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Transgenerational Patterns of Adult Attachment Relationships

Transgenerational Patterns of Adult Attachment Relationships

Date: June 1996
Creator: Merck, Rhea Ann M.
Description: The purpose of the study is to examine adult attachment relationships among a group of college students and their parents. Two attachment hypotheses were tested: The mental model hypothesis for attachments with parents and romantic partners and the compensation hypothesis for attachment with God. Hypothesis 1 attempted to determine if there was agreement between parents and children about a self-reported attachment style. Support was found as students and parents had a significantly higher level of agreement when reporting a secure style of attachment between them, with sons being significantly highest. Hypothesis 2 examined agreement on attachment style between generations: Children's report of attachments to parents and parents' report of attachment to their parents. Results indicated that parents' reporting a secure style of attachment to their parents was significantly higher with their same gender parents. Hypothesis 3 produced two 15 x 15 correlation matrices including measures of romantic attachment and religiousness for children and parents. In general, further validity for measures used is provided in numerous expected correlations. Anxious and avoidant romantic attachment styles and desperate love were significantly positively related and were often negatively related to a secure style of attachment. Results indicate significant relationships between fathers' and children's (particularly ...
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A Machine Learning Method Suitable for Dynamic Domains

A Machine Learning Method Suitable for Dynamic Domains

Date: July 1996
Creator: Rowe, Michael C. (Michael Charles)
Description: The efficacy of a machine learning technique is domain dependent. Some machine learning techniques work very well for certain domains but are ill-suited for other domains. One area that is of real-world concern is the flexibility with which machine learning techniques can adapt to dynamic domains. Currently, there are no known reports of any system that can learn dynamic domains, short of starting over (i.e., re-running the program). Starting over is neither time nor cost efficient for real-world production environments. This dissertation studied a method, referred to as Experience Based Learning (EBL), that attempts to deal with conditions related to learning dynamic domains. EBL is an extension of Instance Based Learning methods. The hypothesis of the study related to this research was that the EBL method would automatically adjust to domain changes and still provide classification accuracy similar to methods that require starting over. To test this hypothesis, twelve widely studied machine learning datasets were used. A dynamic domain was simulated by presenting these datasets in an uninterrupted cycle of train, test, and retrain. The order of the twelve datasets and the order of records within each dataset were randomized to control for order biases in each of ten runs. ...
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Spatiotemporal Properties of Coupled Nonlinear Oscillators

Spatiotemporal Properties of Coupled Nonlinear Oscillators

Date: July 1996
Creator: Chen, Ding
Description: Spatiotemporal properties of classical coupled nonlinear oscillators are investigated in this thesis. Chapter 1 gives an introduction to nonlinear lattices and to the concept of breathers, that are spatially localized and temporally periodic excitation in nonlinear lattices. The concept of anti-continuous limit that provides the basic methodology in probing spatiotemporal breather properties is discussed. In Chapter 2, the general approach for finding exact breather solutions from the anti-continuous limit is examined, and the rotating wave approximation(RWA) is applied to probe the spatial structure of static breathers. Numerical evidence reveals that the RWA relates the spatial structure of stable multi-breathers to a single breather of the same frequency. Chapter 3 presents linear stability analysis of static breathers and gives a systematic way to construct mobile breathers. Formation and collision properties of this moving breathers are also studied. Chapter 4 discusses dynamics of kinks and anti-kinks in hydrogen-bonded chains in the context of two-component soliton model. From molecular dynamics simulations with finite temperature, it is observed that, in a real system (eg. ice), a pair of kink and anti-kink can evolve into a moving-breather-like excitation. Chapter 5 is devoted to the understand of the effects of disorder in the Holstein model. The ...
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Acculturation in African American College Women and Correlates of Eating Disorders

Acculturation in African American College Women and Correlates of Eating Disorders

Date: August 1996
Creator: Lester, Regan
Description: Although eating disorders have been the focus of much research, the inclusion of minority populations has been minimal. A recent review of the literature by Dolan (1991) has found that eating disorders were most likely to be present in non-White women who were exposed to Western societies and cultures. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine personality, physical, and cultural correlates of bulimic symptomatology in a sample of African American college women. The Bulimia Test Revised (BULIT-R) was used to assess bulimia symptoms. The African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS), the Beliefs about Attractiveness Scale Revised (BAAR factors 1 and 2), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), the Centers for Epidemiological Depression Scale (CES-D), Body Parts Satisfaction Scale (BPSS), and body mass were the independent variables hypothesized to predict bulimic symptoms. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that body mass, depression, and low self-esteem were the best predictors of bulimic symptomatology, together accounting for 38% of the variance. Beliefs about attractiveness and body satisfaction were related to bulimic symptoms but not when considered simultaneously with the other variables. Acculturation was not predictive of bulimic symptoms. 0-ordered correlations revealed that beliefs about attractiveness and body satisfaction were correlated with bulimic symptoms. Acculturation was ...
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Adult Discouragement: Parents of Children with Craniofacial Anomaly

Adult Discouragement: Parents of Children with Craniofacial Anomaly

Date: August 1996
Creator: Jones, Melissa Taylor Watson
Description: The Discouragement Scale for Adults (DSA) was developed to assess for the Adlerian construct of discouragement in adults age 18 years and over. Data were collected from three samples: norm (n=586), presumed discouraged (n=47), and parents of children with craniofacial anomaly (n=105). Five subscales corresponding to life tasks identified in Adlerian literature as work, love, society, self-significance, and spirituality underlie the 60 item DSA. Item selection was based on ratings by five notable Adlerians and item correlations with scale scores. Gender, age, and ethnicity norms were established for the norm, presumed discouraged, and craniofacial samples. Across three samples, no significant ethnic differences were found. Normative findings indicated females are less discouraged than males on the Total DSA, the society and spirituality subscales. Age findings indicated the 18-34 year old sample is more discouraged than other ages on the Total DSA, the work, society, and spirituality subscales. Presumed discouraged findings indicated females are less discouraged than males on the society subscale. Craniofacial findings indicated females are less discouraged on the society subscale, but more discouraged on the self-significance subscale than males. Age findings indicated the 18-34 year old sample is more discouraged than other ages on the self subscale. Research on ...
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The Affects of Religiosity on Anomie

The Affects of Religiosity on Anomie

Date: August 1996
Creator: Wilson, Dwain R.
Description: This study explores the relationship between religion and anomie. The theoretical framework of Durkheim and Merton was used to suggest the hypothetical relationship between the two variables: as religiosity increases, anomie decreases. A secondary analysis was conducted using the 1991 General Social Survey (GSS). The GSS is one of the largest annual surveys conducted by the National Opinion Research Center. There were 1517 adult respondents composing the 1991 cross-national sample. Questions measuring both the belief and action dimensions of religion were used to measure respondents' level of religiosity. Questions from the Srole Scale of Anomia were used to measure respondents' level of anomia. Durkheim's theory that religion functions to integrate individuals into the larger society and therefore diminish levels of anomie was not supported with this data. While the lack of significant findings did not support the theory, neither did it disprove it. The hypothetical inverse relationship between class and anomie was supported with this data. Another hypothetical relationship, that of the most religious, women experience less anomie than men, was also not supported due to the lack of a significant relationship among the primary variables. Continued use of comprehensive and large scale surveys such as the General Social Survey ...
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An Analysis of the Incremental Information Gain in Combining Economic, Socio-Political, and Joint-Decision Characterizations in a Study of Accounting Choice: the Case of SFAS 106

An Analysis of the Incremental Information Gain in Combining Economic, Socio-Political, and Joint-Decision Characterizations in a Study of Accounting Choice: the Case of SFAS 106

Date: August 1996
Creator: Baker, Pamela Smith (Pamela Smith Elaine)
Description: Typical accounting studies attempting to explain accounting method choice employ positive theoretical hypotheses and test for association between adoption method or adoption timing and economic measures that focus upon specific firm stakeholders. Such studies addressing the adoption and impact of SFAS 87, "Employer's Accounting for Pensions," yield mixed and contradicting results. Various researchers have suggested that traditional economic analysis often fails to capture important explanatory variables and is far too simplistic. The purpose of this study is to expand analysis by evaluating a particular accounting choice by means of three different characterizations. SFAS 106, "Employers' Accounting for Postretirement Benefits Other than Pensions," allows management to choose between two very different methods of adopting the standard. The principal question explored in this study is: why did managers of firms that employ defined benefit postretirement plans for benefits other than pensions choose to adopt SFAS 106 using a particular method? The research question is explored by means of three different characterizations: 1) a traditional economic characterization; 2) a sociopolitical characterization); and 3) a joint decision characterization. Logit methodology is used with method of SFAS 106 adoption as the binary dependent variable of interest. Results indicate that all three characterizations are important in ...
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Assessing Maternal Functioning in Families of Children with Autism

Assessing Maternal Functioning in Families of Children with Autism

Date: August 1996
Creator: Oizumi, Joelle J. (Joelle Julienne)
Description: Mothers and siblings of children with autism incur stressors that impact their well-being more adversely than mothers of children with ADHD or normally developing children. In Study 1, twenty-six mothers of children with autism (Group 1) were compared to 24 mothers of children with ADHD (Group 2) and 24 mothers with normally developing children (Group 3). All families included a normally developing child (ages 4 to 12). Measures to delineate levels of maternal functioning were administered. Results for Study 1 indicated that mothers of children with autism had higher levels of psychological symptomatology, higher parenting stress, poorer perceptions of their family environment and their ability to parent the siblings, and higher perceptions of internalized problems of the siblings than mothers with normally developing children. These findings support the literature stating that mothers of children with autism may experience increased levels of maternal stress. The reciprocal nature of the parent-child relationship suggests that parents should be involved in meeting the needs of siblings in these families. A subgroup of Group 1 mothers participated in a parent group that occurred simultaneously with a sibling group. Mothers were randomly assigned to participate in a parent/sibling group, a sibling only group, or a wait-list ...
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Automatic Speech Recognition Using Finite Inductive Sequences

Automatic Speech Recognition Using Finite Inductive Sequences

Date: August 1996
Creator: Cherri, Mona Youssef, 1956-
Description: This dissertation addresses the general problem of recognition of acoustic signals which may be derived from speech, sonar, or acoustic phenomena. The specific problem of recognizing speech is the main focus of this research. The intention is to design a recognition system for a definite number of discrete words. For this purpose specifically, eight isolated words from the T1MIT database are selected. Four medium length words "greasy," "dark," "wash," and "water" are used. In addition, four short words are considered "she," "had," "in," and "all." The recognition system addresses the following issues: filtering or preprocessing, training, and decision-making. The preprocessing phase uses linear predictive coding of order 12. Following the filtering process, a vector quantization method is used to further reduce the input data and generate a finite inductive sequence of symbols representative of each input signal. The sequences generated by the vector quantization process of the same word are factored, and a single ruling or reference template is generated and stored in a codebook. This system introduces a new modeling technique which relies heavily on the basic concept that all finite sequences are finitely inductive. This technique is used in the training stage. In order to accommodate the variabilities ...
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Career Paths of Board-Certified Clinical Specialists in Geriatric Physical Therapy with Implications for Higher Education

Career Paths of Board-Certified Clinical Specialists in Geriatric Physical Therapy with Implications for Higher Education

Date: August 1996
Creator: Thompson, Mary E., 1958-
Description: Geriatric board-certified specialists (GCSs) address health care needs of the growing geriatric population. The study's purposes were to: examine career paths of GCSs, identify influencing factors, and explore implications for higher education. Twelve of 14 original 1992 GCSs participated. Data included document collection and interviews. Using a qualitative methodology, commonalities were sought among individuals and HyperRESEARCH software was used for data management. The participants were adventurous, valued education, and were enthusiastic about physical therapy (PT), geriatrics, and specialization. Their career path began with choosing PT as a career, professional education, and their first job. One GCS moved directly into geriatrics. Others went to different settings before geriatrics. As participants recognized they "fit" in geriatrics, they pursued postprofessional education to increase knowledge before choosing board certification. In choosing PT, volunteer experience and personal research were common influences. In choosing to work with elders, influences throughout life gradually built a social context supporting the decision. GCSs chose specialist certification to assist in professionalization of geriatric PT, because they were highly skilled, for career advancement, and for self professionalization. Specialist certification had few financial consequences. Participants gained friends and professional networks. They experienced improved patient care, increased educational opportunities, and/or increased professional service. ...
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