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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Degree Discipline: Physical Education
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Effect of a Six-Week Training Program on the Physical Condition of Primary Grade Girls

Effect of a Six-Week Training Program on the Physical Condition of Primary Grade Girls

Date: May 1974
Creator: Shannon, Marilyn A.
Description: The purpose of the study was to examine changes in cardiovascular function and neuromuscular performance of primary grade girls after a six-week treatment program. The Kraus-Weber Tests and modified Harvard Step Test were administered to sixty-seven subjects before and after the treatment program, which consisted of exercises and running for the experimental group and sedentary games for the control group. None of the significant differences in recovery heart rate or the Kraus-Weber tests could be attributed to the treatment program. The length of training program was apparently not enough to detect change in fitness level of the subjects. A need exists for exercise tests that are more meaningful and more easily administered.
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The Effect of an Eight-Week Training Program upon Leg Strength and Running Speed in Middle-School-Age Boys

The Effect of an Eight-Week Training Program upon Leg Strength and Running Speed in Middle-School-Age Boys

Date: August 1972
Creator: Leach, Edward L.
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an eight-week weight training program upon leg strength and running speed of middle-school-age boys.
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The Effect of Dietary Supplements of Protein and Wheat Germ Oil on Selected Physical Measurements of Junior High School Athletes

The Effect of Dietary Supplements of Protein and Wheat Germ Oil on Selected Physical Measurements of Junior High School Athletes

Date: August 1971
Creator: Fulton, E. Ed
Description: This study was undertaken to determine the effect of protein and wheat germ oil supplements upon selected measures of junior high school boys. The measures selected were for weight, arm strength, speed and endurance, and urinalyses for urea nitrogen. Thirty-six ninth grade athletes at Memorial Junior High School in Alice, Texas, were used as subjects. The subjects were placed in three groups of twelve each with one group receiving the supplements and the other two groups serving as control groups.
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The Effect of Four Different Conditions of Mental Practice on the Performance of Beginning and Intermediate Bowlers

The Effect of Four Different Conditions of Mental Practice on the Performance of Beginning and Intermediate Bowlers

Date: August 1979
Creator: Reading, Rosemary
Description: This study investigated the effects of four different types of mental practice (free imagery, directed visual, directed reading, and directed audio) on the performance of 45 beginning and 40 intermediate college bowlers. The groups bowled six games with two sets of five minutes of mental practice prior to the first frame and the sixth frame of each game. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. No significant differences existed between treatment groups at either the beginning or intermediate levels. Conclusions were that no one technique of mental practice was more effective than another in increasing bowling performance.
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The Effect of Hypoxic Training Upon the Speed of Sprint Freestyle in High School Competitive Swimming

The Effect of Hypoxic Training Upon the Speed of Sprint Freestyle in High School Competitive Swimming

Date: August 1976
Creator: Young, William Lee
Description: This study investigated possible effects of hypoxic training upon speed of high school sprint freestyle. Thirty-eight subjects, grouped as their two schools, performed identical loads during the ten-week program. The Experimental group used hypoxic techniques for about one-half of each workout. Pretests and posttests conducted for the 50-yard and 100-yard distances yielded highly correlated mean scores, with marked differences between the two groups. Analysis of covariance was used, selecting the .05 level for rejection. The comparison of adjusted group means indicated neither group superior at 50 yards, while the 100-yard F-ratio was significant at the .0047 level favoring hypoxic training. It is recommended that hypoxic techniques be incorporated into existing programs, possibly benefitting other strokes.
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The Effect of Psychological Sex-Role and Sex of Performer on Pre-Performance Anxiety in Selected Masculine, Feminine, and Neutral Sports

The Effect of Psychological Sex-Role and Sex of Performer on Pre-Performance Anxiety in Selected Masculine, Feminine, and Neutral Sports

Date: August 1984
Creator: Taylor, Angela D. (Angela Denise)
Description: The study was designed to determine the effects of psychological sex-role on pre-performance anxiety in masculine (rugby), feminine (balance beam), and neutral (badminton) sex-typed motor activities. Instruments used to gather data included the Personal Attributes Questionnaire, the Sport Competition Anxiety Test, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. Twenty-six masculine, 24 feminine, and 27 androgynous males and females were submitted to a three-phase training session for each sport skill. At the conclusion of each session, prior to performing the skill in front of a panel of judges (confederates of the experimenter), subjects were administered the self-report state anxiety (A-state) inventory. Data were analyzed by a 2 x 3 x 3 design. Conclusions were that individuals classified as feminine reported more feelings of A-state prior to performance than individuals classified as masculine or androgynous. Furthermore, the performer's biological sex affected anxiety levels, depending upon perceptions concerning the sex-appropriateness of the activity.
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The Effect of Rapid Weight Loss on the Efficiency of Wrestlers Under Simulated Competitive Conditions

The Effect of Rapid Weight Loss on the Efficiency of Wrestlers Under Simulated Competitive Conditions

Date: December 1977
Creator: Fabrizio, Anthony N.
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of rapid weight loss on wrestlers' efficiency incorporating competitive aspects of the sport into the research procedures. Six subjects were selected from the North Texas State University Wrestling Club. Eight cardiovascular and neuromuscular measurements were taken and recorded before treatment and following treatment. Astrand's bicycle ergometer test was utilized to obtain exhaustive, heart rates. Data were analyzed by a one-tailed t test at the .05 level. Conclusion of the investigation was that following 6.25 per cent rapid loss of body weight, over a period of one week, no loss of efficiency occurred among wrestlers under simulated competitive conditions.
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The Effect of Roughness Elements on the Magnus Characteristics of Rotating Spherical Projectiles

The Effect of Roughness Elements on the Magnus Characteristics of Rotating Spherical Projectiles

Date: December 1982
Creator: Smith, Michael A. (Michael Albert)
Description: Thirty trials of each of three roughness conditions were examined. The first condition consisted of a baseball pitched so that two of the roughness elements opposed the flow. The second condition consisted of a pitched baseball with four of the roughness elements opposing the flow. The third consisted of a pitched uniformly rough sphere. The conclusions were that roughness elements increase horizontal flight deviations when a baseball rotates about a vertical axis; roughness elements on the surface of a baseball may cause a decrease in the encountered drag forces; linear velocity has a dominating effect on the trajectory of a spinning baseball; previously developed mathematical models do not adequately predict flight deviations.
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The Effect of the Tonic Neck Reflex upon Fatigue of the Extensor Leg Muscles

The Effect of the Tonic Neck Reflex upon Fatigue of the Extensor Leg Muscles

Date: August 1974
Creator: Cate, Susan Carol
Description: The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effect of the tonic neck posture upon fatigue induced by exhaustive exercise of the knee extensor muscles of college women. The subjects were college females enrolled in physical education activity classes at North Texas State University. The F ratio was used to determine significance of the difference in fatigue measures in the three head positions. The results of the present investigation revealed no statistically significant difference between the three head positions with respect to their influence on endurance of the leg extensors. Conclusions were that the tonic neck reflex does not facilitate or inhibit leg extensor endurance.
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The Effect of Three Conditions of Practice on the Performance of the Football Center Snap by College Students

The Effect of Three Conditions of Practice on the Performance of the Football Center Snap by College Students

Date: May 1969
Creator: Levy, William C.
Description: The problem of this study was to determine the effect mental practice, physical practice, and a combination of physical and mental practice had upon the accuracy of the football center snap for field goals and extra points after a touchdown.
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Effect of Trampoline Training and Tumbling on the Cardiovascular Efficiency of College Women

Effect of Trampoline Training and Tumbling on the Cardiovascular Efficiency of College Women

Date: May 1972
Creator: Bateman, Judith L.
Description: The purpose of the study was to determine if subjects would improve in cardiovascular efficiency following a six-week program of trampolining and/or tumbling. Literature concerning cardiovascular efficiency, training, trampoline, testing instruments, test selection and maximal oxygen intake were thoroughly reviewed. The Astrand test of maximal oxygen intake and the Cooper twelve-minute run test of aerobic capacity were found to best fit the needs of the present study.
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The Effects of a Unit in Selected Gymnastic and Tumbling Activities upon the Arm and Shoulder Strength of Eleventh-grade Girls

The Effects of a Unit in Selected Gymnastic and Tumbling Activities upon the Arm and Shoulder Strength of Eleventh-grade Girls

Date: August 1968
Creator: Smoot, Carolyn S.
Description: The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not the arm and shoulder strength of eleventh-grade girls would significantly increase during participation in a gymnastic and selected tumbling unit. The unit included activities on the parallel bars, side horse, balance beam, and specific tumbling activities.
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The Effects of Complexity on Play Equipment Usage of Three-, Four-, and Five-Year-Old Children

The Effects of Complexity on Play Equipment Usage of Three-, Four-, and Five-Year-Old Children

Date: December 1981
Creator: Fowler, Curt L. (Curt Layne)
Description: Fifteen three-, four-, and five-year olds were assessed for the amount of time they spent on, off, under, and touching play equipment in an environment with play events and one without (i.e. the platform condition), An ABAB experimental design was used. Treatments lasted 3 days a week for 4 consecutive weeks, with each age group being videotaped 20 minutes each day, Data collected from the videotapes was applied to a 3 x 4 (age x treatments) ANOVA and revealed at the . 05 level (a) significantly more on and touching in the play event conditions; (b) significantly greater off and under in the platform (non play event) conditions; (c) a significant increase in off behavior from the first to second play event condition; (d) three-year-olds spent more time under and touching, and significantly less time on; and (e) significant interactions for on and under which seemed to be caused by the three-year-olds showing an inordinate amount of under behavior in the second platform condition, These results supported the assumption that play events would cause a significant increase inactive child-equipment interaction.
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The Effects of Counting as a Form of Concurrent Feedback on a Seventy-Five-Yard Dash

The Effects of Counting as a Form of Concurrent Feedback on a Seventy-Five-Yard Dash

Date: December 1981
Creator: Parks, Jennifer
Description: The use of concurrent Information Feedback (IF) through counting seconds verbally as the subject ran a 75 yard dash was tested. Forty-six ten and eleven year old boys and girls (boys = 20, girls = 26) were given two trials under four IF conditions: No IF; Terminal/Concurrent IF; Terminal IF; IF Removal. The counting occurred under Condition 2 and was combined with a final time given at the end of the dash. Significant main effects were found for sex and for conditions, with interaction effects between sex and conditions, and between conditions and trials, p4 .05. Results supported the combined IF condition with counting as maintaining subjects' level of performance, probably through motivation. Males performed well under Conditions 1, 2, and 3, while girls performed best under Conditions 1 and 2. Trial scores under Conditions 2 and 3 for all subjects were much more similar than under Conditions 1 and 4, indicating more consistent performance when IF was provided,
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The Effects of Goal Difficulty and Information Feedback on the Performance of an Endurance Task

The Effects of Goal Difficulty and Information Feedback on the Performance of an Endurance Task

Date: December 1984
Creator: Hall, Howard (Howard Kingsley)
Description: Few studies in the sporting realm have been conducted to verify the findings from industrial or organizational settings regarding the strong positive motivational effects of goal setting (Locke et al., 1981). Therefore, the purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of three levels of goal difficulty and two levels of feedback on the performance of males undertaking an endurance task. Performance results were analyzed using a 2 x 3 x 2 (feedback x goal difficulty x trials) ANOVA with repeated measures on the last factor. Results indicated a significant goal by trials interaction with both specific difficult goal groups improving from trial one to trial two. The "do best" group showed no significant improvements. It was also found that only the difficult, but not the extremely difficult goal group performed significantly better than the "do best" goal group. No significant differences were found between the two feedback groups. The results are discussed in terms of Locke's (1968) original theory of goal setting.
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The Effects of Mastery, Competitive and Cooperative Goals on Performance in Simple and Complex Sport Skills

The Effects of Mastery, Competitive and Cooperative Goals on Performance in Simple and Complex Sport Skills

Date: December 1986
Creator: Giannini, John
Description: The present study investigated the effects of different goal and feedback conditions on performance of a basketball field goal shooting task and a more complex one-on-one offensive basketball task. Subjects (N = 100) were matched, based on pre-test performance, into one of five conditions: competitive goal, cooperative goal, mastery goal, "do your best" with feedback, and "do your best" without feedback. Results indicated the competitive group was significantly better than the "do your best" without feedback group in one-on-one performance. No other between group differences were significant, although some consistent group trends were present. Subjects' goal orientations were not related to performance in specific goal conditions, with the exception of mastery oriented subjects in the mastery goal condition.
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The Effects of Shoe Modification on Transverse Tibial Rotation

The Effects of Shoe Modification on Transverse Tibial Rotation

Date: August 1984
Creator: Trudelle, Elaine
Description: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of change in transverse tibial rotation at the knee achieved through the use of shoe modification. In addition, an attempt to evaluate the Q-angle dynamically through the stance phase to reflect changes in transverse tibial rotation was made. Ten male subjects were filmed as they ran on a treadmill at a 2.82 m/sec pace and transverse tibial rotation data was collected simultaneously from an affixed electrogoniometer at the knee joint. The subjects were tested under three conditions: 1) barefoot, 2) running shoe, and 3) shoe plus standard orthotic. The results of the study showed that an unprescribed, standard orthotic was ineffective in changing foot pronation and transverse tibial rotation at the knee. It also showed that there was no relationship between leg-heel alignment measurements of pronation and electrogoniometric measurements of transverse tibial rotation. Q-angle measurements could not be obtained from the film date due to difficulty in visualizing body landmarks.
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The Effects of Shoe Type on Foot Functioning and Contact Pressures During Walking Performances

The Effects of Shoe Type on Foot Functioning and Contact Pressures During Walking Performances

Date: August 1982
Creator: Raley, Brenda F.
Description: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional effectiveness of a selection of women's walking shoes with particular attention being directed towards an assessment of specific shoe modifications which were included in a prototype model to theoretically reduce the undesirable characteristics associated with flexible shoes. Nine female subjects performed three trials for each of five shoe conditions. The prototype model decreased the encountered pressures and pressure integrals in the region of the second metatarsal-phalangeal joint. The use of the prototype shoe did not appear to unduly affect the gait of the subject.
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The Effects of Single and Combined Psyching up Strategies on Basketball Free-Throws and Leg Strength

The Effects of Single and Combined Psyching up Strategies on Basketball Free-Throws and Leg Strength

Date: August 1982
Creator: Chan, Roy Chin Ming
Description: The present investigation was to determine if combining two mental preparation strategies would be more effective than a single strategy. In Experiment 1, subjects (n=40) performed basketball free-throws (20 shots) using one of these mental strategies: 1) imagery, 2) relaxation, 3)relaxation plus imagery, 4) placebo control. Results indicated a significant main effect with the imagery group performing significantly better than the placebo control group. In Experiment 2, subjects (n=40) performed five trials on an isokinetic leg-strength task using one of the following mental strategies: 1) preparatory arousal, 2) imagery, 3) preparatory arousal plus imagery, 4) placebo control. Results indicated a significant trials main effect with all subjects improving over time. State anxiety results indicated that the combination group exhibited higher levels of anxiety than all other conditions.
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The Effects of Supportive and Non-Supportive Nonverbal Movements Upon the Acquisition of a Gross Motor Skill

The Effects of Supportive and Non-Supportive Nonverbal Movements Upon the Acquisition of a Gross Motor Skill

Date: May 1974
Creator: Laflin, Joyce
Description: The purposes of the study were (1) to validate five selected supportive and five selected non-supportive nonverbal movements, and (2) to determine the effects of the nonverbal expressions upon subjects' learning of a gross motor skill. Subjects were twenty-eight college women who met the established criteria. The testing instrument was the Bachman Ladder. Fourteen subjects received the supportive-- non-supportive nonverbal treatment sequence; fourteen subjects received the reverse treatment sequence. Subjects numerically ranked the degree of treatment following each experimental session. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance method. Alpha was .05. Conclusions of this study were (1) that nonverbal supportive and non-supportive treatments do not significantly affect gross motor learning, and (2) the selected expressions are valid techniques for nonverbal communications.
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The Effects of Surface Type on Experienced Foot Contact Pressures and Lower Limb Functioning During Running Performance

The Effects of Surface Type on Experienced Foot Contact Pressures and Lower Limb Functioning During Running Performance

Date: December 1983
Creator: Denniston, Nancy L. (Nancy Louise)
Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different surfaces on lower limb motion and encountered pressures at two locations on the plantar surface of the right foot. Nine females performed five trials for each of four surface conditions. The results provided no evidence for surface-related changes in experienced foot contact pressures. Both asphalt and grass surfaces resulted in the shortest relative time of forefoot immobility. No surface related differences were found for the range of pronation.
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The Effects of Three Methods of Practice on Improving the Performance of a Modified Free-Throw by Sixth Grade Girls

The Effects of Three Methods of Practice on Improving the Performance of a Modified Free-Throw by Sixth Grade Girls

Date: August 1971
Creator: Pruner, Sherry W.
Description: This investigation is concerned with the problem of determining the effects of three kinds of practice (mental-physical, distributive, and physical) on improving the performance of the Modified Free-Throw. In addition, this study investigates whether or not any one of the practice methods used was superior to the others.
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The Effects of Three Physical Education Activites on Selected Physical Fitness Components

The Effects of Three Physical Education Activites on Selected Physical Fitness Components

Date: June 1970
Creator: Hampton, Gary Wade
Description: This study was designed to investigate the relative effects of selected physical education activities upon four components of physical well-being of college men. This study was intended to determine if changes occur in endurance, flexibility, balance, and agility by groups participating in either apparatus gymnastics, wrestling or swimming.
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The Effects of Two Methods of Training on Arm Strength

The Effects of Two Methods of Training on Arm Strength

Date: August 1966
Creator: Thompson, Charles J.
Description: A study was made to investigate the relative effectiveness of two methods of training on the development of arm strength. The purposes of the study included the following: 1. To determine functional arm strength of male students enrolled in physical education classes selected for the study. 2. To conduct specific exercise programs in each of the selected classes. 3. To determine the relative effectiveness of the selected programs in developing arm strength.
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