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 Degree Discipline: Psychology
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A Path Analysis of Caregiving the Elderly: Voluntariness as a Variable of Role Assumption

A Path Analysis of Caregiving the Elderly: Voluntariness as a Variable of Role Assumption

Date: May 1996
Creator: Todd, John B. (John Bruce)
Description: Structural equation modeling was utilized in studying the voluntariness of the assumption of caregiving status. A model hypothesizing the stress flow that occurs when assuming a new life schema was presented. Utilizing three groups of caregiving populations, Home Caregivers, Intermediate Care Facility Aides, and Intensive Care Units and Emergency Room Nurses (N = 66), measures were administered to determine the voluntariness of the assumption of the role of caregiver. Path analysis and causal interpretation were utilized to determine outcomes. The involuntary assumption of the role of caretaker was shown to significantly affect depression and burnout rates negatively when perceived feelings of burden were high. When caretaker age was greater upon assumption of the role, self-esteem was low and family support was perceived to be lacking. When the role of caretaker is assumed on a voluntary basis and support from outside sources is perceived as helpful (i.e., social or financial support from the family), job stress and the subjective manageability of the symptoms were viewed as manageable. Implications for those assuming the role of caretaker with the elderly were examined, and recommendations for further training and interventions within the caretaker population were offered.
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Think-Assess-Design: a Model for Redesigning Traditional Organizations Into Empowered Work Environments

Think-Assess-Design: a Model for Redesigning Traditional Organizations Into Empowered Work Environments

Date: May 1996
Creator: Richardson, Sandra Kay
Description: "Think-Assess-Design" is a model for guiding traditional organizations through the steps necessary to redesign themselves into a more empowered, team-based work environment. Three broad steps—think, assess, and design—provided the framework for organizational change in this case study.
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Transgenerational Patterns of Adult Attachment Relationships

Transgenerational Patterns of Adult Attachment Relationships

Date: June 1996
Creator: Merck, Rhea Ann M.
Description: The purpose of the study is to examine adult attachment relationships among a group of college students and their parents. Two attachment hypotheses were tested: The mental model hypothesis for attachments with parents and romantic partners and the compensation hypothesis for attachment with God. Hypothesis 1 attempted to determine if there was agreement between parents and children about a self-reported attachment style. Support was found as students and parents had a significantly higher level of agreement when reporting a secure style of attachment between them, with sons being significantly highest. Hypothesis 2 examined agreement on attachment style between generations: Children's report of attachments to parents and parents' report of attachment to their parents. Results indicated that parents' reporting a secure style of attachment to their parents was significantly higher with their same gender parents. Hypothesis 3 produced two 15 x 15 correlation matrices including measures of romantic attachment and religiousness for children and parents. In general, further validity for measures used is provided in numerous expected correlations. Anxious and avoidant romantic attachment styles and desperate love were significantly positively related and were often negatively related to a secure style of attachment. Results indicate significant relationships between fathers' and children's (particularly ...
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Assessing Maternal Functioning in Families of Children with Autism

Assessing Maternal Functioning in Families of Children with Autism

Date: August 1996
Creator: Oizumi, Joelle J. (Joelle Julienne)
Description: Mothers and siblings of children with autism incur stressors that impact their well-being more adversely than mothers of children with ADHD or normally developing children. In Study 1, twenty-six mothers of children with autism (Group 1) were compared to 24 mothers of children with ADHD (Group 2) and 24 mothers with normally developing children (Group 3). All families included a normally developing child (ages 4 to 12). Measures to delineate levels of maternal functioning were administered. Results for Study 1 indicated that mothers of children with autism had higher levels of psychological symptomatology, higher parenting stress, poorer perceptions of their family environment and their ability to parent the siblings, and higher perceptions of internalized problems of the siblings than mothers with normally developing children. These findings support the literature stating that mothers of children with autism may experience increased levels of maternal stress. The reciprocal nature of the parent-child relationship suggests that parents should be involved in meeting the needs of siblings in these families. A subgroup of Group 1 mothers participated in a parent group that occurred simultaneously with a sibling group. Mothers were randomly assigned to participate in a parent/sibling group, a sibling only group, or a wait-list ...
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Depression in Sixth-Grade Early Adolescents: Effects of Intimate Support, Relationship Conflict, and Self-Efficacy

Depression in Sixth-Grade Early Adolescents: Effects of Intimate Support, Relationship Conflict, and Self-Efficacy

Date: August 1996
Creator: Goodness, Kelly R.
Description: Depressive symptomology was examined in this study as a function of conflict and intimate support with parents, friends, and siblings among a non-clinical sample of 223 predominately white sixth-grade early adolescents. Moreover, sixth-graders' depressive symptomology was examined as a function of conflict management self-efficacy and intimate support self-efficacy. The purpose of the present study was twofold: 1) to explore the effects of intimate support and conflict in family and friend relationships on sixth-grade early adolescent depressive symptomology, 2) to determine whether poor conflict management skills self-efficacy and poor intimate support self-efficacy are linked with depressive symptomology in sixth-grade early adolescents. Friend relationship qualities had little impact on depression in sixth-graders. However, the presence of conflict and deficits in family intimate support, especially from parents, was associated with increased depression. Increased levels of depression also corresponded with lower ratings of conflict management self-efficacy and intimate support self-efficacy. Moreover, relationship difficulties combined with self-efficacy deficits to affect depression.
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Inhibition of Return in Schizophrenia

Inhibition of Return in Schizophrenia

Date: August 1996
Creator: Hinds, Jeffrey D. (Jeffrey Dale)
Description: The present study was designed to look at inhibition of return within a schizophrenic population for the first time. Inhibition of return is an attentional phenomenon that has been studied with a number of populations, and has been shown to be present in normal individuals. Based on the disattention hypothesis put forth by Cromwell and colleagues (e.g., Cromwell & Dokecki, 1968), it was hypothesized that patients with schizophrenia would show an impaired inhibition of return. Twenty-eight inpatients with schizophrenia, and 19 normal comparisons were evaluated on a visual inhibition of return task. Consistent with hypotheses, schizophrenia patients have significant impairments in inhibition of return compared to normal comparison participants. Further, the relative lack of inhibition of return in the schizophrenic group was found to be strongest to stimuli in the left visual field. These results provide initial support for a reconceptualization of the disattention hypothesis.
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Personal Construction of the Self in Outpatients with Major Depression

Personal Construction of the Self in Outpatients with Major Depression

Date: August 1996
Creator: Weissenburger, Jan E. (Jan Elizabeth)
Description: Clinical depression is characterized by alterations in thoughts, judgment, cognition and social behavior. This study focuses on non-optimal views of self and significant others that are proposed to underlie many of these alterations. Perceptions of self and significant others were elicited using the Role Construct Repertory Grid (Kelly, 1955a). Participants included depressed outpatients with high levels of trait anxiety (n = 27), depressed outpatients with lower levels of trait anxiety (n = 29) and a control group of never-depressed volunteers (n = 28). Consistent with prediction, significant group differences were found for negative self perception, discrepancies between actual self and self goals, alienation from significant others, and inconsistencies in self image. Results provided partial support for the self discrepancy theory of emotionality (Higgins, 1987). Among depressed patients, higher levels of anxiety were associated with increased self negativity and greater discrepancies between actual self and self goals. Increased levels of depression were associated with more alienation from significant others and more consistency in self image. Depressed patients' judgments of self and others were altered from optimal ratios, as predicted by the theory of interpersonal judgment (LeFebvre, LeFebvre & Adams-Webber, 1986). Findings have theoretical and clinical importance for the understanding and treatment ...
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A Revised Instruction Set for the Booklet Category Test

A Revised Instruction Set for the Booklet Category Test

Date: August 1996
Creator: Rockers, Daniel M.
Description: Eighty-eight (N = 88) non-brain-injured adults were tested with one of two versions of the Booklet Category Test (BCT). Forty-four (N = 44) individuals were tested with the standard version of the BCT, and forty-four (N = 44) were tested with a revised BCT in which between-subtest cueing was removed, called the Noncued Category Test (NCT). The results of this study indicate that removal of cueing instructions changes the Category test significantly. Subjects administered the NCT scored significantly more errors than those who were administered the standard Category test. While BCT scores correlated significantly with nonverbal intelligence scores, NCT scores did not. However, the difference in these correlations was not significant, indicating that the intelligence aspect measured in the two versions is not different. Neither the BCT nor the NCT correlated significantly with the Wisconsin Card Sort, Word Fluency, Stroop, or Trail Making Test. It is recommended that the NCT be administered to circumscribed clinical populations in order to best utilize present findings.
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The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory: a Predictive Validity Study with Criminal Offenders Mandated to Rehabilitative Treatment

The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory: a Predictive Validity Study with Criminal Offenders Mandated to Rehabilitative Treatment

Date: August 1996
Creator: Flores, Johnny Martin
Description: The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory was constructed to screen for substance abuse patterns despite non-admittance of respondents. Predictive validity studies of the SASSI are limited, and are not available for probationers. Participants were 147 male and 54 female probationers mandated to treatment. Overall differences among SASSI scales were significant for treatment compliance and outcome. Higher SASSI scales were found among those probationers who were compliant/successful. Individual scales were not significantly different, however, a trend was revealed; those respondents who scored higher tended to comply/succeed in treatment. The SASSI alone accurately classified 59.7% of respondents. In summary, the SASSI's use in predicting treatment outcome is limited and should be employed with concomitant data.
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Factors Influencing Myoelectric Wearing Patterns of Pediatric Prosthetics Patients

Factors Influencing Myoelectric Wearing Patterns of Pediatric Prosthetics Patients

Date: December 1996
Creator: Glenn, Shannon M. (Shannon Richardson)
Description: Upper limb deficiencies in children may be the result of trauma, disease, or congenital problems. Although biomechanical losses are the primary problem associated with a limb deficiency, the loss of such an obvious body part has cosmetic and psychosocial implications as well. Fitting a child with a prosthesis typically is the treatment chosen by families. Presently, there are three types of prostheses available for pediatric amputees, including passive, cable-operated, and myoelectric arms, but the myoelectric appears to be the most popular choice of children and their families. However, there is growing concern among clinicians that, despite its advanced technological capabilities, the myoelectric prosthesis is chosen for aesthetic rather than functional reasons. It is difficult, then, to justify the expense of fitting a myoelectric prosthesis when a more inexpensive prosthesis, or none at all, would be a more appropriate prescription. The question of when to prescribe a myoelectric prosthesis for a pediatric patient remains one of the most controversial questions in the field of prosthetics today due to this cost/benefit issue. In this study, the researcher examined psychological factors that may influence whether or not a child will wear a prosthesis and how that prosthesis will be used. Thirty prosthetics patients ...
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