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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Department: Department of Chemistry
 Decade: 2010-2019
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Sensitization of Lanthanides and Organic-Based Phosphorescence via Energy Transfer and Heavy-Atom Effects

Sensitization of Lanthanides and Organic-Based Phosphorescence via Energy Transfer and Heavy-Atom Effects

Date: May 2010
Creator: Arvapally, Ravi K.
Description: The major topics discussed are the phosphorescence sensitization in the lanthanides via energy transfer and in the organics by heavy atom effects. The f-f transitions in lanthanides are parity forbidden and have weak molar extinction coefficients. Upon complexation with the ligand, ttrpy (4'-p-Tolyl-[2,2':6',2"]-terpyridine) the absorption takes place through the ligand and the excitation is transferred to the lanthanides, which in turn emit. This process is known as "sensitized luminescence." Bright red emission from europium and bright green emission from terbium complexes were observed. There is ongoing work on the making of OLEDs with neutral complexes of lanthanide hexafluoroacetyl acetonate/ttrpy, studied in this dissertation. Attempts to observe analogous energy transfer from the inorganic donor complexes of Au(I) thiocyanates were unsuccessful due to poor overlap of the emissions of these systems with the absorptions of Eu(III) and Tb(III). Photophysics of silver-aromatic complexes deals with the enhancement of phosphorescence in the aromatics. The heavy atom effect of the silver is responsible for this enhancement in phosphorescence. Aromatics such as naphthalene, perylene, anthracene and pyrene were involved in this study. Stern Volmer plots were studied by performing the quenching studies. The quenchers employed were both heavy metals such as silver and thallium and lighter ...
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Kinetics of Sulfur: Experimental Study of the Reaction of Atomic Sulfur with Acetylene and Theoretical Study of the Cn + So Potential Energy Surface

Kinetics of Sulfur: Experimental Study of the Reaction of Atomic Sulfur with Acetylene and Theoretical Study of the Cn + So Potential Energy Surface

Date: May 2013
Creator: Ayling, Sean A.
Description: The kinetics of the reaction of atomic sulfur with acetylene (S (3P) + C2H2) were investigated experimentally via the flash photolysis resonance fluorescence method, and the theoretical potential energy surface for the reaction CN + SO was modeled via the density functional and configuration interaction computational methods. Sulfur is of interest in modern chemistry due to its relevance in combustion and atmospheric chemistry, in the Claus process, in soot and diamond-film formation and in astrochemistry. Experimental conditions ranged from 295 – 1015 K and 10 – 400 Torr of argon. Pressure-dependence was shown at all experimental temperatures. The room temperature high-pressure limit second order rate constant was (2.10 ± 0.08) × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The Arrhenius plot of the high-pressure limit rate constants gave an Ea of (11.34 ± 0.03) kJ mol-1 and a pre-exponential factor of (2.14 ± 0.19) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. S (3P) + C2H2 is likely an adduct forming reaction due to pressure-dependence (also supported by a statistical mechanics analysis) which involves intersystem crossing. The potential energy surface for CN + SO was calculated at the B3LYP/6-311G(d) level and refined at the QCISD/6-311G(d) level. The PES was compared to that of the analogous reaction ...
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Soft Landing Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry: History, Instrumentation and an Ambient Pressure Application

Soft Landing Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry: History, Instrumentation and an Ambient Pressure Application

Date: December 2010
Creator: Birdwell, David
Description: Preparative mass spectrometry is an important method for the synthesis of new materials. Recently, soft landing mass spectrometry has been used to land ions on surfaces to coat or otherwise alter them. Commercial soft landing instruments do not yet exist, and the physical phenomenon of soft landing has not yet been fully described. For future ion mobility soft landing research, the theory of ion mobility, ion optics and soft landing is discussed, and 2 soft landing instruments have been built and described, along with proof of concept experiments for both instruments. Simulations of the process of ion mobility and ion optics for use in these instruments, as well as some preliminary results for the optics are included. Surfaces described include copper on mica and iron on silicon. Self assembly of soft landed ions is observed on the surfaces. The instruments constructed will be useful for future soft landing research, and soft landing can be used for future materials research with special attention focused on the self-assembly of the landed ions.
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Surface Chemical Deposition of Advanced Electronic Materials

Surface Chemical Deposition of Advanced Electronic Materials

Date: December 2010
Creator: Bjelkevig, Cameron
Description: The focus of this work was to examine the direct plating of Cu on Ru diffusion barriers for use in interconnect technology and the substrate mediated growth of graphene on boron nitride for use in advanced electronic applications. The electrodeposition of Cu on Ru(0001) and polycrystalline substrates (with and without pretreatment in an iodine containing solution) has been studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), current-time transient measurements (CTT), in situ electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EC-AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The EC-AFM data show that at potentials near the OPD/UPD threshold, Cu crystallites exhibit pronounced growth anisotropy, with lateral dimensions greatly exceeding vertical dimensions. XPS measurements confirmed the presence and stability of adsorbed I on the Ru surface following pre-treatment in a KI/H2SO4 solution and following polarization to at least −200 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. CV data of samples pre-reduced in I-containing electrolyte exhibited a narrow Cu deposition peak in the overpotential region and a UPD peak. The kinetics of the electrodeposited Cu films was investigated by CTT measurements and applied to theoretical models of nucleation. The data indicated that a protective I adlayer may be deposited on an air-exposed Ru electrode as the oxide surface is electrochemically reduced, and that this ...
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Knowledge Discovery of Nanotube Mechanical Properties With an Informatics-Molecular Dynamics Approach

Knowledge Discovery of Nanotube Mechanical Properties With an Informatics-Molecular Dynamics Approach

Date: May 2012
Creator: Borders, Tammie L.
Description: Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have unparalleled mechanical properties, spanning several orders of magnitude over both length and time scales. Computational and experimental results vary greatly, partly due to the multitude of variables. Coupling physics-based molecular dynamics (MD) with informatics methodologies is proposed to navigate the large problem space. The adaptive intermolecular reactive empirical bond order (AIREBO) is used to model short range, long range and torsional interactions. A powerful approach that has not been used to study CNT mechanical properties is the derivation of descriptors and quantitative structure property relationships (QSPRs). For the study of defected single-walled CNTs (SWCNT), two descriptors were identified as critical: the density of non-sp2 hybridized carbons and the density of methyl groups functionalizing the surface. It is believed that both of these descriptors can be experimentally measured, paving the way for closed-loop computational-experimental development. Informatics can facilitate discovery of hidden knowledge. Further evaluation of the critical descriptors selected for Poisson’s ratio lead to the discovery that Poisson’s ratio has strain-varying nonlinear elastic behavior. CNT effectiveness in composites is based both on intrinsic mechanical properties and interfacial load transfer. In double-walled CNTs, inter-wall bonds are surface defects that decrease the intrinsic properties but also improve load transfer. ...
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Synthesis and Screening of a Combinatorial Peptide Library for Ligands to Target Transferrin: Miniaturizing the Library

Synthesis and Screening of a Combinatorial Peptide Library for Ligands to Target Transferrin: Miniaturizing the Library

Date: August 2010
Creator: Brown, Jennifer Marie
Description: Combinatorial libraries are used in the search for ligands that bind to target proteins. Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis is routinely used to generate such libraries. Microwave-assisted peptide synthesis was employed here to decrease reaction times by 80-90%. Two One-Bead-One-Compound combinatorial libraries were synthesized on 130μm beads (one containing 750 members and the other 16, 807). The use of smaller solid supports would have many important practical advantages including; increased library diversity per unit mass, smaller quantities of library needed to generate hits, and screening could be conducted by using a standard flow cytometer. To this end, a miniaturized peptide library was synthesized on 20 μm beads to demonstrate proof of principle. A small sample from the 16,807-member library was screened against transferrin-AlexaFluro 647, a protein responsible for iron transport in vivo. A number of hits were identified and sequenced using techniques coupling nanomanipulation with nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry.
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Triimine Complexes of Divalent Group 10 Metals for Use in Molecular Electronic Devices

Triimine Complexes of Divalent Group 10 Metals for Use in Molecular Electronic Devices

Date: August 2010
Creator: Chen, Wei-Hsuan
Description: This research focused on the development of new metal triimine complexes of Pt(II), Pd(II), and Ni(II) for use in three types of molecular electronic devices: dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and organic field effect transistors (OFETs). Inorganic complexes combine many advantages of their chemical and photophysical properties and are processable on inexpensive and large area substrates for various optoelectronic applications. For DSSCs, a series of platinum (II) triimine complexes were synthesized and evaluated as dyes for nanocrystalline oxide semiconductors. Pt (II) forms four coordinate square planar complexes with various co-ligands and counterions and leads to spanning absorption across a wide range in the UV-Vis-NIR regions. When those compounds were applied to the oxide semiconductors, they led to photocurrent generation thus verifying the concept of their utility in solar cells. In the OLEDs project, a novel pyridyl-triazolate Pt(II) complex, Pt(ptp)2 was synthesized and generated breakthrough OLEDs. In the solution state, the electronic absorption and emission of the square planar structure results in metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) and an aggregation band. Tunable photoluminescence and electroluminescence colors from blue to red wavelengths have been attained upon using Pt(ptp)2 under different experimental conditions and OLED architectures. In taking advantage of ...
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Rational Design of Metal-organic Electronic Devices: a Computational Perspective

Rational Design of Metal-organic Electronic Devices: a Computational Perspective

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Date: December 2012
Creator: Chilukuri, Bhaskar
Description: Organic and organometallic electronic materials continue to attract considerable attention among researchers due to their cost effectiveness, high flexibility, low temperature processing conditions and the continuous emergence of new semiconducting materials with tailored electronic properties. In addition, organic semiconductors can be used in a variety of important technological devices such as solar cells, field-effect transistors (FETs), flash memory, radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, light emitting diodes (LEDs), etc. However, organic materials have thus far not achieved the reliability and carrier mobility obtainable with inorganic silicon-based devices. Hence, there is a need for finding alternative electronic materials other than organic semiconductors to overcome the problems of inferior stability and performance. In this dissertation, I research the development of new transition metal based electronic materials which due to the presence of metal-metal, metal-?, and ?-? interactions may give rise to superior electronic and chemical properties versus their organic counterparts. Specifically, I performed computational modeling studies on platinum based charge transfer complexes and d10 cyclo-[M(?-L)]3 trimers (M = Ag, Au and L = monoanionic bidentate bridging (C/N~C/N) ligand). The research done is aimed to guide experimental chemists to make rational choices of metals, ligands, substituents in synthesizing novel organometallic electronic materials. Furthermore, the ...
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Electrochemically Deposited Metal Alloy-silicate Nanocomposite Corrosion Resistant Materials

Electrochemically Deposited Metal Alloy-silicate Nanocomposite Corrosion Resistant Materials

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Date: May 2013
Creator: Conrad, Heidi Ann
Description: Zinc-nickel ?-phase silicate and copper-nickel silicate corrosion resistant coatings have been prepared via electrochemical methods to improve currently available corrosion resistant materials in the oil and gas industry. A layered silicate, montmorillonite, has been incorporated into the coatings for increased corrosion protection. For the zinc nickel silicate coatings, optimal plating conditions were determined to be a working pH range of 9.3 -9.5 with a borate based electrolyte solution, resulting in more uniform deposits and better corrosion protection of the basis metal as compared to acidic conditions. Quality, strongly adhering deposits were obtained quickly with strong, even overall coverage of the metal substrate. The corrosion current of the zinc-nickel-silicate coating is Icorr = 3.33E-6 for a borate based bath as compared to a zinc-nickel bath without silicate incorporation (Icorr = 3.52E-5). Step potential and direct potential methods were examined, showing a morphological advantage to step potential deposition. The effect of borate addition was examined in relation to zinc, nickel and zinc-nickel alloy deposition. Borate was found to affect the onset of hydrogen evolution and was examined for absorption onto the electrode surface. For copper-nickel silicate coatings, optimal conditions were determined to be a citrate based electrolytic bath, with pH = 6. ...
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Design and Development of Soft Landing Ion Mobility: A Novel Instrument for Preparative Material Development

Design and Development of Soft Landing Ion Mobility: A Novel Instrument for Preparative Material Development

Date: August 2011
Creator: Davila, Stephen Juan
Description: The design and fabrication of a novel soft landing instrument Soft Landing Ion Mobility (SLIM) is described here. Topics covered include history of soft landing, gas phase mobility theory, the design and fabrication of SLIM, as well as applications pertaining to soft landing. Principle applications devised for this instrument involved the gas phase separation and selection of an ionized component from a multicomponent gas phase mixture as combing technique to optimize coatings, catalyst, and a variety of alternative application in the sciences.
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