuum. Ruthenation of Si surface through strong Si-Ru covalent bond formation is demonstrated using different ruthenium carbonyl compounds. RBS analysis accounted for monolayer to sub-monolayer coverage of Si surface. Interaction of other metal carbonyl (like Fe, Re, and Rh) is also discussed. The silicon (111) surface modifications with vinyl terminated organic compounds were investigated to form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and there after these surfaces were further functionalized. Acrylonitrile and vinylbenzophenone were employed for these studies. Ketone group of vinylbenzophenone anchored to Si surface demonstrated reactivity with reducing and oxidizing agents.
Interfacial Study of Copper Electrodeposition with the Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance (EQCM)
The electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) has been proven an effective mean of monitoring up to nano-scale mass changes related to electrode potential variations at its surface. The principles of operation are based on the converse piezoelectric response of quartz crystals to mass variations on the crystal surface. In this work, principles and operations of the EQCM and piezo-electrodes are discussed. A conductive oxide, ruthenium oxide (RuO2) is a promising material to be used as a diffusion barrier for metal interconnects. Characterization of copper underpotential deposition (UPD) on ruthenium and RuO2 electrodes by means of electrochemical methods and other spectroscopic methods is presented. Copper electrodeposition in platinum and ruthenium substrates is investigated at pH values higher than zero. In pH=5 solutions, the rise in local pH caused by the reduction of oxygen leads to the formation of a precipitate, characterized as posnjakite or basic copper sulfate by means of X-ray electron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The mechanism of formation is studied by means of the EQCM, presenting this technique as a powerful in-situ sensing device.
Interim Evaluation of the UNT/Dallas Public Schools Leadership Development Program: A Working Model
The purpose of this study was to determine if, after one year of operation, the UNT/Dallas Public Schools Leadership Development Program was progressing in accordance with the goals set out for the program. Questionnaires administered to 26 interns and 10 mentor principals and follow-up focus group interview sessions provided answers to the study's five research questions that explored the following: selection process; how interns' involvement in campus-based decision-making had changed; how mentor principals' perceptions toward interns had changed; and how administrative interns' perceptions of themselves and educational administration had changed. Findings from this study revealed the selection process provided the Dallas Public Schools an opportunity to select teacher-leaders from the district and to include a representative number of minority and women candidates for participation in the program. An area of weakness was seven interns with low GRE scores were admitted through an appeals process at the university. Another weakness revealed the majority of interns had been assigned more duties and responsibilities at the schools, but only 4 of 26 interns were being allowed to participate in any campus-based decision-making processes that could have an impact on school improvements. The study found the role of the mentor principal to be the most important factor in determining the satisfaction and success of the interns in the program. The embedded internship proved to be a disadvantage for the interns and principals, as the majority reported not having enough time to spend on administrative activities. Interns reported growth in personal and professional maturity and gained knowledge about the world of educational leadership. All 26 interns expressed the desire to become administrators in Dallas Public Schools upon completion of the program. Further research should include comparison studies between graduates of restructured programs and graduates of traditional programs to determine if there is a difference in school improvements and student achievement based upon the nature of the training of the school leader.
Intermediates for Paracyclophane Synthesis
It is proposed in this thesis that the imperfect systems of Cram and of Schubert be combined with some modifications.
An Internal Belief System: Variables that Influence Eighth-Grade Girls' Mathematics Achievement-Related Behaviors
The purposes of this study were to apply a model of achievement-related behaviors to a sample of eighth-grade girls and to ascertain whether this theoretical model continued to describe girls' internal beliefs regarding mathematics.
Internal Capital Market and Capital Misallocation: Evidence from Corporate Spinoffs
This study investigates the importance of reduced capital misallocation in explaining the gains in corporate spinoffs. The capital misallocation hypothesis asserts that the internal capital market of a diversified firm fails to meet the needs of the relatively low growth divisions for less investment and the needs of the relatively high growth divisions for more investment. Higher differences in growth opportunities imply that more capital is misallocated. This study finds that the higher the difference in growth opportunities of a diversified firm's businesses, the more likely the firm is to conduct a spinoff. This finding supports the argument that diversified firms conduct spinoffs to reduce capital misallocation. This study finds differences in managerial ownership of spinoff firms and of nonspinoff firms. This suggests that the misallocation of internal capital is an agency problem. A low management ownership stake, coupled with the existing differential in growth opportunities between parent and spunoff firms, leads to misallocation of internal capital, thus creating incentives for a spinoff. Spinoffs should result in a shift to the “right" investment policy and to better operating performance for both the parent and spunoff firms. This improvement in operating performance for the post-spinoff firms is expected to be higher when they are from highly different growth opportunity spinoffs. I find mixed evidence regarding market reaction, changes in investment policy, and changes in operating performance. The evidence that supports the capital misallocation hypothesis does not appear uniformly and consistently across the proxies for growth opportunities. However, there is evidence that both parent and spunoff firms benefit from a spinoff. The magnitude of the benefits is larger for spunoff firms than for parent firms. This is as expected because the capital misallocation problem may be reduced, but does not entirely disappear, in the parent firm.
Internal-external Locus of Control and Perception of Authority Figures
The purpose of the present study was to explore Internals' and Externals' characteristic perceptions of authority figures.
Internalizing-externalizing Psychopathology and Personality Pathology As Predictors of Treatment Rejection in Substance Users
Substance use disorders (SUDs) are often comorbid with other psychopathology such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and personality disorders. While some research suggests individuals with comorbid psychopathology are more likely to seek substance use treatment than those with independent disorders, other studies have also shown many individuals with dual diagnoses still never seek treatment. Moreover, few studies have tried to elucidate the underlying structure of SUD treatment rejection, and instead examined it in more simplistic terms. In addition, studies have tended to examine the impact of individual disorders on treatment rejection, but have not incorporated an empirically supported approach to conceptualizing psychopathology in terms of comorbidity between broad latent dimensions referred to as internalizing (e.g., depression, anxiety) and externalizing (e.g., antisocial personality disorder, polysubstance use) psychopathology. Modeling psychopathology in terms of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology is becoming a prominent approach to understanding mental disorders, yet little research to date has investigated the effects these broad dimensions have on SUD treatment rejection. The current study utilized latent variable modeling techniques to (1) determine the latent structure of SUD treatment rejection in a large U.S. sample, and investigate whether treatment rejection is a multidimensional construct; and (2), to explore the ability of internalizing psychopathology, externalizing psychopathology, and personality pathology to predict the SUD treatment rejection factor(s). The current study relied on use of a general population sample of 43,093 individuals from the first wave of National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) study. Support was found for the hypothesis that SUD treatment rejection would be a multidimensional construct.  Exploratory structural equation modeling indicated a three-factor model best fit the data. Operational definitions and clinical implications of these three treatment rejection factors ("Objective barriers," "Psychological barriers," and "Self-focused barriers") are discussed. Among internalizing psychopathology, externalizing psychopathology, and personality pathology, structural equation modeling identified internalizing psychopathology as the most robust predictor of these three factors for alcohol treatment rejection (n = 1063), indicating endorsement of treatment barriers increased as levels of internalizing psychopathology increased. This pattern also held true for externalizing psychopathology, while personality pathology only negatively predicted objective treatment barriers.  For drug treatment rejection (n = 562), only internalizing psychopathology significantly predicted the treatment rejection factors, indicating treatment endorsement of drug treatment barriers increased as levels of internalizing psychopathology increased. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.
International Distance Learning in Special Education: A Program Evaluation of a US-Ecuador Collaboration
The internationalization of distance learning in special education is at a pivotal point in expansion. Even with concerted efforts through traditional means to increase the supply of special educators, shortages persist; therefore, teacher preparation programs are turning to online education. This dissertation study was a formative program evaluation of a bilingual, two-course sequence within a web-based special education master's program offered at the University of North Texas (UNT), in Denton, Texas, and at the Universidad Casa Grande (UCG) in Guayaquil, Ecuador. The research design was based on the unfolding model of program evaluation, and it included mixed-methods of data collection. The model focused attention on (1) scientific evidence, (2) cost-benefit differential, (3) underlying values, and, (4) unintended consequences. Data came from archived documents as well as six semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and survey data from 23 student participants. The findings for the general-orientation course, Special Education Programs and Practices, revealed mixed results concerning multicultural awareness on the part of student participants. However, it seemed to have influenced their lesson design and made a difference in other areas. Some multicultural awareness concepts frequented the discussion board. The specialized course, Assistive Technology, which had more frequent communication between UNT and UCG on the discussion board, suggested larger increases in students' multicultural awareness. With respect to both courses, the stakeholders recommended that the structure be strengthened for non-bilingual instructors and students to be able to communicate more freely. Translation issues were a top priority in both courses. The study has implications for other international distance education programs.
International Economic Dependency and Human Development in Third World Countries
This study empirically tested the two competing development theories--modernization and dependency/world-system. Theoretical and methodological approaches suggested by these two paradigms offer opposing interpretations of the incorporation of the Third World countries into the world capitalist system. Therefore, they provide conflicting and, at times, confusing guidelines on the ways available to enhance the well-being of the general populations in these countries. To shed light on the subject matter, this study uses a few specific indicators of economic growth and human development by comparing the outcomes based on the two conflicting paradigms. The comparative process allows us to confirm the one theoretical approach that best explains human conditions in Third World settings. The study focuses on specific aspects of foreign domination--foreign investment, foreign trade, foreign debt, and the resulting disarticulated national economies. The main arguement, here, conveys the idea that as far as Third World countries are tied in an inescapable and unilaterally benefitial (to the core countries of course) economic and political relations, there will be no hope for any form of sustainable economic growth. Human well-being in Third World countries might very well depend on their ability to develop self-reliant economies with the least possible ties to the world capitalist system.
International Education Programs at Community Colleges in the State of Texas
This study examined international education (IE) programs in Texas community colleges to determine how they compare to a general, theoretical model of IE programs discussed in the literature. The study proposed: (a) to describe, through a review of literature, the components of IE; (b) to describe the administration of IE within the Texas community colleges; (c) to identify existing IE instructional activities; (d) to describe the student support services related to IE which are in practice; (e) to describe what community and out of country outreach components are in operation; and (f) to determine how the IE programs in Texas community colleges compare to theoretical components of IE programs as identified in the literature.
International Learning and the Diffusion of Civil Conflict
Why does civil conflict spread from country to country? Existing research relies primarily on explanations of rebel mobilization tied to geographic proximity to explain this phenomenon. However, this approach is unable to explain why civil conflict appears to spread across great geographic distances, and also neglects the government’s role in conflict. To explain this phenomenon, this dissertation formulates an informational theory in which individuals contemplating rebellion against their government, or “proto-rebels,” observe the success and failure of rebels throughout the international system. In doing so, proto-rebels and governments learn whether rebellion will be fruitful, which is then manifested in the timing of rebellion and repression. The core of the dissertation is composed of three essays. The first exhorts scholars of the international spread of civil violence to directly measure proto-rebel mobilization. I show that such mobilization is associated with conflicts across the entire international system, while the escalation to actual armed conflict is associated with regional conflicts. The second chapter theorizes that proto-rebels learn from successful rebellions across the international system. This relationship applies globally, although it is attenuated by cultural and regime-type similarity. Finally, the third chapter theorizes that governments are aware of this process and engage in repression in order to thwart it. I further argue that this repression is, in part, a function of the threat posed by those regimes founded by rebels.
The International Newcomer Academy: A Case Study
This initial investigation into the special program for English as a Second Language (ESL) students, the International Newcomer Academy (INA), examines and describes the nature of this new school in comparison with the nature of the Language Centers functioning in host schools as schools within schools. This study was prompted by the need to document perceptions, behaviors, and practices of all principal players, which might result in program improvement to benefit students. The primary goal for establishing this new school was to focus primarily on beginner limited English proficient (LEP) students so that the language centers would be relieved, and so do a better job of teaching intermediate and advanced LEP students.
International Peacekeeping Operations: Sinai, Congo, Cyprus, Lebanon, and Chad Lessons for the UN and OAU
Peacekeeping is a means by which international or regional organizations control conflict situations that are likely to endanger international peace and security. Most scholars have viewed the contributions of peacekeeping forces only in terms of failures, and they have not investigated fully the political-military circumstances" under which conflict control measures succeed. This dissertation is an attempt to bridge this gap and to show how the OAU compares with the UN in carrying out peacekeeping missions. The method of research was the case study method in which primary and secondary data was used to describe the situations in which six peacekeeping forces operated. The content of resolutions, official reports and secondary data were examined for non-trivial evidences of impediments to implementation of mandates. Findings from the research indicate that peacekeeping missions not properly backed by political efforts at settlement of disputes, cooperation of the superpowers, and financial and logistic support were ineffective and usually unsuccessful. Lack of consensus and pursuit of national interests have resulted in ambiguous or unrealistic mandates and have reduced the effectiveness of peacekeeping operations. Moreover, parties to a conflict were interested only in solutions that favored their interests and were often skeptical about the role and credibility of peacekeeping forces. But the continued violations of ceasefire agreements in defiance of the presence of peacekeeping forces were due partly to the force's inability to use force except in self-defense , Most of the forces operated under serious operational and logistical difficulties and they were inadequately funded. But none of the three factors has been responsible alone for the failure of peacekeeping missions. The coordination of UN operations has been better than that of the OAU. In civil war situations, national governments have requested peacekeeping forces because they could not, unaided, put down their opponents. The UN has deployed its forces only as a means of relaxing tensions while member-states have pursued other interests.
International police cooperation as a response to transnational organized crime in Europe: Improvements in extradition.
International criminality has been a challenging phenomenon for national police forces for years. States have developed international police cooperation relations and extradition instruments in order to fight international criminal activity. This treatise explores the reasons for the rise in transnational organized crime activities in Europe and presents an in-depth explanation concerning the emergence, mandates, and structures of multilateral police collaboration systems such as Interpol, Trevi, Schengen, and Europol. Since the extradition has become an inseparable part of international policing, this study examines the improvements in extradition procedure and emphasizes the importance of extradition. Finally this study compares traditional (European Convention on Extradition of 1957) and new (European Arrest Warrant) extradition systems.
International Tourism in Developing Nations: An Empirical Study
Theory: The literature on volume of tourism in developing nations, does not provide empirical measures necessary for rigorous hypotheses testing. While there have been ample studies on volume of tourism among developed nations, very little has been done regarding developing nations. Several theories from the dependency school, world systems and modernization offer theoretical explanations, but these explanations have not been adequately translated into empirical models, for studying the volume of tourism. Hypotheses: To improve the ability to explain volume of tourism and to identify the factors that affect the volume of tourism in developing countries, the study tests four hypotheses based on the theories of Modernization, World System and Push- Pull. Methodology: The study uses Confirmatory Factor Analysis to examine the factors that are likely to influence the volume of tourism. Shift Share analysis is also used to study regional variations in volume of tourism. Findings: The study found support for the fact that aspects of modernization are some of the most important determinants of volume of tourism. This finding has policy implications for developing nations trying to encourage tourism as an important economic sector. Shift Share analysis revealed that in the last decade Sub - Saharan Africa, East Asia Pacific and the Middle East have seen an increase in the volume of tourism compared to other developing regions of the world.
Internet and U.S. citizen militias
Smelser's theory of collective behavior holds that people join radical social movements because they experience strain. Among the most serious strains are anxieties that relate to one's social status and the roles that correspond to it. A social movement arises as a means of coping with these anxieties. Militia presence and activity on the Internet (especially Usenet) is a phenomenon that can be studied within the framework of Smelser's theory. Militia watchers contend that those who join the militias have experienced the kinds of strain to which Smelser refers. A content analysis of Internet traffic of U.S. militias provides a test of the general thesis outlined above. By analyzing Internet sites it is possible to examine whether militiamen have experienced strain, and whether the strain, together with other factors, influence an individual's decision to join the militia. This dissertation was the first sociological study of American militias on the Internet and the first in which militias from all regions of the country was studied. Information was gathered on 171 militiamen who joined 28 militias. A qualitative analysis of militia web sites and Usenet traffic (n=1,189 online documents) yielded answers to seven research questions. Most militiamen studied experienced some form of stress or strain prior to joining the militia. Within this context, three generalized beliefs arose to help explain this stress among those militiamen. Bureau of Alcohol, Firearms and Tobacco (BATF) raids at Ruby Ridge, Idaho and Waco, Texas were mentioned most often as movement precipitants. Based on the militiamen studied, the militia movement was Internet-driven, although a number of alternative media played a joint role in movement mobilization. On the basis of the cases studied, increased social control following the Oklahoma City bombing affected the direction of the movement as many militias went underground. Yet, Usenet traffic by and about militiamen rose significantly. Constitutionalism was the primary philosophical orientation of the militias in this dissertation; however, Christian Identity militias were growing in number and visibility.
Internet Health Information and Patient-health Professional Relationship
The purpose of this study was to investigate patient use and presentation of Internet health information and its effect on patient-health professional relationship from a sample of residents at active adult communities in Texas. Five sites were used to recruit the 260 participants between November 2012 and January 2013. The data were received using a self-administered survey. Using Cronbach’s alpha, logistic regression and regression analysis through SAS, the data revealed that older respondents are less likely to discuss web-based information with health professionals. In addition, logistic regression analysis indicated that four of the variables, IHI Sharing, educational status (bachelor degree), marital status (married), and perceived health status (excellent and very good health) predicted varied of the 20 indicators making up the patient-health professional relationship scale. Further studies are needed to enhance this research.
Internet Use Among African American College Students: Psychosocial Correlates of the Digital Divide
An exploratory study was conducted examining Internet usage among African-American college students. The study examined both psychosocial correlates, including technological anxiety and racial identity as well as socioeconomic measures, as they impacted Internet usage. Additionally, three distinct measures of Internet usage, thin access, thick access and the Internet Connectedness Index (ICI), were used as criterion variables in three separate multiple regression analysis (MRA) models. The results of the study found differences in predictive validity based on the criterion variable used, with the ICI accounting for the greatest amount of variance (54%). Racial identity, in terms of internal beliefs and feelings about being African American and internalization of Afrocentric values in a political context were found to be predictive of Internet usage as measured by the ICI.
Interorganizational Relationships: The Effects of Organizational Efficacy on Member Firm Performance
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Relationships between the collective actors within interorganizational relationships are a growing area of research in management. Interorganizational networks continue to be a popular mechanism used by organizations to achieve greater performance. Organizations develop competencies to work with other organizations, but the confidence of these organizations to use these strengths for a competitive advantage has yet to be empirically examined. The purpose of this study is to examine organizational efficacy, how competencies may related to that efficacy, and the relationship of efficacy with performance. The goal of this study is to observe the relationship among trust, dependence, information quality, continuous quality improvement, and supplier flexibility with organizational efficacy. In addition, the relationship between organizational efficacy and performance is also observed. There are two primary research questions driving this study. First, what is the relationship between trust, dependence, information quality, continuous quality improvement, supplier flexibility and organizational efficacy? Second, what is the relationship between organizational efficacy and performance? The theories supporting the hypotheses generated from these questions include theories such as social cognitive theory, quality improvement, and path-goal theory. Data collected from the suppliers of a large university support the hypotheses. Regression analysis and structure coefficients were used to analyze the data. Results indicate that both research question one and research question two are supported. In addition, the theoretical model as a whole, which indicates a mediating relationship, was examined and discussed. This study contributes to both academic and practice by examining efficacy in an interorganizational setting. In addition, as organizations better understand the relationship between competencies and confidence, they will better know how to collectively work to achieve greater results with more attention being placed on monitoring the relationship in order to experience more desired outcomes. Limitations of the current study and opportunities for future research are also discussed.
Interpersonal Decentering and Psychopathology in a University Clinic Sample
This study examined the relationship between interpersonal decentering and symptoms of psychopathology among 48 clients from the Psychology Clinic at the University of North Texas. The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R®) instrument were administered to clients along with demographic packets. Interpersonal decentering was assessed using Melvin Feffer's Interpersonal Decentering Scoring System for the TAT. It was hypothesized that higher scores of global symptom severity would be associated with lower scores of interpersonal decentering. Higher scores of paranoid ideation, psychoticism, and hostility were also hypothesized to be associated with lower scores of interpersonal decentering. Results did not support these hypotheses. However, exploratory analyses revealed a significant correlation between higher scores of phobic anxiety and lower scores of interpersonal decentering. Results also provided information regarding the three methods for calculating interpersonal decentering summary scores.
Interpersonal Factors Related to the Pursuit of a Higher Education Among First Generation Undergraduate Students
The typical educational stressors experienced by college students, in conjunction with developmental stressors such as separation from parents, individuation, and perceived social support, can interact to impact adaptation significantly. First generation college students (students who are the first in their family to attend college) can experience stressors beyond the typical educational stressors experienced by later generation college students, including lack of support from family and peers as well as financial difficulties that can interact to impact the pursuit of an education beyond the undergraduate level. The present study examined factors that may be especially influential in the pursuit of a higher education for first generation college students. Results indicated that aspects of family enmeshment were related to academic motivation for first generation students, but not for later generation students. Exploratory analysis showed that family and finances were mentioned more often among first generation students when compared to later generation students as stressors that strongly influence the desire to continue beyond the undergraduate level.
Interpersonal Perception and Communication within Marital Dyads
The present study examined the relationships among similarity, interpersonal perception and communicative behaviors in marriage. It was hypothesized that greater understanding, feelings of being understood, and realization of understanding would be associated with greater self-disclosure, use of more direct person control strategies, and use of less attention control strategies. It was further hypothesized that measuring feelings of being understood and realization of understanding, in addition to measuring understanding, would improve prediction of behavior. Finally, it was hypothesized that the contextual measure of understanding would better predict self-disclosure and interpersonal control than would global measures of understanding.
Interpersonal Preception: the Accuracy of First Impressions and Attitude Change as a Function of Self-Image and Age Similarities
It is the intent of this study to investigate an aspect of the accuracy of first impressions and the stability of attitudes formed on the basis of these impressions. The study of first impressions and their influence on behavior is one aspect of the general topic of person perception.
Interpersonal Responsiveness as a Function of Self-Concept
This study considers the relationship between scores on the "Experimental Draw-A-Group Projective Technique for Measuring Interpersonal Responsivenesss" (DAG), and self-concept as indicated by scores on the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS). The study assumes a significantly positive relationship between interpersonal responsiveness and self-concept. The study further seeks to establish sound empirical data to justify the use of the DAG scale in the research of self-concept.
An Interpretation of the Theme of Snopesism in the Work of William Faulkner
Ever since the publication of the novel Sartoria, members of a strange new breed of people by the name of Snopes have appeared in every Faulkner novel and short story which constitutes a part of what is called the Yoknapatawpha chronicle. Heretofore, it has been popular to support the thesis that the Snopeses represented the embodiment of crass commercialism, the inevitable replacement for the dying cotton aristocracy, and the direct retribution for the sins that had caused the downfall of these degenerate Southern gentry. This thesis will attempt to show, not that such a contention is wholly wrong, but that the real meaning of Snopesism lies much deeper than this, far beyond such a simple interpretation.
An Interpretation of Various Aspects of Dualism as Found in the Art of Africa and China
The purpose of this study is to endeavor to interpret these various aspects of dualism through an analysis of selected examples of art from two cultural areas, Africa and China.
The Interpretations of the Concept of "Inclusion" Held by Key Policy Makers, Policy Drivers and Policy Implementers Concerned with Service Delivery to Special Education Students in Texas Urban Public School Settings
The purpose of this study was to examine concepts of "inclusion" held by policy drivers (PD), policy makers (PM) and policy implementers (PI) from various national organizations, state agencies and school districts. Interviews were conducted with 14 informants, and responses recorded, transcribed and clustered according to patterns of language. Documents provided by informants were reviewed. A Likert-type questionnaire was developed, grounded in patterns of language used in interviews and documents. Descriptive and inferential statistics identified variance between and within groups. Of 430 questionnaires sent, 266 were returned. Factor analysis of 29 items yielded 5 factors (definition of inclusion, training and support, receptivity, benefits/barriers, and prerequisites). One way analysis of variance, tests for homogeneity and multiple range tests were performed. Patterns of understanding of inclusion were clarified, and interpretations and conclusions were drawn. Significant variance was found among PD, PM, and PI on 3 of 5 factors (benefits/barriers, prerequisites, receptivity) with the greatest variance being between PD and PI. The most significant variance among 8 school districts occurred with factor 1 (benefits/barriers of inclusion). Informants' degree of support for inclusion was frequently not reflective of the organizations they represented. All groups associated inclusion with attitudes and beliefs, rather than with actions or programs. By describing patterns of definitions and critical attributes of inclusion, the development and implementation of educational policy relating to students with disabilities may be facilitated. Observed variations in how inclusion is philosophically and operationally defined may play a critical role in the implementation of inclusionary practices. The language used by informants reflects barriers to successful implementation of inclusion, as well as possible solutions. Variance between policy drivers, policy makers and policy implementers, as well as between individuals and their respective organizations may have implications for the evolution and development of educational policy.
Interpreting Industrial Arts in the School-Community
The purpose of this study is threefold: (1) to review the literature concerning school interpretation programs and the industrial arts phase of the public relations program based upon research studies, opinions and recommendations of leaders in education and industrial arts education; (2) to gather data concerning current practices used in the industrial arts departments during the year 1953-1954; and (3) to analyze the data in order to determine whether the current practice of industrial arts interpretation coincide with the interpretation program recommended by leaders in the field of education.
Interpreting Prehistoric Patterns: Site Catchment Analysis in the Upper Trinity River Basin of North Central Texas
Archaeologically site catchment analysis produces valuable information regarding prehistoric subsistence strategies and social organization. Incorporating archaeological data into catchment analyses is an effective strategy to develop regional models of prehistoric site selection and settlement patterns. Digital access to data permits the incorporation of multiple layers of information into the process of synthesizing regional archaeology and interpreting corresponding spatial patterning. GIS software provides a means to integrate digital environmental and archaeological data into an effective tool. Resultant environmental archaeology maps facilitate interpretive analysis. To fulfill the objectives of this thesis, GIS software is employed to construct site catchment areas for archaeological sites and to implement multivariate statistical analyses of physical and biological attributes of catchments in correlation with assemblage data from sites. Guided by ecological, anthropological and geographical theories hypotheses testing evaluates patterns of prehistoric socio-economic behavior. Analytical results are summarized in a model of prehistoric settlement patterns in North Central Texas.
Interpreting Richard Strauss's Der Krämerspiegel from the perspectives of the performers and the audience.
The purpose of this document is to examine Richard Strauss's 1918 song cycle Der Krämerspiegel in order to discern compositional intent and to address problems performers may face in communicating the work to a contemporary audience. Examining the existing literature, it is never clearly stated why Strauss composed such an anomalous song cycle that defied aesthetic and generic norms of the day. The premise taken in this study is that Strauss, who was litigiously forced to write the work in order to fulfill a contract with the publisher Bote & Bock, composed certain difficulties into the cycle to make it less marketable and thus less profitable for the firm. Furthermore, he commissioned a text that lampooned the publishing industry in general and certain firms and individuals in particular. Following a brief history of Strauss's involvement with the publishing industry, general considerations for interpretation are examined. The individual songs are then explored, keeping in mind the text's word play and parody, Strauss's use of self-quotation, and the challenges performers and audiences face when confronting Krämerspiegel. Finally, the individual songs are explored, and suggestions for preparation and performance of Krämerspiegel are given suggesting a more operatic understanding of the piece, especially given the cycle's relationship to Strauss's opera Der Rosenkavalier.
An Interpretive Analysis of George Antheil's Sonata for Trumpet and Piano
American composer George Antheil's Sonata for Trumpet and Piano was written in 1951. This dissertation provides historical and theoretical information that gives insight into the interpretation of this sonata. Reasons why the piece deserves greater attention with respect to the standard twentieth century trumpet literature are also given. Antheil's music was influential in the development of classical music in the first half of the 20th century and, more specifically, contributed to the establishment of an American style of classical music. Composed near the end of his life, this sonata has its roots in this heritage. The understanding of Antheil's history, motivations, and compositional techniques is intended to help bring a performance of this sonata to its full potential.
An Interpretive Approach to Two Wind Partitas of Franz Vincent Krommer: Partita in F, Op. 57 (1808) and Partita in E-flat, Op. 79 (1810), A Lecture Recital : Together with Three Recitals of Selected Works of Stravinsky, Hanson, Martin Mailman, Holst and Walton
An interpretive approach to performing two works by Franz Krommer for wind ensemble. Including a short history of Harmoniemusik, with origins, development, and chronology of the instruments and repertoire, the roles of "better-known" composers of Harmoniemusik, and its importance in both general music history and history of the wind band. An account of known biographical detail concerning Franz Krommer, his life, his musical involvement and career in Europe, and his place in music history. An overview of his compositions for wind groups other than the Harmoniemusik, including his symphonic music and concertos. Detailed analyses of the two octet-partitas, Partita in F, Op. 57 and Partita in E-flat, Op. 79, with discussion of thematic, harmonic, melodic, articulation, and formal characteristics illustrated through score examples. Examination of issues for a conductor to consider when approaching a performance of these works such as instrumentation (modern vs. period instruments, selecting 16-foot instrument), taking (or not taking) repeats with respect to form, interpreting articulations, determining metronomic tempos, ensemble balance, and style based on wind music of the Classical period. Also, how this music can (and why it should) be used by wind conductors as both a teaching supplement and a compositional model for pieces from the Classical period. Conclusion includes a call for further research on Krommer and his works.
Interpretive performance techniques and lyrical innovations on the bass trombone: A study of recorded performances by George Roberts, "Mr. Bass Trombone."
Nicknamed "Mr. Bass Trombone" for his role as a prominent, trailblazing recording artist, George Roberts (b. 1928) has often been recognized as redefining the role of the bass trombone in popular music as well as setting new standards for technical refinement and expressive possibilities of the instrument. Through two interviews and a comparison between ten recorded performances by Roberts and corresponding lead sheets, I make observations about Roberts' performance techniques and illustrate various examples of those techniques. The document includes 35 pp. of interview transcriptions.
The Interrelatedness of Student Teachers' Temperament Traits, Their Attitudes toward Youth, and Their Teacher-Pupil Interpersonal Problems
The present study is an investigation into the interrelatedness of student teachers' temperament traits, their attitudes toward youth, as measured by appropriate testing instruments, and the interpersonal teacher-pupil problems encountered by the respondents during their student teaching experience.