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The Influence of National Styles on the Compositions of Pauline Viardot
Unlike other song composers of the 19th century, Pauline Viardot wrote in many languages and national styles. Her songs, "Haï Luli!," "In der Frühe," "Morirò," "La nuit monte/ Già la notte," "Canción de la Infanta," "Юноша и дьва," "Le Rêve de Jésus," are examples of Viardot's ability to compose in many languages and national styles.
The Influence of Negro Slavery on Emerson's Concept of Freedom
A study of the influence of Negro slavery on Emerson's concept of freedom.
The Influence of Ohmic Metals and Oxide Deposition on the Structure and Electrical Properties of Multilayer Epitaxial Graphene on Silicon Carbide Substrates
Graphene has attracted significant research attention for next generation of semiconductor devices due to its high electron mobility and compatibility with planar semiconductor processing. In this dissertation, the influences of Ohmic metals and high dielectric (high-k) constant aluminum oxide (Al2O3) deposition on the structural and electrical properties of multi-layer epitaxial graphene (MLG) grown by graphitization of silicon carbide (SiC) substrates have been investigated. Uniform MLG was successfully grown by sublimation of silicon from epitaxy-ready, Si and C terminated, 6H-SiC wafers in high-vacuum and argon atmosphere. The graphene formation was accompanied by a significant enhancement of Ohmic behavior, and, was found to be sensitive to the temperature ramp-up rate and annealing time. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) showed that the interface between the metal and SiC remained sharp and free of macroscopic defects even after 30 min, 1430 °C anneals. The impact of high dielectric constant Al2O3 and its deposition by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering on the structural and electrical properties of MLG is discussed. HRTEM analysis confirms that the Al2O3/MLG interface is relatively sharp and that thickness approximation of the MLG using angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) as well as variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) is accurate. The totality of results indicate that ARXPS can be used as a nondestructive tool to measure the thickness of MLG, and that RF sputtered Al2O3 can be used as a (high-k) constant gate oxide in multilayer grapheme based transistor applications.
The Influence of Parental Conflict on Late Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Support
The question addressed in this study is whether either parent's conflict style affected the supportive quality of the parents' relationship with the son or daughter. It was important to explore variables that affect support because supportive relationships with parents have been related to adolescent adjustment. Past studies have suggested parental conflict has a negative impact on the parent-adolescent relationship. Research in the area of mediators of perceived support in the parent-adolescent relationships is limited. This study focused on perceived support in the specific relationship of the parent and adolescent. Qualitative measures of conflict were used since they have been more strongly related to changes in parent-adolescent relationships than quantitative measures. In this study the supportive quality of the parent-adolescent relationship was operationalized as a measure of parental support, depth of the parent-adolescent relationship, and conflict in the parent-adolescent relationship (Quality of Relationship Inventory).
Influence of parental swimming stamina on the cardiac and metabolic performance of larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).
Superior swimming stamina in adult fish is presumably passed on to their offspring, but the ontogeny of the appearance of superior stamina and the requisite enhanced cardio-respiratory support for locomotion in larval fishes has not been determined. Is the expression of the suite of parental traits enabling superior swimming stamina in their offspring dependent upon their achieving juvenile/adult morphology, or does it appear earlier in their larvae? To answer this, adults were classified into three groups based on swimming stamina, followed by measurement of length, mass, and width. Larval offspring from the two parental groups -high stamina larvae (HSL) and low stamina larvae (LSL)- were reared at 27°C in aerated water (21% O2). Routine and active heart rate, routine and active mass specific oxygen consumption were recorded through 21dpf, and cost of transport (COT) and factorial aerobic scope were derived from oxygen consumption measurements. Routine heart rate at 2dpf of LSL was 164 ± 1 b·min-1, compared to only 125 ± 2 b·min-1 for HSL. Routine heart rate subsequently peaked at 203 ± 1 b·min-1 at 5dpf in the HSL group, compared to 207 ± 1 b·min-1, at 4dpf in the LSP larvae. Active heart rate at 5 dpf of LSL was 218 ± 2 b·min-1 compared to 216 ± 2 b·min-1 for HSL. Active heart rate increased slightly to 227 ± 2 b·min-1 for LSL before decreasing again, while active heart rate remained relatively constant for HSL. Routine O2 consumption at 2dpf of HSL was 0.09 μmol·mg-1·hr-1, compared to 0.03 μmol·mg-1·hr-1 in LSL. Routine O2 consumption subsequently peaked at 0.70 μmol·mg-1·hr-1 at 9dpf in the HSL, compared to 0.71 μmol·mg-1·hr-1, at 9dpf in the LSL. These values dramatically decreased before leveling off at around 0.20 μmol·mg-1·hr-1 and 0.15 μmol·mg-1·h-1, respectively. Active O2 consumption at 5dpf for HSL was 0.38 μmol·mg-1·hr-1, compared to 0.57 μmol·mg-1·hr-1 for LSL. Active O2 consumption subsequently peaked at 0.97 μmol·mg-1·hr-1 at 10dpf in HSL, compared to 1.19 μmol·mg-1·hr-1 at 7dpf in LSL. These values also dramatically decreased and leveled off. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in heart rate and oxygen consumption persisted through 21dpf. The onset of differences observed in routine and active heart rate in early larvae, correlated with parent stamina, show that juvenile or adult features are not required as a precondition for the emergence of phenotypic physiological differences.
The Influence of Perceived Career Barriers on College Women's Career Planning
Research has indicated that balancing work and family is on the minds of college-age women long before they are married. At the same time, women continue to choose occupations that do not fully utilize their abilities and often fail to follow their original career goals. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of perceived career barriers and supports on young women's career planning. Utilizing Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) and recent literature as a basis, this study conceptualized career goals using the two constructs career salience and career aspirations. Based on information garnered in this student's thesis and on studies examining pathways in the SCCT model, the current study used a hierarchical regression model and hypothesized that barriers related to work and family conflict and sex discrimination would have the most impact on the career aspirations and career salience of young women. Career supports were hypothesized to add significantly to the prediction of these variables, and coping self-efficacy for these types of barriers were hypothesized to depend on the level of these types of barriers perceived and the interaction effect was in turn expected to add significantly to the prediction of career aspirations and career salience. None of the hypotheses were supported in predicting career salience. Career aspirations were found to be predicted by barriers other than those hypothesized, career supports were found to add significant variance, and coping self-efficacy for work and family conflict was found to have a unique, unpredicted relationship with career aspirations. Implications of the findings are discussed as are suggestions for directions of new research utilizing SCCT.
The Influence of Perceived Support From Parental and Peer Relationships on Students' Health-related Beliefs and Behaviors
College is an important time for young adults, but most college students fail to meet the daily recommendations for physical activity. Social support is associated with positive health practices, but limited research is available on the role of perceived support from specific relationships, (e.g., peers and parents). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of perceived support from parental and peer relationships on health-related beliefs and behaviors. Participants (N = 333) completed the Quality of Relationships Inventory, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Satisfaction With Life scale, and a short version of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire. While highly active students did not necessarily have more socially support relationships, females self-reported more conflict with both parents and more depth and support with a special person in their life than males, and parental and peer relationships appeared to be a greater influence on females' perceptions of satisfaction and self-worth.
Influence of Physically Active Leisure Participation on Obesity in Youth with Spina Bifida
Childhood obesity and resulting secondary complications in youth with disabilities are occurring in epidemic proportions, due in part to a trend of physical inactivity. The purpose of this study is to report the prevalence of overweight, the leisure time activity patterns, and the association between frequency of physically active leisure participation and body mass index for age, in a sample of 50 youth with spina bifida, ages 4.5 to 17.9 years. Results indicate that 52% of the sample are classified as at risk of overweight or overweight; 36% were male and 16% were female. The top five leisure time activities and team sport participation are identified. Subjects who did not use a wheelchair for ambulation participated significantly more in physically active leisure than subjects who used a wheelchair. Future research and rationale for physically active leisure as an intervention for youth with spina bifida are discussed.
Influence of pre and post testing on return on investment calculations in training and development.
When expenses become an issue, training is often one of the first budget items to be cut. There have been a number of evaluation studies about rates of return from training interventions. Most results are based on interviewing participants about the value of the intervention and its effect on their productivity. This often results in quadruple digit return on investment indications. Decision makers who control the budget often view these kinds of results with skepticism. This study proposes a methodology to evaluate training interventions without asking participants their opinions. The process involves measuring learning through a series of pre-tests and post-tests and determining if scores on pre-tests can be used as predictors of future return on investment results. The study evaluates a series of return on investment scores using analysis of variance to determine the relationship between pre-tests and final return on investment results for each participant. Data is also collected and evaluated to determine if the financial results of the organization during the period of the training intervention could be correlated to the results of the training intervention. The results of the study suggest that the proposed methodology can be used to predict future return on investment from training interventions based on the use of pre-tests. These rates of return can be used as a method of selecting between competing training intervention proposals. It is a process that is easily understood by the key decision makers who control the allocation of financial resources. More importantly, it is a process that can maximize the value of each dollar spent on training.
The Influence of Prejudice on Interracial Attitudes and Social Expectations
Ninety-six Ss, forty-eight white males and forty-eight white females, from introductory psychology classes at North Texas State University participated in a study of interracial attitudes and social expectations.
Influence of Racial-ethnic Identity on Minority Students’ Perceived Academic Engagement
The current study examined the relationship between the three components of racial-ethnic identity (REI)- Connectedness, Embedded Achievement, and Awareness of Racism- and academic engagement in middle school African American (n=62) and Latino (n=30) youth. We hypothesized the three components of REI would be able to predict academic engagement in the youth, as well as an interaction between ethnicity and the REI components. A hierarchical regression revealed Connectedness and Embedded Achievement were both accurate predictors of student’s academic engagement. In addition, an interaction between Embedded Achievement and ethnicity was also present in the current study. The results indicate that African American youth who have higher levels of Embedded Achievement are more likely to have a higher academic engagement levels while the academic engagement of Latino youth remained fairly constant regardless of level of Embedded Achievement.
The Influence of Relationship Quality and Preventability of Death on Perceptions of Funerals in Bereaved Adults
Four hundred and thirty-eight participants who had lost a close friend or family in the last 2 years completed questionnaires regarding their experiences with the funeral. Results indicated individuals emotionally close to the deceased person reported higher levels of participation in funeral rituals and greater levels of bereavement adjustment. Those emotionally distant from the deceased person reported greater satisfaction with the funeral. Individuals who viewed the deceased person as a central figure in their lives had greater participation in the funeral. Those who viewed the deceased person as a peripheral figure had higher levels of bereavement adjustment. Additionally, those who viewed the death as unpreventable reported greater satisfaction with the funeral, and had higher levels of bereavement adjustment.
The Influence of Renaissance Music in Ernst Krenek's Lamentatio Jeremiae Prophetae
Lamentatio Jeremiae Prophetae, Opus 68, composed by Ernst Krenek in 1941, is a musical work that is difficult to analyze and classify due to its fusion of contrasting musical styles. The pervasive dissonance of the work shows its modern twelve-tone organization, yet other aspects more closely resemble the sacred music of the early Renaissance. Analysis of Lamentatio solely in terms of the atonal twelve-tone system belies the work's full complexity and range of expression. While the twelve-tone system is the basis for the organization of the work, Krenek radically modifies the system to allow for more possible combinations of tones through an innovative technique he calls "rotation." The primary objective of this study is to consider the influence of early Renaissance sacred music, particularly that of Johannes Ockeghem, on certain aspects of Lamentatio, including the text, pitch organization, form and structure, rhythm and meter, and expressive markings. The study reveals that though the pitch organization is based on the twelve-tone system, Krenek uses the increased flexibility granted by his rotation technique to create implications of the modal system of the Renaissance. In the other aspects considered, the music of Lamentatio also bears clear Renaissance influences. A thorough understanding of these earlier influences in Lamentatio will influence both future performances and written characterizations of this enigmatic work.
The Influence of Rural and Urban Residence on Friendship Choices as Measured by a Sociometric Technique
This study will be concerned with evaluating the degree of acceptance of rural students in an urban school. Because of increased interaction between the two groups on account of better modes of transportation, consolidation of schools, and a general trend in creating a more homogenous environment between the two groups the following null hypotheses have been formulated: 1. That there will be no significant difference in acceptance between the rural and urban pupils. 2. That there will be no significant differences in the number of cross-sex choices given or received by the two groups. 3. That there will be no significant discrimination between rural and urban school mates in clique formation.
The influence of sales force newcomers' met expectations on selected outcome variables: Development and testing of a model
Sales management researchers and practitioners give considerable attention to early employment expectations, attitudes, and behaviors primarily because of a desire to specify the cognition process leading to performance and retention of salespeople. While a massive body of literature exists concerning turnover of employees and determinants of employee performance, more empirical study specific to the sales force as a research population is needed to assess the nature of turnover and performance. Because the bulk of salesperson turnover occurs in early employment, particular attention needs to be devoted to the cognitive process of newcomers to the sales force. The present work examines expectation-based and perception-oriented models of performance and retention for sales force new hires. Interests of this investigation focus on the initial expectations of newly hired sales representatives and on how the degree of fulfillment of these expectations relates to subsequent performance and retention behavior. Extant research suggests that the degree to which expectations are met positively influences mediating variables such as job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and indirectly influences outcomes such as job performance and retention of newcomers. Alternatively, some researchers contend that these results are due to improper measurement of met expectations. A longitudinal research design and alternative measurement methods are employed here to better assess the role of met/unmet expectations. The proposed study is based on theoretical research from a variety of academic disciplines, and the results of the study will have multi-disciplinary implications. Contributions include: (a) replication and extension of theoretical research concerning processes leading to performance and retention of sales force newcomers, (b) a thorough examination of met expectations as a precursor to early sales force outcomes, and (c) methodological advances in the measurement of met expectations.
Influence of Sediment Exposure and Water Depth on Torpedograss Invasion of Lake Okeechobee, Florida
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Torpedograss (Panicum repens) was first observed in Lake Okeechobee in the 1970s and appears to have displaced an estimated 6,400 ha of native plants, such as spikerush (Eleocharis cellulosa), where inundation depths are often less than 50 cm. Two series of studies evaluated substrate exposure and water depth influences on torpedograss establishment and competitiveness. Results revealed that fragments remain buoyant for extended periods and so facilitate dispersal. Once anchored to exposed substrate fragments can readily root and establish. Subsequently, torpedograss thrives when subjected to inundations to 75 cm and survives prolonged exposure to depths greater than 1 m. These findings suggest that fluctuating water levels contribute to torpedograss dispersal and colonization patterns and that low water levels increase marsh area susceptible to invasion. The competition study found that spikerush grown in monoculture produces significantly more biomass when continually inundated to shallow depths (10 to 20 cm) than when subjected to drier conditions (-25 cm) or greater inundations (80 cm). In contrast, torpedograss establishes more readily on exposed substrate (-25 to 0 cm) compared to inundate substrates. During the first growing season biomass production increases as substrate exposure interval increases. However, during the second year, established torpedograss produces more biomass when grown on intermittently wet (0 cm) compared to permanently dry (-25 cm) or intermittently inundated (10 cm) substrates. No difference in production was observed between substrates permanently inundated (10 cm) and any other regime tested. During the first two years of torpedograss invasion, regardless of treatment, spikerush suppresses invasion and torpedograss had little effect on established spikerush, indicating that spikerush-dominated areas are capable of resisting torpedograss invasion. Even so, disturbances that might cause mortality of long hydroperiod species, such as spikerush, may create open gaps in the native vegetation and thus facilitate torpedograss establishment and expansion.
The Influence of Self-Esteem and Body Dissatisfaction on Muscle Dysmorphia and Exercise Dependence
Using the psycho-behavioral model as a conceptual framework, the purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, muscle dysmorphia, and exercise dependence among college men. Participants (n = 110) completed surveys including a demographic questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Body Part Satisfaction Scale, Drive for Muscularity Scale, and Exercise Dependence Scale-21. No significant relationship was found between self-esteem and muscle dysmorphia. A significant correlation was found between body dissatisfaction and muscle dysmorphia, as well as between muscle dysmorphia and exercise dependence. These results partially support the psycho-behavioral model of muscle dysmorphia.
The Influence of Selma Meerbaum-Eisinger's Death on Xaver Paul Thoma's Composition of Ich bin in Sehnsucht Eingehüllt: Sieben Lieder für Sopran und Klavier, A Lecture Recital Together with Three Recitals of Selected Works of O. Messiaen, G.F. Handel, A. Scarlatti, J.S. Bach, W. Latham, and Others
The aim of this study is to introduce the contemporary German composer, Xaver Paul Thoma, and his composition, Ich bin in Sehnsucht Eingehüllt on the poems of Selma Meerbaum-Eisinger. This study explores the possible reasons behind Thoma's decision to set the poems, as well as the circumstances and significance of the poets' life and poetry, made known through Thoma's composition. An analysis of each song is included, emphasizing especially the relationship between text and music.
The Influence of Separation, Attachment and Family Processes on the Career Exploratory Behavior of Late Adolescents
The purpose of this study was to examine the idea that a late adolescent's career exploration activities may be influenced by levels of attachment to and psychological separation from family, family health, and family structure. It was proposed that higher levels of self and environmental exploration would be associated with positive family relationships and adequate levels of psychological separation and attachment. Cognitive and demographic variables were included as control measures. Measures of family health, attachment, separation, family structure, career exploration, career decision making self efficacy, and beliefs in the usefulness of engaging in self and environmental exploration were administered to 304 undergraduates from intact families. Multiple regression analyses were employed to examine the contribution of the independent variables measuring family processes to the variability in the dependent variables of self and environmental exploration, after controlling for the variability associated with the control measures. The demographic variables were age, gender, class standing, and decision status about a major. Results indicated that the best predictors of career exploration in late adolescence were the cognitive variables. Beliefs in the usefulness of self exploration were the best predictor of self exploration, whereas career decision making self efficacy was the best predictor of environmental exploration. Measures of attachment and psychological separation were not substantially related to career exploration. A weak relationship between family structure and self exploration was found, however contrary to theoretical predictions, it suggested that problems in the parent child relationship may facilitate rather than inhibit this career development activity. Findings also suggested a relationship between variables of family processes and career decision making self efficacy. Future research might explore the idea that separation, attachment and family variables influence cognitive beliefs, which in turn effect career development. The demographic variables emerged as minimally important in predicting exploratory behavior. Results were discussed with regard to theory and research in career exploration.
The influence of Sister Helen Prejean on the life and work of Jake Heggie as seen in the song cycle The Deepest Desire: Four Meditations on Love.
Jake Heggie, American art song and opera composer, began his association with Sister Helen Prejean, CSJ when he composed Dead Man Walking, an operatic adaptation of her memoirs. Though from two very different backgrounds, the two developed a deep friendship and spiritual bond that provided the impetus for further compositions dealing with spirituality. Heggie adapted Prejean's meditations as a text for his song cycle The Deepest Desire in 2002, producing what he considers to be his finest work to date. Using The Deepest Desire as a gateway, this paper explores the social and cultural aspects of their association, revealing their personal perspectives on their relationship, collaborations, and shared sense of spirituality. Chapters include the biographies and spiritual philosophies of both Heggie and Prejean, Heggie's compositional style, Dead Man Walking, a performance analysis of The Deepest Desire, and the continuing influence of the relationship between Heggie and Prejean on Heggie's work. The appendix includes transcriptions of personal interviews with both individuals, Prejean's original meditation texts, correspondence with Heggie, Prejean, and Joyce DiDonato, and performance notes for The Deepest Desire derived from a musical coaching with the composer.
The Influence of Social Comprehension on the Adjustment of College Students
The purpose of this investigation is to extend the study of the influence of social comprehension on the adjustment of college students by (1) determining the adjustment progress of students in the social fundamentals classes, and (2) comparing the adjustment progress of men and women in these home economics classes with the progress of men and women in other subject-matter fields.
The Influence of Social Network Graph Structure on Disease Dynamics in a Simulated Environment
The fight against epidemics/pandemics is one of man versus nature. Technological advances have not only improved existing methods for monitoring and controlling disease outbreaks, but have also provided new means for investigation, such as through modeling and simulation. This dissertation explores the relationship between social structure and disease dynamics. Social structures are modeled as graphs, and outbreaks are simulated based on a well-recognized standard, the susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) paradigm. Two independent, but related, studies are presented. The first involves measuring the severity of outbreaks as social network parameters are altered. The second study investigates the efficacy of various vaccination policies based on social structure. Three disease-related centrality measures are introduced, contact, transmission, and spread centrality, which are related to previously established centrality measures degree, betweenness, and closeness, respectively. The results of experiments presented in this dissertation indicate that reducing the neighborhood size along with outside-of-neighborhood contacts diminishes the severity of disease outbreaks. Vaccination strategies can effectively reduce these parameters. Additionally, vaccination policies that target individuals with high centrality are generally shown to be slightly more effective than a random vaccination policy. These results combined with past and future studies will assist public health officials in their effort to minimize the effects of inevitable disease epidemics/pandemics.
Influence of Specific Training on Graduate School Aptitude Test Performance
The study was undertaken to investigate if a course of instruction, utilizing specific procedures, could be employed to enhance performance on an aptitude test. A punishment procedure involving the removal of a positive reinforcer was instituted within a classroom setting.
The Influence of Spousal Expectations, Interaction, and Bonding on Marital Quality: a Study of Selected Factors Affecting Individuals' Self-Reported Evaluation of their Marriage
This investigation explored the relationship between married individuals' self-reports of their expectations, interaction, spousal bonding, and marital quality. From two universities, two hundred and thirty-seven currently enrolled and married students volunteered to provide the information on these factors via a semistructured self-administered questionnaire. The typical respondent was a female between 31 and 35 years old who had been married 8 years to her first spouse, had one child at home; and was a senior in college. Of the ten independent variables examined three variables contributed the most to individuals' self-reported evaluation of their marital quality. These were the time spent each week with their spouse, satisfaction with the quality of time spent with their spouse, and when the greatest level of bonding experiences occurred. Five significant findings emerged from the study. First, respondents' greater satisfaction with the quality of time spent with their spouse was consistently the strongest predictor of higher marital quality. Second, respondents who bonded more with their spouse after marriage or equally before and after marriage reported higher marital quality than those who bonded more before marriage. Third, the amount of time spouses spent together influenced respondents' reported marital quality. Fourth, spousal bonding has a very strong influence on individuals' self-reported marital quality. The influence of spousal bonding upon marital quality has been neglected by marriage and family researchers. Finally, joint activities such as talking, eating and cooking at home, sex, activities shared with children, and church related activities were identified by respondents as consistently promoting both a higher quality level for the time spent with their spouse and with their spousal bonding. Future research on marital quality should use larger and more representative samples, involve personal interviews, use longitudinal data collection, and perform time series or path analysis.
Influence of stormwater drainage facilities on mosquito communities within the city of Denton, Texas.
Weekly collections were conducted from May to December, 2007 (153 trap nights, total) in Denton, Texas, in and around large storm drains and overpass drainage facilities in residential and non-residential areas, using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps and gravid traps. A total of 1964 mosquitoes were collected, representing 24 species within 6 genera: Aedes, Anopheles, Culiseta, Culex, Psorophora, and Uranotaenia. Culex was the most abundant genus, representing 75% of all mosquitoes collected; Aedes was the second most abundant, representing 12 % of all mosquitoes collected. Cx. quinquefasciatus was the dominant species collected via gravid traps; Cx. (Melanoconion) species were the dominant species collected via CDC light traps. Data of gravid traps and light traps were analyzed separately using nonparametric correlation analysis, comparing environmental data and physical characteristics to total abundance of mosquitoes. There was no significant correlation found when comparing the three dominant species collected in light traps (unidentified Cx. (Melanoconion) sp, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Ae. vexans) to environmental characteristics and physical characteristics. Analysis of Cx. quinquefasciatus collected in gravid traps indicated no significant correlation between abundance, environmental data, and physical characteristics. Linear regression models were analyzed to determine if either environmental variables or physical characteristics of the drainage system explained the species abundance collected; no individual variable showed an association of significance. Analysis of Cx. quinquefasciatus collected in storm drains via gravid traps determined temperature to be the most important variable in determining population abundance and explained 99% of the population variability.
Influence of Sublethal Pesticide Levels of Repiratory Activity of Selected Aquatic Animals
The respiratory activity of three aquatic animals selected from different pollution index classifications is examined in the presence of sublethal concentrations of Dibrom, a commonly used, broad-spectrum, organophosphate insecticide.
The Influence of Sunday School Attendance on Behavior in the Elementary Grades of North Texas Demonstration School
The problem of this study is to determine the influence that Sunday school attendance has on behavior of children now enrolled in the elementary grades of North Texas State College Demonstration School of Denton, Texas.
The Influence of Teacher-pupil Relationships on the Social Adjustment of Homemaking Students in a Small Rural High School
The present study purposes to determine whether or not teacher-pupil relationships bring about improvement in the social adjustment of homemaking students in a small rural high school. It further purposes to determine the nature and extent of any measurable improvement.
The Influence of the Concerns of Metropolitan Negro High School Girls on their Curriculum Interest in Money Management
The purpose of the present study is to determine whether or not the metropolitan Negro girl's concerns and attitudes are factors in her interest in curriculum items of money management. The concerns and attitudes include authoritarian discipline, family tensions, resentment to family life style, financial troubles, family problems, self inadequacy, personal adjustment, and resentment to dependency.
The Influence of the Frontier on Mark Twain
There are critics who believe that the real Mark Twain was born in the East, while others say that the frontier made him. I have considered evidence on both sides and have definitely concluded that Mark Twain was and is a product of the frontier.
The Influence of the Group upon the Decisions of Elementary School Children
The problem of this study is to clarify and evaluate the effect of group influence upon decisions made by elementary school children.
The influence of the Inquiry Institute on elementary teachers' perceptions of inquiry learning in the science classroom.
Despite the positive outcomes for inquiry-based science education and recommendations from national and state standards, many teachers continue to rely upon more traditional methods of instruction This causal-comparative study was designed to determine the effects of the Inquiry Institute, a professional development program that is intended to strengthen science teachers' pedagogical knowledge and provide practice with inquiry methods based from a constructivist approach. This study will provide a understanding of a cause and effect relationship within three levels of the independent variable-length of participation in the Inquiry Institute (zero, three, or six days)-to determine whether or not the three groups differ on the dependent variables-beliefs, implementation, and barriers. Quantitative data were collected with the Science Inquiry Survey, a researcher-developed instrument designed to also ascertain qualitative information with the use of open-ended survey items. One-way ANOVAs were applied to the data to test for a significant difference in the means of the three groups. The findings of this study indicate that lengthier professional development in the Inquiry Institute holds the most benefits for the participants.
The Influence of the Instructor's Written Comments upon Student Test Performance in the College Classroom
The problem with which this investigation is concerned is that of determining the influence of instructors' written comments on the test performances of students in selected college subjects. The students were from one university and one junior college. The written comments were designed to be positive in nature and to encourage better future test performances by students. The comments were made in regard to the letter grades received by the students and were placed only on major (as defined by each instructor) objective tests.
The Influence of the Tongue on Vocal Production
The purpose of this study is to assemble information needed to assess, understand and hopefully correct muscular hyperfunction that is related to tongue tension in singing and speech which inhibit freely, efficiently, and comfortably produced beautiful singing. This text will include a definition of freely produced, fully resonating tone for beautiful singing, major components of vocal technique, physiology related to singing and speech production, hyperfunctions associated with tongue tension, tongue involvement in the articulation of the four major singing languages, and will present exercises for training the muscles of coordination in a manner conducive to singing and speech.
The Influence of Three Listening-Environment Factors on Listening Comprehension of Fourth-Grade Students
The problem of this study was to determine what effect purpose, background and distractions have on the effectiveness of the listening act.
Influence of Vocational Training on the Self-Concept of the Physically Handicapped
This study was conducted in order to investigate the hypothesis that the vocational rehabilitation training situation is itself therapeutic. The training situation is of course attempting to complete the final phase of rehabilitation by actually helping the handicapped individual to go out into the world again as a productive human being.
The Influence of William Jennings Bryan on the Democratic Party
This thesis looks at the life and political influence of William Jennings Bryan, and his work as a champion of the rights of the common man.
The Influence of Women on Walt Whitman
It is the scope and purpose of this study to investigate the Whitman-woman relationship and to attempt to answer, so far as this Whitman puzzle may be answered, the question of the effect of women on the Whitman philosophy and the nature of that philosophy concerning women.
Influences of Current Parent-Child Relationships on Young Adults' Romantic Development
In this study, the supportive nature of the parent-child relationship was examined for how it relates to young adults' romantic development, as measured by indicators of attachment relationship importance and romantic involvement. Attachment and social support theories suggest that parents continue to play an important role as their young adult children form romantic relationships. Prior research has indicated that perceived support from parents is positively related to young adults' expressing attachment relationship importance, as evidenced by attachment motivation and engaging in exploration about romantic relationship topics. Furthermore, support from parents has been negatively related to romantic and sexual involvement. Therefore, it was believed that support in the parent-child relationship would predict both the indicators of attachment relationship importance and the indicators of romantic involvement in the present study. Additionally, an interaction of parental support and participants' gender was expected for the indicators of attachment relationship importance but not romantic involvement. A sample of 157 women and 144 men, ages 18-22 completed questionnaires. These measures assessed the supportive quality of relationships with each parent and indicators of the young adults' romantic development. For the indicators of attachment relationship importance, results indicated that exploration was predicted by gender and a conflictual relationship with father while motivation was predicted by a supportive relationship with father. Regarding the indicators of romantic involvement, sexual involvement was predicted by gender. Given these unexpected results, the role of parental support in young adults' romantic development continues to appear important, though the nature of its influence needs further research. Theoretical and methodological issues were discussed in light of these findings.
The Influences of the Manual Labor Movement on Industrial Arts in America
This is a study of the influences of the Manual Labor Movement in Europe and in America on industrial arts taught in the secondary schools of the United States.
Influences of the Mother-Daughter Relationship on Motivations for Sexual Behavior
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The influences of family relationship variables on motivations for adolescent sexual risk-taking were investigated. Previous research has linked these variables to adolescent sexual behavior, however, the nature of these links has not been specifically examined. Family variables were operationalized as child attachment to mother, parental support of each other, parental conflict strategies, and parental monitoring. Emotional motivations were operationalized as attachment and affiliation needs. The sample consisted of 40 single females ages 18 to22 recruited from a local pregnancy care center. Predictions that parent-child relationship and parental influence would predict emotional motivations for sexual risk-taking were not supported. The variable most highly related to sexual risk-taking, though not included in the model tested, was father's destructive conflict strategies. Theoretical and methodological issues are discussed.
Influences on Grief Among Parentally Bereaved Adults
The parent-child relationship is significant throughout the life course, although both positive and negative changes occur as children reach adulthood and develop an identity independent of their family of origin. Grief resulting from parental loss during this time may be a product of many variables including age, relationship quality, and sex roles. The current study examined several variables potentially influencing grief after the death of a parent. As part of a larger study, adults (n = 180) completed measures assessing parental involvement, personal grief and adjustment, as well as sex role preferences. The archival data were subjected to analyses of covariance, taking into account time since the death and children’s sex role preferences (traditional or egalitarian). Female sex of the child was significant in predicting several aspects of grief, suggesting that women have a stronger emotional experience of grief. This may be a result of young women’s stronger emotional bonds with parents when compared to men, feelings of exclusion from college peers during bereavement, or vulnerability for rumination. Sex role preferences were also influential in several aspects of grief. Sex of the parent was not significant, although the interaction for sex of the parent and sex of the child was, suggesting that for daughters, the loss of a mother may be particularly difficult. Results suggest that women may express more intense emotions as part of the grief process and maintain stronger bonds with the deceased, although this likely depends heavily on cultural, familial, and religious contexts, as well as cause of death.
The Influences That Audio-Visual Aids Have upon the Progress of Children in the Fifth-Grade Social Studies
The problem undertaken in this investigation is to determine the value of using audio-visual aids in the fifth-grade social studies program of the Austin Elementary School, Wichita Falls, Texas.
Information Censorship: A Comparative Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of the Jyllands-Posten Editorial Caricatures in Cross-Cultural Settings
The identification and examination of cultural information strategies and censorship patterns used to propagate the controversial issue of the caricatures in two separate cultural contexts was the aim of this dissertation. It explored discourse used for the coverage of this topic by one newspaper in a restrictive information context and two newspapers in a liberal information context. Message propagation in a restrictive information environment was analyzed using the English daily Kuwait Times from the Middle East; the liberal information environment of the US was analyzed using two major dailies, the New York Times and the Philadelphia Inquirer. The study also concurrently identifies and elaborates on the themes and frames through which discourse was presented exposing the cultural ideologies and premises they represent. The topic was approached with an interdisciplinary position with the support and applicability testing of Chatman's insider-outsider theory within information science and Noelle-Neumann's spiral of silence theory and Herman and Chomsky's propaganda model based in the area of mass communication. The study has also presented a new model of information censorship - circle of information censorship, emphasizing conceptual issues that influence the selection and censorship of information.
The Information Content of Pension Fund Asset Reversion
Prior studies on the impact of the termination of overfunded defined benefit pension plans on shareholders' wealth have produced conflicting findings. The first study on the stock market reaction to pension plan termination was conducted by Alderson and Chen (1986); this study claimed that shareholders realize significant positive abnormal returns around the termination announcement date. A more recent study, by Moore and Pruitt (1990), disclaimed the findings of Alderson and Chen. Reexamination of these two studies with additional evidence and the use of the appropriate announcement date suggests that termination of pension plans is associated with significant wealth gain to shareholders. This study also analyzes samples from periods prior to and after the imposition in 1986 of a 10 percent excise tax on recaptured excess pension assets. The empirical results suggest that shareholders experience significant positive wealth effects for the pre-tax (1980-85) period and no wealth effects for the post-tax (1986-88) period. The primary purpose of this study is to determine the impact of stock market reaction upon shareholders' wealth under the partial anticipation hypothesis. The pre-tax sample is analyzed by isolating the expected terminators using the multiple discriminant analysis model. This study finds significant positive abnormal returns only for firms that are not anticipated by the investors as potential terminators. The results of this study do not lend support to either the "separation" or the "integration" hypothesis as proposed by Alderson and Chen (1986). Instead, the results are consistent with the information hypothesis that the market reacts to unanticipated events that provide new information. Cross-sectional regression analysis of unexpected terminators suggests that the abnormal performance of stocks of pension terminating firms is explained by the firms' debt ratio and the amount of surplus pension assets. It can be inferred that firms may resort to recapturing excess pension assets as a way of financing investments internally when faced with unfavorable credit markets.
The Information Content of Supplemental Reserve-Based Replacement Measures Relative to that of Historical Cost income and its Cash and Accrual Components of Oil and Gas Producing Companies
This study examined whether three reserve-based quantity replacement measures and three reserve-based value replacement measures have incremental information content beyond that of historical earnings and its cash and accrual components. This study also examined whether the cash and accrual components of earnings have incremental information content beyond that of earnings.
The Information Environment of Academic Library Directors: Use of Information Resources and Communication Technologies
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This study focuses on the use of information resources and communication technologies, both traditional and electronic, by academic library directors. The purpose is to improve understanding of managerial behavior when using information resources and communication technologies within a shared information environment. Taylor's concept of an information use environment is used to capture the elements associated with information use and communication within the context of decision-making styles, managerial roles, organizational environments, and professional communities. This qualitative study uses interviews, observations, questionnaires, and documents. Library directors participating in the study are from doctoral-degree granting universities in the southwestern United States. Data collection involved on-site observations with a PDA (personal digital assistant), structured interviews with library directors and their administrative assistants, the Decision Style Inventory, and a questionnaire based on Mintzberg's managerial roles. Findings show the existence of a continuum in managerial activities between an Administrator and an Administrator/Academic as critical to understanding information use and communication patterns among library directors. There is a gap between self-perception of managerial activities and actual performance, a finding that would not have surfaced without the use of multiple methods. Other findings include the need for a technical ombudsman, a managerial-level position reporting to the library director; the importance of information management as an administrative responsibility; the importance of trust when evaluating information; and the importance of integrating information and communication across formats, time, and managerial activities.
Information Literacy Skills in the Workplace: A Study of Police Officers
Information literacy has become more important as more information is produced and communication has become easier. Better information skills are vital for individuals working in governmental organizations as well as in the business sector. Employees are expected to be confident and competent in interacting with information in their workplaces in order to deliver better service to customers and to the public. This study examines the differences in information literacy skills (ILS), computer literacy skills (CLS), and frequencies of use of information sources (FIS) among police officers, based on their socio-demographic characteristics, namely education, departmental affiliation, ranks, and experience. Information literacy process models developed in an educational environment are combined to explore information literacy process in the workplace. Bivariate and multivariate analyses indicated significant differences of ILS and CLS based on education, departmental affiliation, and ranks but no difference for experience. In addition, there were differences of FIS for all demographic variables except departmental affiliation. The findings of the study may guide both future researchers in the process of developing new models in understanding information literacy process and the managers in police organizations in planning better training programs by considering information and computer literacy skills and use of information sources of police officers.
Information Management in Local Area Networks: Impact on Users' Perceptions
In this study, computer human interaction factors are examined as a possible source of information to aid in the operation and management of local area computer networks. Users' perceptions of computer performance and response time are evaluated in relation to specific modifications in the information organization of a file server in a local area network configuration running in Novell 3.11.
Information Needs of Art Museum Visitors: Real and Virtual
Museums and libraries are considered large repositories of human knowledge and human culture. They have similar missions and goals in distributing accumulated knowledge to society. Current digitization projects allow both, museums and libraries to reach a broader audience, share their resources with a variety of users. While studies of information seeking behavior, retrieval systems and metadata in library science have a long history; such research studies in museum environments are at their early experimental stage. There are few studies concerning information seeking behavior and needs of virtual museum visitors, especially with the use of images in the museums' collections available on the Web. The current study identifies preferences of a variety of user groups about the information specifics on current exhibits, museum collections metadata information, and the use of multimedia. The study of information seeking behavior of users groups of museum digital collections or cultural collections allows examination and analysis of users' information needs, and the organization of cultural information, including descriptive metadata and the quantity of information that may be required. In addition, the study delineates information needs that different categories of users may have in common: teachers in high schools, students in colleges and universities, museum professionals, art historians and researchers, and the general public. This research also compares informational and educational needs of real visitors with the needs of virtual visitors. Educational needs of real visitors are based on various studies conducted and summarized by Falk and Dierking (2000), and an evaluation of the art museum websites previously conducted to support the current study.