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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Degree Discipline: Psychology
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Predicting institutional behavior in youthful offenders: The role of individual and family factors in risk assessment.

Predicting institutional behavior in youthful offenders: The role of individual and family factors in risk assessment.

Date: May 2003
Creator: Martin, Mary A.
Description: A vigorous debate persists in the literature about the efficacy of clinical judgment and actuarial models of risk assessment. This study was designed to augment those commonly used methods by integrating a variety of factors that produce risk and protective effects among 101 youthful offenders. Adolescents and young adults in a maximum-security facility were interviewed with the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV), and completed self-reports of psychopathy, impulsivity, and perceived parental care and protection. This selection of empirically-supported predictors was enhanced by criminal history and family information obtained through extensive file review. Markedly different prediction models emerged based on age. ADHD and PCL Factor 2 predicted adolescents' institutional maladjustment. In contrast, young adults' institutional behavior was influenced by impulsivity, family substance abuse, and gang membership. Treatment progress also differed depending on age; the absence of certain risk factors predicted success for adolescents, while academic achievement and intelligence facilitated young adults' advancement. Importantly, support was demonstrated for the moderating effects of protective factors on violence. Finally, the predictive validity of newly-developed psychopathy self-reports was examined in relation to the PCL:YV. Both the SALE PS-24 and the APSD were modestly effective at differentiating between high and low levels of psychopathy.
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Sex and Gender Differences in Perceived and Actual Leadership Performance: Self- and Subordinate Views

Sex and Gender Differences in Perceived and Actual Leadership Performance: Self- and Subordinate Views

Access: Use of this item is restricted to the UNT Community.
Date: May 2003
Creator: Rivero, Arlene Jean
Description: The purpose of this study was to examine how male and female leaders view their own effectiveness as compared to their objective performance. This study also examined sex and gender differences in subordinate's views of male and female leaders. Forty-two mixed-sex groups led by appointed male and female leaders were observed to assess objective and perceived leader effectiveness. Gender role of participants was assessed using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). No sex or gender differences were found in objective leadership effectiveness. An unexpected finding was that male and female leaders perceived themselves accurately as leaders. Significant differences were found in the way male subordinates rated men and women leaders when taking into account gender role. Results indicated that the study of gender bias in leadership is complex and should be examined in conjunction with gender role. Social role theory helps to explain this bias.
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Demographic Variables and Their Relation to Self-Concept in Children with and Without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Demographic Variables and Their Relation to Self-Concept in Children with and Without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Date: August 2003
Creator: Barton, Kimberly A.
Description: The proposed study examined differences in self-concept between ADHD (n = 61) and non-ADHD boys and girls. Participants included 108 children between 6 and 11 years old. Children completed the Self Description Questionnaire-I, and teacher reports of child competence were obtained. Girls reported lower physical ability and mathematics self-concept than boys. The results also indicated that ADHD girls may be more susceptible to low physical ability and mathematics self-concept than control children or ADHD boys. Teachers also rated ADHD girls as having lower scholastic competence than the other three groups. Teachers reported significant differences in level of competence based on ADHD status. The implications of the current study and directions for future research will be presented.
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Influences of Current Parent-Child Relationships on Young Adults' Romantic Development

Influences of Current Parent-Child Relationships on Young Adults' Romantic Development

Date: August 2003
Creator: Rader, Heather Noble
Description: In this study, the supportive nature of the parent-child relationship was examined for how it relates to young adults' romantic development, as measured by indicators of attachment relationship importance and romantic involvement. Attachment and social support theories suggest that parents continue to play an important role as their young adult children form romantic relationships. Prior research has indicated that perceived support from parents is positively related to young adults' expressing attachment relationship importance, as evidenced by attachment motivation and engaging in exploration about romantic relationship topics. Furthermore, support from parents has been negatively related to romantic and sexual involvement. Therefore, it was believed that support in the parent-child relationship would predict both the indicators of attachment relationship importance and the indicators of romantic involvement in the present study. Additionally, an interaction of parental support and participants' gender was expected for the indicators of attachment relationship importance but not romantic involvement. A sample of 157 women and 144 men, ages 18-22 completed questionnaires. These measures assessed the supportive quality of relationships with each parent and indicators of the young adults' romantic development. For the indicators of attachment relationship importance, results indicated that exploration was predicted by gender and a conflictual relationship ...
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Investigation of relational and overt aggression among boys and girls.

Investigation of relational and overt aggression among boys and girls.

Access: Use of this item is restricted to the UNT Community.
Date: August 2003
Creator: Long, Melissa M.
Description: Given the paucity of research that has been conducted on aggression in girls (see Keenan, Loeber, & Green, 1999, for a review), it is important to examine different behavioral manifestations of aggression that may be more prevalent among girls than boys, such as relational aggression (see Crick et al., 1999, for a review). Relational aggression consists of behaviors that harm others through damage to their peer relationships or the threat of such damage (e.g., spreading rumors about a peer so that others will reject him/her, social exclusion; Crick & Grotpeter, 1995). Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are a particular subset of youth who are at increased risk for exhibiting aggressive behavior (Henker & Whalen, 1999; Whalen & Henker, 1985). The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence of relational aggression among children with attention problems as compared to the general population. Gender differences in relational aggression were also examined. In the current study, participants included 91 3rd-5th grade public school students. Teacher ratings of aggressive behavior and attention problems were obtained. Parents also completed measures to assess attention problems and social-psychological adjustment. Contrary to prediction, results indicated children with attention problems were not more aggressive than children ...
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Parent Behaviors as Predictors of Peer Acceptance in Children With and Without Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Parent Behaviors as Predictors of Peer Acceptance in Children With and Without Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Date: August 2003
Creator: Durrant, Sarah L.
Description: It has been theorized that parents indirectly influence children's peer functioning through aspects of the parent-child relationship. One specific group of children that exhibit significant problems with peers and in interactions with parents is children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Given the limited research examining family-peer links in children with ADHD, the purpose of the current study was to examine the association between aspects of the parent-child relationship and peer functioning in boys and girls with and without ADHD. In the current study, participants included 91 boys and girls between the ages of 7 and 11 years old and their parents. Fifty-four of these children were previously diagnosed with ADHD, Combined or Hyperactive/Impulsive Type. Parents and children participated in a parent-child interaction and then completed several measures assessing the parent-child relationship and peer acceptance. Teacher reports of peer acceptance were also obtained. The results of a multiple regression indicate some support for a family-peer links in children with ADHD. Positive parental affect expressed during a parent-child interaction was the strongest predictor of child-reported peer acceptance in children diagnosed with ADHD. However, parents making positive comments about the child or giving physical affection to the child during parent-child interactions did not ...
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Parent-child interactions with ADHD children: Parental empathy as a predictor of child adjustment.

Parent-child interactions with ADHD children: Parental empathy as a predictor of child adjustment.

Date: August 2003
Creator: Warren, Michelle A.
Description: Parent-child interactions tend to be problematic among families of children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although much attention has been paid in research and therapy to negative cycles of interaction between parent and child, it is equally important to consider how positive family interactions can be promoted, as these are likely to help prevent or reduce behavior problems and facilitate the best possible outcomes for children. Major contributors to the fields of psychology and child therapy have postulated that parental empathy is of primary importance in facilitating healthy child personality development. However, the effect of parental empathy has not been systematically studied with ADHD children. Thus, this study investigated the relationship between parental empathy and child adjustment factors in children with ADHD. It was hypothesized that among parent-child dyads with ADHD children, higher levels of parental empathy would predict higher levels of child self-esteem, social skills, and compliance, and lower levels of child aggression. Participants were 56 children who were previously diagnosed with ADHD and their parent/guardian. Thirty-seven parent-child dyads served as a control group. The study included parent-child participation in a videotaped analogue observation procedure and completion of parent-, child-, and teacher-report measures. Results indicated that higher levels of ...
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Symptoms of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents: The impact of residential fire.

Symptoms of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents: The impact of residential fire.

Date: August 2003
Creator: Conde, Joann M.
Description: This study examined symptoms of anxiety and depression in 99 children and adolescents following a residential fire. Children and their parents completed self-administered questionnaires regarding the fire and their current functioning. The most commonly experienced symptoms were worry/ oversensitivity, anhedonia, negative mood, and fear of failure and criticism. There were no significant ethnic differences across symptomology. Exposure was directly related to parental report of child internalizing behaviors, whereas loss was unrelated to symptoms. Level of support (general and fire related) and active coping were directly associated with positive child adjustment. The impact of negative life events was related to poorer functioning. Overall, a child's environment and coping strategy appear to be the best predictors of adjustment following a residential fire.
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Differences in Depressive Symptoms as a Function of Gender, Roles, and Rumination

Differences in Depressive Symptoms as a Function of Gender, Roles, and Rumination

Date: December 2003
Creator: Wupperman, Peggilee
Description: Research indicates that women are more likely to experience depression than are men. The current study examined the effects of gender, socialized gender roles, rumination, and neuroticism on symptoms of depression in young adults. As predicted, rumination mediated the relationship between gender and depression, and socialized gender roles had a greater explanatory power for rumination, neuroticism, and depression than did gender. Contrary to predictions, rumination did not mediate neuroticism's effects on depression. Structural equation modeling reveled that rumination-on-sadness positively predicted neuroticism and depression. However, rumination-in-general, while positively predicting neuroticism, negatively predicted symptoms of depression. Finally, once socialized gender roles, rumination, and neuroticism were controlled, male gender was modestly predictive of depression.
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Effects of tenderness on problem solving.

Effects of tenderness on problem solving.

Date: December 2003
Creator: Kalawski, Juan Pablo
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of tenderness on problem solving. Thirty-four female undergraduates participated. In the experimental condition, participants received instructions to reproduce a specific respiratory-posturo-facial pattern that had induced tenderness in previous studies. Participants in the control condition performed a non-emotional exercise. After either the pattern or the control exercise, participants completed one of two jigsaw puzzles. One puzzle had only an empty room while the other had a family scene. For participants who worked on the room puzzle, the tenderness pattern led to longer completion times. In contrast, for participants who worked on the family puzzle, the tenderness pattern led to shorter completion times.
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