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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Department: College of Music
 Degree Discipline: Music Education
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
The Effect of Three Different Levels of Skill Training in Musical Timbre Discrimination on Alphabet Sound Discrimination in Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten Children

The Effect of Three Different Levels of Skill Training in Musical Timbre Discrimination on Alphabet Sound Discrimination in Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten Children

Date: May 2000
Creator: Battle, Julia Blair
Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three different levels of skill training in musical timbre discrimination on alphabet sound discrimination in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children. The findings of prior investigations indicated similarities between aural music and language perception. Psychoacoustic and neurological findings have reported the discrimination of alphabet quality and musical timbre to be similar perceptual functions and have provided, through imaging technology, physical evidence of music learning simultaneously stimulating non-musical areas of the brain. This investigator hypothesized that timbre discrimination, the process of differentiating the characteristic quality of one complex sound from another of identical pitch and loudness, may have been a common factor between music and alphabet sound discrimination. Existing studies had not explored this relationship or the effects of directly teaching for transfer on learning generalization between skills used for the discrimination of musical timbre and alphabet sounds. Variables identified as similar from the literature were the discrimination of same- different musical and alphabet sounds, visual recognition of musical and alphabet pictures as sound sources, and association of alphabet and musical sounds with matching symbols. A randomized pre-post test design with intermittent measures was used to implement the study. There were 5 ...
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An Investigation of the Influence of Evaluator Background on Appraisals of a Music Lesson Using the Texas Teacher Appraisal System

An Investigation of the Influence of Evaluator Background on Appraisals of a Music Lesson Using the Texas Teacher Appraisal System

Date: December 1997
Creator: Bohnstengel, Carol
Description: This study's purpose was to investigate the differences in scores and written comments given by two appraisal groups in their evaluation of a music teacher using the Texas Teacher Appraisal System (TTAS). One appraiser group had musical training while the other group specialized in other subjects. Analyses of both group's appraisal scores showed no significant differences. An examination of the written comments revealed that both appraisal groups focused on the same aspects of the lesson and used similar vocabulary. The TTAS instrument was a consistent measure of generic teacher behaviors in the music lesson, but it did not measure specific music teaching behaviors or encourage suggestions for improving musical instruction.
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Music Career Opportunities and Career Compatibility: Interviews with University Music Faculty Members and Professional Musicians

Music Career Opportunities and Career Compatibility: Interviews with University Music Faculty Members and Professional Musicians

Date: May 2010
Creator: Branscome, Eric E.
Description: This study used a semistructured interview schedule to identify the music career opportunities available to students who graduate with an undergraduate music degree, and the skills, interests, work values, and personal characteristics that may determine a person's suitability for these music careers. Six university faculty members from each of the 11 NASM-accredited undergraduate music degree fields participated in the study (n = 66). Fourteen professional musicians who were recommended by these faculty members also participated in the study. Concerning the musical and non-musical skills that may determine a person's suitability for a music career, participants consistently noted the importance of performance skills in their respective fields. Participants also consistently cited people skills, and noted that most musicians interact with people on a daily basis, and use people skills to build social networks that may lead to employment. When asked about the interests that may lead someone to a music career, participants commonly cited the importance of good high school ensemble experiences in students' music career decisions. Concerning the rewarding aspects of music careers, many participants noted that they were more rewarded by the ability to support themselves doing what they loved, than by fame or wealth. Concerning the personal characteristics ...
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Constructions of Choir Identity in a High School

Constructions of Choir Identity in a High School

Date: December 2014
Creator: Brimhall, Jennifer Pierce
Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate constructions of choir identity among high school choir students in the United States public school classroom setting. The research questions were (a) what are the processes involved in construction of choir identity and (b) how are the processes related to the group identity of the choir. The data were collected through participant observations in one selected choir classroom and semi-structured interviews with students from the choir class. The results included six processes of identity construction as well as identification of the ways in which each process was related to the choir group’s identity. The processes and their links to the overall choir group identity provided further insight into the ways in which high school choir students construct their identities, and they also supported methods of teaching commonly used in high school choir settings.
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High school string orchestra teacher as a career choice: A survey of 11th- and 12th-grade high school string orchestra students in Texas.

High school string orchestra teacher as a career choice: A survey of 11th- and 12th-grade high school string orchestra students in Texas.

Date: December 2003
Creator: Brumbaugh, Sherron M.
Description: The purpose of this study was to describe 11th- and 12th-grade high school string orchestra students in Texas public schools in terms of their decision to enter the field of string orchestra teaching as a possible career choice or to pursue another field of study. Convenience sampling techniques were used to secure a study population of 1,683 high school string orchestra students. The Junior and Senior High School String Orchestra Student Survey (researcher designed) was used to gather demographic characteristics, students' perceptions on selected intrinsic/extrinsic work values, tangible elements of teaching, intrinsic characteristics of string orchestra teaching, and individuals assisting in students' career choices. Selected elements of teaching cited by students for their lack of interest in string orchestra teaching were also reviewed. Analysis procedures for descriptive statistics included measures of central tendency, crosstabulation, frequencies and percentages. Consistent with prior research, it was found that a larger number of female students over male students were interested in string orchestra teaching. Students interested in fields outside of string orchestra teaching reported higher class grades, more honors and advanced classes and higher SAT/ACT mean scores. Students interested in string orchestra teaching reported a higher percentage of brothers/sisters, mothers and fathers who played ...
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The Effects of Free Play As an Instructional Tool on the Quality of Improvisation of First, Second, and Third Grade Children

The Effects of Free Play As an Instructional Tool on the Quality of Improvisation of First, Second, and Third Grade Children

Date: December 2000
Creator: Burger, Tammie L.
Description: To look at the effect of free play on the musical improvisations of first, second and third grade children, 108 children were randomly assigned to either a control or treatment group. Subjects were tested using a researcher-designed instrument to elicit an improvisatory response. The control group then received regular music instruction (120 minutes every 2 weeks) and the treatment group received regular music instruction in conjunction with musical free play (100 minutes of instruction and 20 minutes of free play every 2 weeks). The treatment lasted 14 weeks. At the end of the treatment, all students were tested with the same testing instrument used for the pre test. Videotapes of the improvisations were submitted to three independent judges to rate for quality on a 5-point Likert scale. The change in ratings between pre and post tests were analyzed with an analysis of variance to determine if there were significant differences between the control and treatment groups. The analysis of the data revealed no significant difference in the change of ratings between control and treatment groups for the group as a whole, or for any particular grade level within the total group.
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String student self-efficacy and deliberate music practice: Examining string students' musical background characteristics, self-efficacy beliefs and practice behaviors.

String student self-efficacy and deliberate music practice: Examining string students' musical background characteristics, self-efficacy beliefs and practice behaviors.

Date: August 2008
Creator: Cahill Clark, Jennifer L.
Description: This study examined the musical background characteristics, self-efficacy beliefs, and practice behaviors of string students auditioning for an all-region orchestra in one large South-Central district. Purposes of the study were: (1) to describe the musical backgrounds and self-efficacy beliefs of high school string students, (2) to measure the relationship between self-efficacy scores and performance achievement, and (3) to describe the practice behaviors and thoughts of high and low self-efficacy string students. Questionnaires were given to 101 high school string students; 65 competed in all-region orchestra. Descriptive data from the questionnaire revealed information such as how many took private lessons and that those who did tended to have a higher sense of perceived self-efficacy in relation to playing their string instruments. Other descriptive items asked questions such as whether or not students started in public school and how much they practiced outside of orchestra. The relationship of summed self-efficacy scores to a competition ranking was found to be statistically significant and inverse. For all string participants (n=65) Spearman's rho was, rs= -.37, (p=.001) with 14% of the variance explained (r2 =.14). This inverse relationship documents the linear trend for students with better rankings (lower ranking numbers) to also tend to have ...
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Music student teaching in Texas: A Delphi study of issues in the new millennium.

Music student teaching in Texas: A Delphi study of issues in the new millennium.

Date: December 2002
Creator: Cannon, Rodney M.
Description: The preparation of prospective music educators is a very complex undertaking that culminates with the student teaching practicum. However, the music student teaching experience may have less predictable expectations and results than the curriculum that precedes the event. The two-fold purpose of this study was (a) to investigate the music student teaching practicum in the State of Texas in an effort to establish current levels of success as perceived by the music educators involved in the process and (b) to identify any potentially problematic areas which might be in need of attention or revision. Thirty-six music educators (12 university supervisors, 12 cooperating teachers and 12 student teachers) who were recently involved in the music student teaching practicum in Texas were chosen as the sample in this two-round Delphi study. The first round Delphi survey, based on related literature, achieved consensus on 79% of the 108 item responses, and 15 of the 22 unresolved items reached consensus in round two of the Delphi process. The 34 sample members who completed the study ranked a final item in the second Delphi round concerning suggestions for the improvement of student teaching. The respondents showed a very high opinion of the music student teaching ...
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Attitudes of International Music Students from East Asia toward U.S. Higher Education Institutions

Attitudes of International Music Students from East Asia toward U.S. Higher Education Institutions

Date: May 2009
Creator: Choi, Jin Ho
Description: Nine universities in the United States with the greatest number of international students and having an accredited music program through the National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) were selected. Survey research methodologies were used to identify the status of the international music students from East Asia in U.S. higher education institutions and to determine their attitudes toward their schools. Among East Asian international music students at US higher education institutions, the results indicated that the professor's reputation, scholarships, and the program's reputation were perceived as the most influential factors impacting the program choice; a good relationship with professors, good feedback from professors, and emotional stability were perceived as the most influential factors impacting academic success; and the professor's teaching, the professor's expertise, and the improvement of musical skills were perceived as the most influential factors impacting students' satisfaction level. The most problematic issues reported were the language barrier and the cultural differences between their host and own countries. In addition, many of the East international music students in this study noted financial difficulties.
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The Role of Self-Efficacy and Modeling in Improvisation: The Effects of Aural and Aural/Notated Modeling Conditions on Intermediate Instrumental Music Students' Improvisation Achievement

The Role of Self-Efficacy and Modeling in Improvisation: The Effects of Aural and Aural/Notated Modeling Conditions on Intermediate Instrumental Music Students' Improvisation Achievement

Date: December 2006
Creator: Davison, Patrick Dru
Description: The first purpose of this study was to investigate whether different modeling conditions (Aural and Aural/Notated Transcription) produced significant differences for improvisation achievement. Another purpose was to investigate whether music learning theory-based improvisation instruction had an effect on students' self-efficacy for improvisation and for instrumental music. Participants (N = 76) from an accessible population of 6th through 8th grade instrumental music students were assigned to either an aural model group or an aural and notated transcription model group based on scores from Gordon's Harmonic and Rhythmic Readiness Records (1998). All students were administered two researcher-designed self-efficacy scales before and after a 10 treatment session music learning theory-based improvisation instruction. Following the treatment sessions, each participant was individually recorded and assessed by three experienced music educators. The posttest improvisation scores were subjected to an ANOVA, while the pretest to posttest scores of the students' self-efficacies for music improvisation and instrumental music were subjected to two repeated measures ANOVAs. The Bonferroni technique was used to adjust the alpha level from .05 to .017. The statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference in improvisation achievement for the modeling conditions of aural and aural/notated transcription. Further statistical analyses showed there were significant ...
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Observed Eye Contact between Selected Students and Teacher in the Music Making Process

Observed Eye Contact between Selected Students and Teacher in the Music Making Process

Date: August 2006
Creator: DeLong, D. Phillip
Description: High school band members (N=13) and their teacher were observed during six rehearsals of two contrasting band compositions over a six-week period. The contrasting compositions were selected by means of a detailed process between me (the researcher) and the teacher (the conductor). One 60-second excerpt of each composition was selected, during the performance of which, the students were observed. Three video tapings of each composition was done in order to capture occasions when the students would look up from their music. Using a technique adapted from Ekman (1997), the band members and teacher were then interviewed in order to reveal the reasons they recalled for looking up from their music. The results showed that the band members looked up in places where the teacher expected eye contact, that the frequency of eye contact changed little from one rehearsal to the next, and that the frequency of eye contact changed little between the two contrasting compositions. In all cases, the band members were able to recall the reasons for looking up from their music, a fact which led to a detailed analysis about the students' own thoughts while they were engaged in playing as an ensemble. The results are discussed in ...
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The Effect of Ethnicity on the Age-of-onset of the Male Voice Change.

The Effect of Ethnicity on the Age-of-onset of the Male Voice Change.

Date: December 2008
Creator: Fisher, Ryan Austin
Description: The purposes of this study were to describe the characteristics of the changing male voice in 4th, 5th and 6th grade students using Cooksey's maturation stages and, to compare the age-of-onset of the male voice change in African American, White, and Hispanic male students. Participants included volunteer 4th (n = 61), 5th (n = 73), and 6th grade male students (n = 63) from 2 urban elementary schools, 5 suburban elementary schools, 1 suburban middle school and 1 urban middle school in the North Texas region. The three ethnic groups represented in this study were: African American (n = 62), White (n = 58), and Hispanic (n = 77). Results indicated that approximately 46% of 4th grade participants, 62% of 5th grade participants, and 67% of 6th grade participants were classified as changing voices. A descriptively larger percentage of African American participants were classified as changing voices than Hispanic and White participants. Also, a larger percentage of African American and Hispanic participants were descriptively classified in the more advanced stages of the voice change than White participants. Urban African American, White, and Hispanic participants had a larger percentage of males classified as changing voices than suburban African American, White, and ...
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A status and vision investigation of US university piano pedagogy programs.

A status and vision investigation of US university piano pedagogy programs.

Date: May 2007
Creator: Fu, Hui-Ju Camille
Description: The two major research questions were: “What is the current status of 20 prominent piano pedagogy programs?” and “what is the vision of an ideal future piano pedagogy program from the perspective of 20 piano pedagogy leaders?” Subjects were the leaders of the top 20 US university piano pedagogy programs. A survey study with interview questions was used as the instrument for the study. The results showed that faculty, curriculum, and teacher training were three top factors that contributed to the quality of the programs. Most interviewed subjects held a doctoral degree in music. The curricular content and degree options were diverse across the selected programs. The content of teacher training included private and group teaching. The perceived best qualifications of a piano pedagogy instructor were to have a balanced education. Most programs had small or little to no budget, however, the preparatory program was perceived to be an enhancement to teacher training program finances. The greatest challenges were faculty acquisition and financial limitations. Gaining more money was the most common improvement priority for programs. To envision an ideal future piano pedagogy program, most leaders stated that an ideal program should contain encourage: (1) collaborating with other divisions' faculty members ...
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The Characteristics of Teacher-Directed Modeling Evidenced in the Practices of Three Experienced High School Choral Directors.

The Characteristics of Teacher-Directed Modeling Evidenced in the Practices of Three Experienced High School Choral Directors.

Date: December 2001
Creator: Grimland, Fredna H.
Description: The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of teacher directed modeling evidenced in the practices of three experienced high school choral directors. Research questions were: 1. What modeling activities were exhibited in each teacher's rehearsals? 2. When viewing a 45-minute composite tape of each teacher's instructional activities representative of all rehearsals, what instructional behaviors did each choral director recognize and identify as modeling? 3. What instructional episodes on the composite tape not identified by the teachers contained elements of modeling? 4. What other episodes from the remainder of each choral director's rehearsal practice contributed to an understanding of modeling? Videotapes of three high school choral directors were recorded over the course of one semester. Excerpts from rehearsals were combined to form a 45-minute composite tape of each choral director. A text transcription was made of the composite tape. Participant directors viewed their tape and identified instructional episodes that they recognized as examples of modeling. Identifications were analyzed, and descriptive categories of modeling behaviors were established. Modeling was found to be a teacher generated or delegated act of demonstration. Demonstrations were musical or non-musical and belonging to either of three distinct categories: audible, visible, or process modeling. Subdivisions ...
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A Recommended Curriculum for Teaching Score Study in the Undergraduate Instrumental Conducting Class

A Recommended Curriculum for Teaching Score Study in the Undergraduate Instrumental Conducting Class

Date: December 1994
Creator: Hamilton, Craig V.
Description: The purpose of this study was to create and gain consensus of an essential curriculum for teaching score study in the undergraduate instrumental conducting class. Questions to be answered by this study were what methods, materials, and evaluations should be used to teach score study to undergraduate instrumental conducting students? Resolving the questions required the collection of information on the methods, materials, and evaluations used in teaching score preparation in the undergraduate instrumental conducting class and the opinions of conductors and teachers of conducting about those methods, materials, and evaluations.
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The Effect of Three Compositional Structures on the Compositional and Instructional Self-efficacy of Pre-service Music Teachers

The Effect of Three Compositional Structures on the Compositional and Instructional Self-efficacy of Pre-service Music Teachers

Date: August 2012
Creator: Hauser, Christian Vernon
Description: The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to compare the effects of three different composition tasks with varying degrees of structure on pre-service music teachers’ creative self-efficacy as composers and their instructional self-efficacy as pedagogues of composition; and 2) to describe through pre-service music teachers’ talk perceptions of composition and their experiences completing the three composition tasks. Participants (N = 29) were music education majors from three different sized universities in the northern-central region of the United States. At the beginning of the study, the participants answered a researcher-design self-efficacy questionnaire that measured (a) their self-efficacy as composers and (b) their self-efficacy as teachers of composition. Next, they composed three compositions of various task structures (unstructured, poem, and rhythm). Immediately after completing each task they again completed the self-efficacy questionnaire. Statistically significant mean differences between the pre-task administration of the measuring instrument and all three composition tasks were found for the pre-service teachers’ compositional self-efficacy. Statistically significant mean differences were also found between the unstructured task and the rhythm task, but not between the rhythm and poem tasks or the unstructured and poem tasks. For the pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy as pedagogues of composition question, the results were also statistically ...
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An Investigation of Personal Investment Levels Among Nonmusic Major Piano Students Using Portfolio Assessment

An Investigation of Personal Investment Levels Among Nonmusic Major Piano Students Using Portfolio Assessment

Date: May 1998
Creator: Heisler, Paul K.
Description: The purpose of this study was to compare personal investment levels among nonmusic major piano students in the contexts of portfolio and teacher-directed assessment. Three problems were addressed: 1) identifying students' perceptions of direction, persistence, continuing motivation, intensity, and performance in the context of teacher-directed goal setting, choice of instructional activities, and evaluation of performance; 2) identifying students' perceptions of the five personal investment behaviors in the context of portfolio assessment; and 3) comparing student perceptions as identified in problems one and two.
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Music preferences, music and non-music media use, and leisure involvement of Hong Kong adolescents.

Music preferences, music and non-music media use, and leisure involvement of Hong Kong adolescents.

Access: Use of this item is restricted to the UNT Community.
Date: December 2001
Creator: Hui, Viny Wan-Fong
Description: The study sought to determine the relationships of preference responses to grade, gender, familiarity, musical training, peers'/parents' listening habits, music media use, and listening contexts. Grade six through nine Hong Kong students (N = 310) completed the audio preference test followed by verbal responses to training, peers'/parents' preferences, leisure/music media involvement, and listening context. Results indicated: The preferred genres, in descending order, were Western pop/rock, Cantopop/rock, Western classical; the disliked genres were jazz, Chinese, and non- Western/non-Chinese. Preference correlated strongly with genre familiarity. Pop genres were the most familiar to all adolescents. The students' preference toward Western pop/rock and Cantopop/rock associated with several listening contexts: solitary listening, having great freedom to choose one's desired music for listening, listening to music in one's room, and listening to music as background activity. The adolescents expressed that their leisure activities were spent with their family and friends. However, they made it clear that music listening was a personal activity that very likely was listened to alone. On all listening occasions, the girls exhibited a more positive response than the boys did. With four to five hours daily leisure time, the adolescents watched TV for three to four hours while spending less than two ...
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A Nationwide Investigation of High School Band Directors' Reasons for Participating in Music Competitions

A Nationwide Investigation of High School Band Directors' Reasons for Participating in Music Competitions

Date: May 1994
Creator: Hurst, Craig Willmore
Description: The purpose of this study was to assess on a national level, high school band directors' reasons for their bands' participation in six different types of competitive music activities, identify important reasons for participation in competitive music activities, and examine if statistically significant differences existed between the magnitudes of importance reasons for participation when subjects' responses were grouped by type of competitive activity, frequency of participation in a competitive activity, and by groupings of U. S. states similar in terms of general participation in competitive music activities, emphasis upon ratings or rankings as an indication of a high school band directors' success, and emphasis upon participation in competitive music activities.
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Experiencing the interdependent nature of musicianship and educatorship as defined by David J. Elliott in the context of the collegiate level vocal jazz ensemble.

Experiencing the interdependent nature of musicianship and educatorship as defined by David J. Elliott in the context of the collegiate level vocal jazz ensemble.

Date: August 2005
Creator: Jensen-Hole, Catherine
Description: Examination of the relationship of musicianship and educatorship of teacher and students as interacting partners in a specific musical context proceeded with investigation of how formal, informal, impressionistic, and supervisory musical and educational knowledge were evidenced in rehearsal. Attention was also given to how the teaching strategies of modeling, coaching, scaffolding, fading, articulating, reflecting comparatively, and exploring were used to develop student musicianship. The research methodology may best be described as an inductive analytical case study approach. Multiple data sources included: videotaped observations of 19 bi-weekly rehearsals, audio taped interviews of the 12 participants, supplemental materials, (a published interview, journal articles, rehearsal schedules), and member checking with the teacher and David Elliott. Rehearsal data were initially organized into categories identified in David J. Elliott's (1995) model. The relationship of teacher and student musicianship, and teacher educatorship emerged during analysis. Musical details of problem finding, reducing and solving were also identified. Three themes emerged from the student interviews: their perceptions of the teacher's musicianship, general rehearsal strategies, and the teacher's use of specific teaching strategies. Interviews with the teacher illuminated his perception of musicianship and teaching strategies employed in the context. The findings confirmed that as music making transpired in the ...
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The Centralized Higher Education System in Turkey and the National Music Teacher Training Program Since 1998: An Analysis.

The Centralized Higher Education System in Turkey and the National Music Teacher Training Program Since 1998: An Analysis.

Date: August 2006
Creator: Karakelle, Sibel
Description: The purpose was to analyze Turkey's current music teacher training curriculum as situated in the centralized educational system, focusing on the extent to which the written document (1) reflects the core elements of the overall centralized educational system; (2) prescribes the nature of teaching materials and methods, assessment tools and other forms of evaluating and monitoring performance as teachers and musicians; and (3) acknowledges cultural diversity by addressing repertoire, musical activities and concepts according to geographic and cultural regions. Qualitative-descriptive and quantitative content analysis, including the methods of (a) Inverse document frequency and (b) relevance feedback model, were the analytic tools. Of the required 147 credit hours, 138 are the core. The music core consists of 87 (63%) and the non-music core of 51 credit hours (37%). On paper, there is a conceptual overlap in wording between the music core, the general core, and the teacher training core, suggesting curricular cohesion and consistency. Noticeably less cohesion exists between the document and three major policy papers on teacher competencies. By word count, preparing teachers for instruction in Turkish folk music and multicultural issues appears to hold a low priority in the curriculum. However, course descriptions, where they exist, speak to skills ...
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Taiwan music teacher attitudes toward the arts and humanities curriculum.

Taiwan music teacher attitudes toward the arts and humanities curriculum.

Date: August 2007
Creator: Lai, Lingchun
Description: The purpose of the study was to investigate teacher attitudes toward following the Taiwanese arts and humanities curriculum and the relationship of teacher attitudes to four selected curriculum integration factors. These include (1) The quantity of content areas taught in music class, (2) Teachers' satisfaction of their students' learning outcomes, (3) Teachers' confidence in planning lessons, and (4) The number of years spent in curriculum integration. Questionnaires were distributed to 85 stratified random selected junior high schools throughout Taiwan. The school responses rate was 74%. Content validity was checked. The internal consistency reliability ranged from 0.74 to 0.92. Recorder playing, group singing, and music appreciation were found to be the most frequently taught musical skills, the most satisfied students' learning outcomes, the most confident lesson planning areas, and the most important to be included in the music instruction. Writing-by-ear and playing-by-ear were found to be the least frequently taught musical skills, the least satisfied students' learning outcome, the least confident lesson planning area, and the least importance. The two most frequently encountered barriers were insufficient administrative leadership and shallow student learning. The results of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient showed a low positive significant relationship between teachers' overall attitudes and ...
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The use of notated and aural exercises as pedagogical procedures intended to develop harmonic accuracy among beginning jazz improvisers

The use of notated and aural exercises as pedagogical procedures intended to develop harmonic accuracy among beginning jazz improvisers

Date: August 2001
Creator: Laughlin, James Edwin
Description: This study compared the effects from the use of aural and notated exercises as pedagogical procedures for teaching harmonic accuracy to beginning jazz improvisation students. The methods of pedagogy were identified from published pedagogic and historical sources, the results of oral and written traditions of jazz pedagogy. The performance objective was produced from a review of the related literature as a recognized and measurable characteristic of jazz improvisation. The purpose of this study was to compare measurements of harmonic accuracy, following the use of notated and aural exercises as experimental procedures of jazz improvisation pedagogy. A lesson plan, materials, curriculum and outline were developed followed by student recruitment and participation. A total of 20 student volunteers participated in the methods of pedagogy (aural or notation). Data collection consisted of a musical background questionnaire and pre and posttest performance recordings. Student recordings were evaluated by six judges using the “experimental performance evaluation measure.” Statistical analyses were conducted, including comparisons of pre to posttest effects between, and among the methods of pedagogy. Although all student participants performed mostly from notated music prior to this study, students who received the aural method of pedagogy produced greater improvement for all measurement items. While the ...
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The Application of Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristic Model to Perceptions Community Music School Faculty Have Towards Their Job

The Application of Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristic Model to Perceptions Community Music School Faculty Have Towards Their Job

Date: August 2001
Creator: Lawrence, Robert M.
Description: Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristic Model was applied to study of perceptions community music school faculty hold towards their job. The research questions addressed core job characteristics of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback, critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility, and knowledge of results); personal and work outcomes of satisfaction and motivation; need for professional growth. The results were compared to the national norms for nine different job families provided by Oldham, Hackman, and Stepina. Thirty-three schools, all members of the National Guild of Community Schools of the Arts, located in every geographical region of the United States, yielded 437 faculty responses (64% return rate). Of the core job characteristics, dealing with others and autonomy received the highest ratings; feedback and task significance received the lowest ratings. Of the psychological states, experienced responsibility yielded the highest rating and experienced meaningfulness yielded the lowest ratings. Of the personal/work outcomes, personal development and colleague relations received the highest ratings; pay satisfaction and overall general satisfaction received the lowest ratings. A comparison to the professional job family norms, using a one-sample ttest, found significant differences in 16 out of the 18 variables measured by the Job Characteristic Model. Strong ...
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